Unit 7B: Cognition: Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Language. Unit Overview. Thinking Language Thinking and Language. Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. Introduction. Cognition Cognitive psychologists. Thinking. Concepts. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Linguistic Determinism= Whorfs hypothesis that language determines the way we think.One-word Stage= the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.Two-word Stage= beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.Telegraphic Speech= early speech state in which a child speaks like a telegram go car using mostly nouns and verbs.Concepts
Solving Problems Task: move the tower from the left peg to the middle peg, moving only one disk at a time and never putting a larger disk on a smaller one
Solving ProblemsCreativityCreativityStrernbergs five components
Assuming that each card has a triangle on one side and a circle on the other, which card or cards need to be turned over to test this statement: Every card that has a black triangle on one side has a red circle on the other
Solving ProblemsObstacles to Problem SolvingConfirmation biasFixationMental setFunctional fixednessFunctional Fixedness
Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Using and Misusing HeuristicsThe Representative HeuristicWrite down your answer either a or b Linda is 31, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy in college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Which statement is more likely? A. Linda is a bank teller B. Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Using and Misusing HeuristicsThe Availability Heuristic
Making Decisions and Forming JudgmentsOverconfidenceOverconfidenceMaking Decisions and Forming JudgmentsThe Belief Perseverance PhenomenonBelief perseveranceConsider the opposite
Making Decisions and Forming JudgmentsThe Perils and Powers of IntuitionIntuitionUnconscious intuition
Intuition uses past knowledge we may make mistakesBut it allows us to quickly respond so are thought is more automatic. Making Decisions and Forming JudgmentsThe Effects of FramingFramingFraming experimentsLanguage
Language With person next to you share what you did on Friday and Saturday using telegraphic speech.
Dont know what that means? LOOK IT UP Language StructurePhonemesPhonemeEnglish about 40 phonemesLearning another languages phonemesLanguage StructureMorphemesMorphemeIncludes prefixes and suffixesLanguage StructureGrammarGrammarSemanticsSyntax
Language DevelopmentWhen Do We Learn Language?Receptive languageProductive languageBabbling stageOne-word stageTwo-word stageTelegraphic speechLanguage DevelopmentWhen Do We Learn Language?
Language DevelopmentExplaining Language DevelopmentSkinner: Operant LearningLearning principlesAssociationImitationReinforcementLanguage DevelopmentExplaining Language DevelopmentChomsky: Inborn Universal GrammarLanguage acquisition deviceUniversal grammar
Language DevelopmentExplaining Language DevelopmentStatistical Learning and Critical PeriodsStatistical learningCritical (sensitive) period
Language Development Statistical Learning Statistical aspects of human speech breaking down syllables to create meaning and breaks in sentences Evidence? 8 month infants: recognize three-syllable sequences that appeared repeatedly (measuring attention) 7 month infants: recognize different sequences/language patterns ABA verse ABB pattern (li-na-li/wo-fe-fe) What does this show? Nature or Nurture? Built in ability to learn grammatical rules (Noam Chomsky)
Critical Period No exposure to language (spoken or signed) before age seven: lose ability to master ANY language No stimulation to a brain early on = language learning capacity never fully develops Second languages? Sign language?Conclusion? Is there a critical period of language?
Thinking and Language
Language Influences Thinking
Whorfs linguistic determinismBilingual advantage
Thinking and Language Benjamin Lee Whorf: Linguistic determinism hypothesis Language determines thought Evidence? Culture differences How many words a culture has to describe something will change our thoughts on it Book example: Papua New Guinea Berinmo tribe: distinguish between two shades of yellowBilingual advantage:Canadian program:Candian program: immerses English-speaking children in French most of their first three eyars in school the English speaking chilrren are taught entirely in French, and gradually shift by the end of their schooling to classes mostly in English attain a natural French fluence unrivaled by other methods of language teaching. 36TasteWrite down the difference between Pepsi and Coke Typically our responses are not very useful: vague and general comments about sweetness or level of carbonation only an expert taster will pick up on the subtle nuances that distinguish these soft drinks Thinking in Images Helps! How?Another experiment: Mental practice and basketball foul shooting teams free-throw shooting increased from 52% to 65% after mental practice Mental practice included: imagined making foul shots under various conditions, including being trashed-talked by their opposition
Experiment: visualizing effectively studying and reading chapters, going over notes, eliminating distractions, declining an offer to go out
38Question Which comes first? Thought or Language? Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought -Would not develop languagewithout the thought first would not have the thought without the language to express it!
Create a timeline Part 1: Create a timeline demonstrating the development of language structure but also incorporating important concepts into a cohesive timeline. Must include: ages, examples of each stage/concept, and pictures. Part 2: Compare B.F. Skinner and Noam Chomskys theory of language development Examples Picture for each
The EndDefinition SlidesConcept= a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.Prototype= a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).Algorithm= a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics.Heuristic= a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.Insight= a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.Creativity= the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.