Two Quantitative Qualitative - SSCC - Home jraymo/links/soc357/class13_F09.pdfTwo Research Methods Quantitative Qualitative • Data (numerical non‐numerical) • Sampling (random

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  • TwoResearchMethodsQuantitative&Qualitative

    Data(numerical&nonnumerical) Sampling(random&purposive) Theoreticaltradition(Durkheim&Weber) Logics(Deductive&Inductive) Researchquestions(Causaleffects&processes/meanings)

  • Methodsofqualitativedatacollection

    ParticipantobservationAsresearcherorasmember

    Unstructured(intensive)interviews

    Focusgroups

  • Whatisfieldresearch?

    Definition:Researchinwhichresearcherdirectly observessubjectofresearch,typicallyinanatural setting.Inmostcases,theresearcherisinterestedindevelopingadeepunderstandingofthemeaningsofwhatisgoingon.

    Example:OfficeLadies inlargeJapanesecompanies. Weaknessasasourceofpower.

  • WritingFieldnotes FieldResearchers Data

    Carefulnotetaking iskeytosuccessfulfieldresearch Method handwritten,tape,video Needfordiscretion?

    Requiresdisciplinedtranscription,reviewoffieldnotes memoryisfaulty

    Fieldnotes aretheresearchersinterpretationofwhatsgoingon.Also,guidetothenextdayofobservation.

    Similartophotographsforprofessionalphotographer takelots,usefew

  • Analyzingqualitativedata

    Initialcoding Focusedcoding Memoing Manycomputerprogramsforthis Canalsodoquantitativeanalysisofqualitativedata.

  • Issuesinfieldresearch

    Thedifficultyofgettingin Ethicalissues

    Methodofgettingin maycreateproblemslater

    Theroleoftheresearcher

  • StrengthsofFieldResearch

    Measurementvalidity e.g.,importanceofemploymenttoOLs

    Noprejudgment Flexibility Scopeanddepth Canbelowcost(e.g.,focusgroups)

  • WeaknessesofFieldResearch

    Validity(externalvs.internal) Reliability

    Flexibilityasaliability Resultsareresearcherspecific

    Generalizability Skillsrequired

    Questionwordingandabilitytocontrolflowofconversation

    Perception

  • Fundamentalflaw?

    Theargument:Interviewsareinherentlybiasedmethodsofdatacollectionb/c oftheintervieweffect.

    Why?Conversationinvolvessocialinteractionbetweentwoormorepeople.Itisgovernedbyunwrittensocialrules.

    Needforresearchertointerpretdataincontextofhis/herownrelationtotherespondents,his/herownbackground/attitudes/prejudices.

  • RelationshipbetweenQualitativeandQuantitativeresearch

    Qualitativeresearchasaguidetoquantitativeresearch Ex.ShoppinginRomania

    Qualitativeresearchcanclarifyfindingsofquantitativestudies

    Qualitativeresearchparticularlyusefulinmodifying/improvingsocialtheory