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Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy - Three Methods Describing a TransactionalAnalysis Group Therapy

Johnsson, Roland

2011

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Citation for published version (APA):Johnsson, R. (2011). Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy - Three Methods Describing a TransactionalAnalysis Group Therapy. Department of Psychology, Lund University.

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TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS PSYCHOTHERAPY

Three Methods Describing a Transactional Analysis Group Therapy

Roland Johnsson

LUND UNIVERSITY Department of Psychology 2011

Roland Johnsson, 2011

Doctoral dissertation

Department of Psychology, Lund University

Box 213, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden

ISBN 978-91-7473-185-9

Cover picture: I am sailing my boat Blue Pram II in the Sound (resund).

Photo taken by my son in law Martin Bergstrm in early autumn 2011.

A sailing boat symbolizes freedom. You loosen the moorings, set your sails, decide the course, and check weather and navigation and then you go where you want to go. Jean Paul Sartre says, Freedom is what you do with what has been done to you Psychotherapy is to help people get emotional and cognitive awareness about themselves so they can free themselves from their self-limiting patterns and bonds, leave their unsecure harbour and set new course in life. Printed by Printus Boktryckeri, Malm 2011

LIST OF STUDIES

This doctoral dissertation is based on the following three studies, which will be referred to in the text by their Roman numerals:

Study I Johnsson, R. Client Assessment in Transactional Analysis A Study of the Reliability and Validity of the Ohlsson, Bjrk and Johnsson Script Questionnaire. International Journal for Transactional Analysis Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2011 Electronic version at http://www.ijtar.org/article/view/8943

Study II Johnsson, R. Transactional Analysis as psychotherapy method A Discourse Analytic study. International Journal for Transactional Analysis Research, Vol. 2, No 2, July 2011 Electronic version at http://www.ijtar.org/article/view/8942

Study III Johnsson, R. and Stenlund, G. The affective dimension of alliance in Transactional Analysis psychotherapy, International Journal for Transactional Analysis Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, July 2010 Electronic version at http://www.ijtar.org/article/view/8943

Abstract

The overall aim of the present thesis was to enhance and revive the practical understanding of the active ingredients in Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy (TA) and to define and lay down elements of TA, which makes it a distinct and replicable method of treatment.

The thesis includes three empirical studies of a videotaped one-year long TA Group Therapy with 10 clients. Three different key areas of Transactional Analysis have been investigated with support of three different approaches. These are: Diagnosis/ Client assessment with TAs Script Analysis made as a reliability study (Study I), Identification of different components in TAs psychotherapy method with the use of Discourse Analysis (Study II) and the Therapeutic Alliance studied with a psychodynamic approach, using the CCRT method (Luborsky, 1990, 1998) and the Plan Diagnosis method (Weiss and Sampson, 1986) (Study III).

The average result in Study I shows a moderate reliability in analysing central conflict motives (the overall Script) in the clients life situation. More specific Script components were given a fair reliability, like primary injunction from father, racket feeling, escape-hatch, driver from father and driver from mother. Conflictual motives with fixed alternatives showed higher reliability than those formulated freely by the assessors. There was no clear stability over time.

The results in Study II indicate that with certain reliability the studied therapy contains the categories that have been identified as parts of TA psychotherapy. In ranking the seven main categories you can find moderate reliability for the two categories feeling contact and contract. Six of the 42 sub-categories gave similar result where the techniques talk to the parent projection and active use of TA terminology has the highest value. The other four were making feeling statements, mutual negotiation, refer to contract and discrepancy in body language. One intervention, mutual negotiation, with moderate reliability could be identified as TA typical

The result in Study III showed, both through quantitative and qualitative analysis that the affective dimension was given larger space than you can expect from what the TA method prescribes, where contract and other rational techniques and attitudes are stressed.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Twenty-two years is a long time for giving birth to this awaited creation. Many people have supported me in this process. It started with the 10 clients in the TA therapy group, who gave their consent to the research project. In the group were also Torgny Schunnesson and Lars Westman. Two involved professional filmmakers who recorded and produced the one-year long videotaped therapy.

In the department of psychology my first supervisor professor Alf Nilsson inspired me, with his enthusiasm and broad knowledge, to find new paths in psychology. After retiring professor Mats Fridell became my supervisor. Over the years I have been impressed by his persistent positive attitude and open creative mind in solving problems. He helped me to combine my clinical experience with a research perspective. Lecturer Gunvor Stenlund a close friend and engaged researcher assisted me patiently with Study III about the affective dimension of alliance. Andreas Josefsson a psychology student and independent observer in Study II helped me with his good knowledge in computer work to structure the codings of the 42 categories. Eva Henriksson has kindly and smoothly supported me in the final format and layout of the dissertation manuscript.

Julie Hay, editor of the International journal of Transactional Analysis (www.ijtar.org), has given me helpful advice in forming the final versions of my three articles.

Morten Hesse who is Assistant professor at University of Aarhus generously provided me with statistical calculations both in Study I and II.

My two colleagues Thomas Ohlsson and Annika Bjrk, with whom I share a private practice called Institutet fr Livsterapi (Institute for Life therapy), have followed my research am-bitions from the start. They have supported me both in setbacks and success. In Study I they assisted me by being independent observers. They have read and reviewed articles, given helpful feedback and a lot of emotional backing. Thanks co-workers!

Annika Bjrk is also my lovely wife and together with my two daughters Marina and Petra and their families I have received invaluable personal encouragement, for which I am very grateful.

Malm, November 2011

Roland Johnsson

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

Transactional Analysis theory, method and history .................................................................. 5

An overview .................................................................................................................... 5

Ego states ........................................................................................................................ 7

Transactional Analysis proper ...................................................................................... 10

Game Analysis .............................................................................................................. 11

Script Analysis .............................................................................................................. 13

Treatment ...................................................................................................................... 21

Psychotherapy research ........................................................................................................... 24

Effectiveness and process research ............................................................................... 24

Effectiveness studies in Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy .................................. 27

PROJECT STRUCTURE AND AIM ..................................................................................... 31

METHOD ................................................................................................................................ 33

Selection .............................

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