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READING FIRST LONGMAN correlated to Word By Word Primary Phonics Series Grades K-8 Bookworks, Santa Fe

Title of Book  · Web viewWord By Word . Primary Phonics Series. Grades K-8 Reading First . LONGMAN. correlated to. Word By Word . Primary Phonics Series. Grades K-8. READING FIRST

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Title of Book

READING FIRST

LONGMAN

correlated to

Word By Word

Primary Phonics Series

Grades K-8

Reading First

LONGMAN

correlated to

Word By Word

Primary Phonics Series

Grades K-8

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

Level AWORKBOOK

Level BWORKBOOK

Level C

WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT

PHONEMIC AWARENESS INSTRUCTION

Phonemic awareness can be taught and learned.

Effective phonemic awareness instruction teaches children to notice, think about, and work with sounds in spoken language.

Phoneme isolation

Children recognize individual sounds in a word.

Standard is addressed throughout text (e.g., 8-21, 42-51, 63, 68, 80, 84).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 2-58, 62, 68, 78).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 6-49, 51-58, 63-82).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 6-35, 37-53, 56-79).

Phoneme identity

Children recognize the same sounds in different words.

Standard is addressed throughout text (e.g., 8-21, 42-51, 63, 68, 80, 84).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 2-58, 62, 68, 78).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 6-49, 51-58, 63-82).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 6-35, 37-53, 56-79).

Phoneme categorization

Children recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the "odd" sound.

Teacher can insert “odd” sound into exercises to practice word patterns in this manner (e.g., 8-21, 27-37).

30, 60, 61, 63, 66, 72, 76, 79

50, 51, 62, 85, 88, 91, 94, 97, 100

21, 36, 37, 55, 58, 64, 67, 70, 73

Phoneme blending

Children listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes and then combine the phonemes to form a word. Then they write and read the word.

Text supports phoneme blending. Teacher can expand lessons to include writing the word formed to address this method (e.g., 63-74, 75-91).

83, 86, 89, 92, 95, 98, 101

112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119

94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT PHONEMIC AWARENESS INSTRUCTION, cont.

Phonemic awareness can be taught and learned.

Phoneme segmentation

Children break a word into its separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it. Then they write and read the word.

Text uses a simple format to show separate sounds in word. Teacher can expand lesson to include writing of the word (e.g., 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 92, 95, 98, 101, 104, 107).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 8, 11, 14, 20, 23, 31, 34, 40).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 23, 25, 29).

Phoneme deletion

Children recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from another word.

Teacher will have to expand on text to include phoneme deletion.

Teacher can expand on lessons to address phoneme deletion (e.g., 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

Teacher can expand on lessons to address phoneme deletion (e.g., 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

Teacher can expand on lessons to address phoneme deletion (e.g., 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 23, 25, 29).

Phoneme addition

Children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word.

Teacher will have to expand on text to include phoneme addition.

Teacher can expand on lessons to address phoneme addition (e.g., 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

Teacher can expand on lessons to address phoneme addition (e.g., 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

Teacher can expand on lessons to address phoneme addition (e.g., 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 23, 25, 29).

Phoneme substitution

Children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word.

Teacher will have to expand on text to address phoneme substitution in full (e.g., 60, 61, 62).

44, 48, 52, 56, 65

52-82, 152-155, 163

24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 38

Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read.

Phonemic awareness instruction improves children's ability to read words and improves children's reading comprehension.

Phonemic awareness addressed throughout text.

Phonemic awareness addressed throughout text.

Phonemic awareness addressed throughout text.

Phonemic awareness addressed throughout text.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT PHONEMIC AWARENESS INSTRUCTION, cont.

Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to spell.

Teaching phonemic awareness, particularly how to segment words into phonemes helps children learn to spell. It may be because it helps them understand that sounds and letters are related in a predictable way.

Standard is addressed throughout text.

Standard is addressed throughout text.

Standard is addressed throughout text.

Standard is addressed throughout text.

Phonemic awareness instruction is most effective when children are taught to manipulate phonemes by using the letters of the alphabet.

Teaching sounds along with the letters of the alphabet is important because it helps children to see how phonemic awareness relates to their reading and writing. Learning to blend phonemes with letters helps children read words. Learning to segment sounds with letters helps them spell words.

Standard is addressed throughout text (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 201-235).

Standard is addressed throughout text (e.g., 2-15, 155).

Standard is addressed throughout text (e.g., 1-4, 235).

Standard is addressed throughout text (e.g., 1-4, 235).

Phonemic awareness instruction is most effective when it focuses on only one or two types of phoneme manipulation, rather than on several types.

Children who receive instruction that focuses on one or two types of phoneme manipulation make greater gains in reading and spelling than do children who are taught three or more types of manipulation.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

Level AWORKBOOK

Level BWORKBOOK

Level C

QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT

PHONEMIC AWARENESS INSTRUCTION

What activities will help my students acquire phonemic awareness?

Your instruction can include various activities in blending and segmenting words. However, instruction should be appropriate for children's level of literacy development. When teaching younger children, begin with easier activities, such as identifying and categorizing the first phonemes in words.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

What methods of phonemic awareness will have the greatest impact on my student’s learning to read?

Blending and segmenting phonemes in words is likely to produce greater benefits to your students' reading than teaching several types of manipulation.

8-21, 64-73

Text introduces simple blending and segmenting (e.g., 14, 18, 22, 26, 32, 40).

52-82, 112-127

38-53, 84-100

Instruction that is explicit about the connection between sounds and letters can also contribute to their reading success.

The connection between sounds and letters is emphasized explicitly throughout text.

The connection between sounds and letters is emphasized explicitly throughout text.

The connection between sounds and letters is emphasized explicitly throughout text.

The connection between sounds and letters is emphasized explicitly throughout text.

How much time should I spend on phonemic awareness instruction?

You do not need to devote a lot of class time to phonemic awareness instruction. Your entire phonemic awareness program should take no more than 20 hours over a school year. However, some students will need more instruction than others.

Text can be used as short daily exercise.

Text can be used as short daily exercise.

Text can be used as short daily exercise.

Text can be used as short daily exercise.

Should I teach phonemic to individual students, to small groups, or to the whole class?

In general, small‑group instruction is more effective in helping your students acquire phonemic awareness and learn to read.

Teacher can use text in individual, small group, or whole class lessons.

Teacher can use text in individual, small group, or whole class lessons.

Teacher can use text in individual, small group, or whole class lessons.

Teacher can use text in individual, small group, or whole class lessons.

Do we know enough about the effectiveness of phonemic awareness instruction for me to implement it in my classroom?

Yes, but bear in mind that phonemic awareness instruction is not a complete reading program. Adding well‑thought‑out phonemic awareness to a beginning reading program or a remedial reading program is very likely to help your students learn to read and spell.

Text can be used in combination with the teacher’s reading program to support reading and writing.

Text can be used in combination with the teacher’s reading program to support reading and writing.

Text can be used in combination with the teacher’s reading program to support reading and writing.

Text can be used in combination with the teacher’s reading program to support reading and writing.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT

PHONEMIC INSTRUCTION

Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is more effective than non‑systematic or no phonics instruction.

Phonics instruction is systematic when letter‑sound relationships are organized into a logical sequence.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex.

Phonics instruction is explicit when teachers are given precise directions for directly teaching letter-sound relationships.

Text comes with a comprehensive teacher’s guide.

Text comes with a comprehensive teacher’s guide.

Text comes with a comprehensive teacher’s guide.

Text comes with a comprehensive teacher’s guide.

Systematic phonics programs provide substantial practice in reading decodable text using the letter‑sound relationships children are learning.

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 15, 16, 17, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 21, 25, 31, 35, 39, 43, 47).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 23, 28, 34, 37, 40, 43, 46).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 85, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95).

Systematic phonics programs provide substantial practice in spelling and writing using the letter‑sound relationships children are learning.

Teacher can expand on text to include writing exercises (e.g., 15, 16, 17, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 21, 25, 31, 35, 39, 43, 47).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 23, 28, 34, 37, 40, 43, 46).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 85, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95).

Systematic and explicit phonics instruction significantly improves kindergarten and first-grade children's word recognition and spelling.

Phonics instruction should begin in kindergarten or first grade for the greatest impact on children's word recognition and spelling.

Teacher can use text for Kindergarten through 4th grade.

Text is recommended for Kindergarten.

Text is recommended for 1-2 grades.

Text is recommended for grades 3-4.

Systematic and explicit phonics instruction significantly improves children's reading comprehension.

The ability to read text accurately and quickly (fluency) is highly related to reading comprehension.

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 15, 16, 17, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 21, 25, 31, 35, 39, 43, 47).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 23, 28, 34, 37, 40, 43, 46).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 85, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95).

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT PHONEMIC INSTRUCTION, cont.

Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is effective for children from various social and economic levels.

At‑risk children and children from various backgrounds make greater gains in reading with systematic, explicit phonics instruction than children receiving no phonics instruction or non‑systematic instruction.

Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is most effective when introduced early.

Phonics instruction should begin early‑-- in kindergarten or first grade. Instruction should include letter shapes and names, phonemic awareness, and all major letter-sound relationships.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Phonics instruction is not an entire reading program fro beginning readers.

In addition to phonics, children should be

• mastering the alphabet

• practicing phonemic awareness

• listening to read‑alouds

• reading silently and aloud

• writing

Teacher can use text in addition to a reading program for optimum learning.

Teacher can use text in addition to a reading program for optimum learning.

Teacher can use text in addition to a reading program for optimum learning.

Teacher can use text in addition to a reading program for optimum learning.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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Level C

QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT

PHONEMIC INSTRUCTION

Do we know enough about the effectiveness of systematic and explicit phonics instruction for me to implement it in my classroom?

Yes, research confirms that phonics instruction is effective, particularly in kindergarten and grades 1 and 2.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

How can I tell if a phonics program is systematic and explicit?

Systematic phonics programs:

· instruct students in how to relate letters and sounds, segment spoken words into sounds, and blend sounds to form words

8-21, 64-73

Text introduces simple blending and segmenting (e.g., 14, 18, 22, 26, 32, 40).

52-82, 112-127

38-53, 84-100

· help students understand why they are !earning phonics

Explicit instruction of phonics in combination with a reading program will help students understand.

Explicit instruction of phonics in combination with a reading program will help students understand.

Explicit instruction of phonics in combination with a reading program will help students understand.

Explicit instruction of phonics in combination with a reading program will help students understand.

· provide opportunities for children to apply their knowledge of phonics

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 15, 16, 17, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 21, 25, 31, 35, 39, 43, 47).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 23, 28, 34, 37, 40, 43, 46)

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 85, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95).

· help children apply, their letter-sound knowledge to writing

Teacher can create opportunities in text for writing (e.g., 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 186).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 2-58, 62, 68, 78).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 6-49, 51-58, 63-82).

Standard addressed throughout text (e.g., 6-35, 37-53, 56-79).

· can be adapted for individual students, based on assessment

Text can be used to practice needed sound/letter relationship as needed.

Teacher can use contents (e.g., iii, iv) to find lacking skill for individual student and use text for practice pages.

Teacher can use contents (e.g., iii, iv) to find lacking skill for individual student and use text for practice pages.

Teacher can use contents (e.g., iii, iv) to find lacking skill for individual student and use text for practice pages.

· include alphabetic knowledge, phonemic awareness, vocabulary development, and reading, as well as phonics

Standard addressed throughout.

Standard addressed throughout.

Standard addressed throughout.

Standard addressed throughout.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT PHONEMIC INSTRUCTION, cont.

What do non‑systematic programs of phonics instruction look like?

Non‑systematic phonics programs include:

· literature‑based programs with embedded phonics instruction

This text is a Phonics Picture Dictionary that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

· basal reading programs that focus on whole‑word or meaning‑based activities and do not include instruction in blending

This text is a Phonics Picture Dictionary that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

· sight‑word programs that teach a sight word vocabulary before teaching the alphabetic principle.

This text is a Phonics Picture Dictionary that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

This text is a Phonics workbook that focuses on sound/letter recognition, phonograms, decoding, vocabulary concepts and skills.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT PHONEMIC INSTRUCTION, cont.

What else should I look for in programs of phonics instruction?

What kinds of reading practice materials should I look for?

Programs should demonstrate that phonics is a means to an end by allowing enough time for children to put their phonics knowledge to use in reading and writing. Programs should provide reading and writing activities that allow children to practice using phonics. Practice materials should include stories with decodable words and materials for use in writing. [Note: Research does not validate any particular percentage of text decodability.]

Text includes reading and writing activities, sentences to read (e.g., 15, 16, 17, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83), topics to write on, and pictures to motivate the oral use of words. Teacher can supplement short stories for more reading.

Standards for programs are addressed throughout the book. Teacher will need to supplement the Audio Program for further reading and listening practice.

Standards for programs are addressed throughout the book. Teacher will need to supplement the Audio Program for further reading and listening practice.

Standards for programs are addressed throughout the book. Teacher will need to supplement the Audio Program for further reading and listening practice.

Is phonemic instruction more effective when students are taught individually, in small groups, or in whole classes?

Teachers should determine group size based on the needs of their students and the number of adults working with them.

[The National Reading Panel Report indicates that all three delivery systems are effective.]

Textbook is recommended for small group, tutorial, and family setting instruction time (e.g., introduction).

Textbook is recommended for small group, tutorial, and family setting instruction time (e.g., introduction).

Textbook is recommended for small group, tutorial, and family setting instruction time (e.g., introduction).

Textbook is recommended for small group, tutorial, and family setting instruction time (e.g., introduction).

Doesn’t phonics instruction get in the way of reading comprehension?

No, it does not. Systematic phonics instruction increases children's ability to comprehend. Automaticity (automatic word recognition) enables readers to focus on the meaning of the text.

Text supports vocabulary expansion and developing decoding skills in order to comprehend text (e.g., 180, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186).

Text supports vocabulary expansion and developing decoding skills in order to comprehend text (e.g., 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149).

Text supports vocabulary expansion and developing decoding skills in order to comprehend text (e.g., 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221).

Text supports vocabulary expansion and developing decoding skills in order to comprehend text (e.g., 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 215).

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT PHONEMIC INSTRUCTION, cont.

Does phonics instruction slow down the progress of some children?

No, it does not. Phonics instruction contributes to growth in most children. Teachers should work with flexible groups and pace instruction to maximize student progress.

Teacher can adapt time and content of lesson to better accommodate different learning levels.

Teacher can adapt time and content of lesson to better accommodate different learning levels.

Teacher can adapt time and content of lesson to better accommodate different learning levels.

Teacher can adapt time and content of lesson to better accommodate different learning levels.

How does systematic and explicit phonics instruction affect spelling?

Systematic phonics instruction improves spelling among kindergartners and first graders, but not among older readers. Reading First suggests that spelling for older children is more a matter of combining word parts than of using letter‑sounds.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

Text uses a systematic sequence for phonics instruction, starting from simple to more complex beginning in kindergarten.

How does systematic and explicit phonics instruction affect the reading and spelling of older students?

Systematic phonics instruction alone may not improve the overall reading and spelling performance of children beyond first grade. For students in grades 2 through 6, reading fluency and comprehension should be emphasized, and explicit spelling instruction is required.

Text can be used for explicit spelling instruction because text itself is a dictionary.

Text can be used in combination with a reading program to address fluency and comprehension more extensively.

Text can be used in combination with a reading program to address fluency and comprehension more extensively.

Text can be used in combination with a reading program to address fluency and comprehension more extensively.

How long should phonics be taught?

Approximately two years of phonics instruction is sufficient. This should occur either in kindergarten and first grade or in first and second grades.

Note: The findings of the National Reading Panel (NRP) are contradictory on this point. Their summary states: "The meta‑analysis revealed that systematic phonics instruction produces significant benefits for students in kindergarten through 6th grade and for children having difficulty learning to read.” However, the full NRP Report states: "There were insufficient data to draw any conclusions about the effects of phonics instruction with normally developing readers above first grade.”

The scope of this program is from level k-4.

The scope of this workbook is aimed at Kindergarten.

The scope of this workbook is from grades 1-2.

The scope of this workbook is from grades 3-4.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT

FLUENCY INSTRUCTION

Repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.

Repeated oral reading improves word recognition, speed, and accuracy, and, to a lesser extent, comprehension. Children should read and reread text until a certain level of fluency is reached. (Four re-readings are sufficient for most students.)

Text gives students opportunities for repeated oral reading throughout text (e.g., 133, 135, 139, 147, 148, 149).

Text gives students opportunities for repeated oral reading throughout text (e.g., 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 31, 35, 39)

Text gives students opportunities for repeated oral reading throughout text (e.g., 8, 11, 14, 17, 23, 29, 31, 34).

Text gives students opportunities for repeated oral reading throughout text (e.g., 148, 149, 150, 151, 154, 155).

Methods of oral reading practice may incorporate audiotapes, tutors, peer guidance, or other means.

Text suggests using all methods of oral reading mentioned (e.g. see introduction).

Teacher can use methods that are appropriate for the student according to assessment of needs.

Teacher can use methods that are appropriate for the student according to assessment of needs.

Teacher can use methods that are appropriate for the student according to assessment of needs.

No research evidence is available currently to confirm that instructional time spent on silent, independent reading with minimal guidance and feedback improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.

Research has not proven that silent, independent reading is ineffective in improving reading fluency. However, Reading First suggests that there are better ways to spend reading instructional time.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT

FLUENCY INSTRUCTION

How can I help my students become more fluent readers?

Model fluent reading; then have students reread the text on their own. Students must reread after teacher modeling. It is the time students spend active reading that produces gains.

Teacher can model reading and then have students read throughout text (e.g., 133, 135, 139, 147, 148, 149).

Teacher can model reading and then have students read throughout text (e.g., 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 31, 35, 39).

Teacher can model reading and then have students read throughout text (e.g., 8, 11, 14, 17, 23, 29, 31, 34).

Teacher can model reading and then have students read throughout text (e.g., 148, 149, 150, 151, 154, 155).

Daily read‑clouds provide one model of fluent reading.

Teacher can use suggested Audiotapes for daily read- aloud or can supplement literature.(e.g. introduction).

Teacher can create opportunities for read aloud with supplemented reading material.

Teacher can create opportunities for read aloud with supplemented reading material.

Teacher can create opportunities for read aloud with supplemented reading material.

Have students repeatedly read passages aloud with guidance. Teachers need to know:

· what students should read Texts should be at students' independent reading level, that is, they should be able to read them with about 95% accuracy.

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 15, 16, 17, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 21, 25, 31, 35, 39, 43, 47).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 23, 28, 34, 37, 40, 43, 46).

Text uses short sentences at the bottom of pages for reading practice (e.g., 85, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95).

· how to have students read aloud repeatedly. Oral reading practice may include:

Student‑adult reading

Choral reading

Tape‑assisted reading

Partner reading

Readers theater

Text provides arena where teacher can use different reading methods for oral reading.

Text provides arena where teacher can use different reading methods for oral reading.

Text provides arena where teacher can use different reading methods for oral reading.

Text provides arena where teacher can use different reading methods for oral reading.

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QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT FLUENCY INSTRUCTION, cont.

What should I do about silent, independent reading in the classroom?

Teachers should use most of their reading time for direct teaching of skills and strategies. For struggling readers, independent reading takes time away from direct reading instruction.

Text provides direct teaching of skills and does not show time given to independent reading, however teacher will need to decide where silent reading can accompany program.

Text provides direct teaching of skills and does not show time given to independent reading, however teacher will need to decide where silent reading can accompany program.

Text provides direct teaching of skills and does not show time given to independent reading, however teacher will need to decide where silent reading can accompany program.

Text provides direct teaching of skills and does not show time given to independent reading, however teacher will need to decide where silent reading can accompany program.

When should fluency instruction begin? When should it end?

Fluency instruction should begin when children are not automatic at recognizing the words in their texts. Students are not fluent readers if they: •

· make more than ten percent word recognition errors

· cannot read with expression

· have poor text comprehension when reading aloud

Text begins fluency instructions in Kindergarten (e.g., introduction).

Teacher can use text for fluency instruction upon the assessment of student’s reading.

Teacher can use text for fluency instruction upon the assessment of student’s reading.

Teacher can use text for fluency instruction upon the assessment of student’s reading.

Is increasing word recognition skills sufficient for developing fluency?

Automaticity is necessary, although not sufficient, for fluency.

Text supports automaticity by repeated practice of words, phrases and sentences.

Text supports automaticity by repeated practice of words, phrases and sentences.

Text supports automaticity by repeated practice of words, phrases and sentences.

Text supports automaticity by repeated practice of words, phrases and sentences.

Research has shown that fluency is developed through systematic instruction.

Text uses systematic instruction of phonics (e.g., see contents, iii, iv).

Text uses systematic instruction of phonics (e.g., see contents, iii, iv).

Text uses systematic instruction of phonics (e.g., see contents, iii, iv).

Text uses systematic instruction of phonics (e.g., see contents, iii, iv).

Should I assess fluency? If so, how?

Assessment for fluency may be done informally by listening to students read aloud and judging their progress and formally by calculating words read correctly per minute.

Assessment of fluency will be up to the teacher. Assessment not addressed.

Assessment of fluency will be up to the teacher. Assessment not addressed.

Assessment of fluency will be up to the teacher. Assessment not addressed.

Assessment of fluency will be up to the teacher. Assessment not addressed.

Informal reading inventories, miscue analysis, and running records do not measure fluency.

These measurements of fluency are not addressed in text.

These measurements of fluency are not addressed in text.

These measurements of fluency are not addressed in text.

These measurements of fluency are not addressed in text.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT

VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION

Children learn the meaning of most words indirectly through everyday experiences with oral and written language.

Children learn word meaning indirectly by engaging daily in oral language.

Teacher can create opportunities for oral language throughout text (e.g., 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186).

Teacher can create opportunities for oral language throughout text (e.g., 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149).

Teacher can create opportunities for oral language throughout text (e.g., 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220).

Teacher can create opportunities for oral language throughout text (e.g., 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214).

Children learn word meaning indirectly by listening to adults read to them.

Teacher can read directions aloud as well as model reading in text.

Teacher can read directions aloud as well as model reading in text.

Teacher can read directions aloud as well as model reading in text.

Teacher can read directions aloud as well as model reading in text.

Children learn word meaning indirectly by reading extensively on their own.

Students are supported with phonics and vocabulary building exercises throughout text.

Students are supported with phonics and vocabulary building exercises throughout text.

Students are supported with phonics and vocabulary building exercises throughout text.

Students are supported with phonics and vocabulary building exercises throughout text.

Although a great deal of vocabulary is learned indirectly, some vocabulary should be taught directly.

Direct instruction helps students learn difficult words. Direct instruction of words relevant to a given text leads to better reading comprehension. Direct instruction includes both specific word instruction and word‑learning strategies.

A comprehensive Teacher’s Guide can help the teacher to effectively teach word instruction and learning strategies.

Text uses pictures to teach vocabulary concepts directly (e.g., 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149).

Text uses pictures to teach vocabulary concepts directly (e.g., 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220).

Text uses pictures to teach vocabulary concepts directly (e.g., 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214).

Teaching specific words before reading helps both vocabulary learning and reading comprehension. It is helpful to teach specific words students will see in the text.

Method is used throughout text to teach words (e.g., 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51).

Words used in text are taught prior to being read (e.g., 110, 112, 114, 120, 122, 124).

Words used in text are taught prior to being read (e.g., 17, 20, 23, 28, 31, 34, 37, 43).

Words used in text are taught prior to being read (e.g., 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57).

Extended instruction that promotes active engagement with vocabulary improves word learning. The more students use the new words and the more they use them in different contexts, the more likely they are to learn the words.

180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186

144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149

214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220

207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION, cont.

Repeated exposure to vocabulary in many contexts aids word learning. Students learn words better when they encounter them often and in various contexts.

180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186

144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149

214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220

207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214

Word‑learning strategies

Because teachers cannot possibly teach all the words their students do not know, students need to be able to determine the meanings of words that are new to them but not directly taught. These are effective word-learning strategies:

· Using dictionaries and other reference aids (glossaries and thesauruses)

Text itself is a dictionary that can support this strategy.

Students can use Phonics Dictionary that comes with workbook.

Students can use Phonics Dictionary that comes with workbook.

Students can use Phonics Dictionary that comes with workbook.

· Repeated exposure to words

Method is used throughout text to teach words (e.g., 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51).

Words and phonics pattern are repeated for students to practice throughout text (e.g., 21, 25, 31, 35, 39, 43, 47).

Words and phonics pattern are repeated for students to practice throughout text (e.g., 8, 11, 14, 17, 23, 29, 31, 34).

Words and phonics pattern are repeated for students to practice throughout text (e.g., 148, 149, 150, 151, 154, 155).

· Using word parts

45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51

105, 110, 111, 112, 113

44, 47, 205, 206, 207

38, 39, 40, 41, 195, 196, 197

· Using context clues

180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186

144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149

214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220

207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT

VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION

How can I help my students learn words indirectly?

Read aloud to your students, no matter what grade you teach.

Teacher can supplement material to read that contains class interests.

Teacher can supplement material to read that contains class interests.

Teacher can supplement material to read that contains class interests.

Teacher can supplement material to read that contains class interests.

Encourage students to read extensively on their own.

Text supports student’s independent reading with expanding vocabulary.

Text supports student’s independent reading with phonics decoding skills.

Text supports student’s independent reading with phonics decoding skills.

Text supports student’s independent reading with phonics decoding skills.

What words should I teach?

Important words

Teach those words that are important for understanding a concept or the text.

180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186

144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149

144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149

207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214

Useful words

Teach words that students are likely to see again and again.

High frequency words are integrated throughout text.(e.g., introduction).

High frequency words are integrated throughout text.

High frequency words are integrated throughout text.

High frequency words are integrated throughout text.

Difficult words

Provide some instruction for words that are particularly difficult for your students, such as words with multiple meanings and idiomatic expressions.

188, 189, 190, 194, 196

Words with multiple meanings exceed scope of this workbook.

222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228

218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 224

How well do students need to “know” vocabulary words?

Students do not either know or not know words. Rather, they know words to varying degrees. Students can usually get by with some unknown or unacquainted words, but they need to have an established level of knowledge for most of the words that they read.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION, cont.

How well do students need to “know” vocabulary words?

Learning a new meaning for a known word. The student has the word in oral or reading vocabulary but is learning a new meaning for it. (For example, trees, rivers, and governments all have branches.)

188, 189, 190, 194, 196

Words with multiple meanings exceed scope of this workbook.

222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228

218, 219, 220, 222, 223, 224

Learning the meaning for a new word representing a known concept. The student is familiar with the concept but does not know the word. (For example, a baseball and a globe are spheres.)

Vocabulary is expanded upon throughout text by using pictures.

Vocabulary is expanded upon throughout text by using pictures.

Vocabulary is expanded upon throughout text by using pictures.

Vocabulary is expanded upon throughout text by using pictures.

Learning the meaning of a new word representing an unknown concept. The student is not familiar with either the concept or the word for that concept. (For example, the student might not be familiar with either the concept or the word photosynthesis.)

Vocabulary is expanded upon throughout text by using pictures.

Vocabulary is expanded upon throughout text by using pictures.

Vocabulary is expanded upon throughout text by using pictures.

Vocabulary is expanded upon throughout text by using pictures.

Clarifying and enriching the meaning of a known word. The student is learning finer more subtle distinctions or connotations in the meaning and usage of words. (For example, the difference between jogging. trotting, dashing, and sprinting.)

Teacher can expand on text to ensure a good understanding of words with subtle differences. Text lends itself to acting out words and using pictures to aid in understanding.

Teacher can expand on text to ensure a good understanding of words with subtle differences. Text lends itself to acting out words and using pictures to aid in understanding.

Teacher can expand on text to ensure a good understanding of words with subtle differences. Text lends itself to acting out words and using pictures to aid in understanding.

Teacher can expand on text to ensure a good understanding of words with subtle differences. Text lends itself to acting out words and using pictures to aid in understanding.

What else can I do to help my students develop vocabulary?

Foster word consciousness‑‑an awareness or an interest in words by calling their attention to how authors choose words, engaging in word play (puns, palindromes), researching word origins or histories, and searching for a word's usage in their everyday lives.

56, 98, 140, 178, 180-186

140, 144, 149

109, 147, 213, 214-222

80, 124, 163, 205, 207-216

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT

TEXT COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTION

Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies.

Monitoring comprehension

Students who are good at monitoring their comprehension know when they understand what they read and when they do not. They have strategies to "fix up" problems in their understanding.

Teacher can integrate reading comprehension strategies to go with exercises in text.

Teacher can integrate reading comprehension strategies to go with exercises in text.

Teacher can integrate reading comprehension strategies to go with exercises in text.

Teacher can integrate reading comprehension strategies to go with exercises in text.

Using graphic and semantic organizers

Graphic organizers help readers focus on concepts and how they are related to other concepts.

Text uses colors to show phonemes and their patterns.

Directions are given with pictures and titles are highlighted in green.

Directions are given with pictures and titles are highlighted in green.

Directions are given with pictures and titles are highlighted in green.

Answering questions

Teacher questioning strongly supports and advances students' learning from reading. Effective questions do the following:

· give students a purpose for reading

· focus students' attention on what they are to learn

· help students think actively as they read

· encourage students to monitor their comprehension

· help students review content and relate what they have learned to what they already know

The Teacher’s Guide can help teacher to question while working on exercises throughout text.

The Teacher’s Guide can help teacher to question while working on exercises throughout text.

The Teacher’s Guide can help teacher to question while working on exercises throughout text.

The Teacher’s Guide can help teacher to question while working on exercises throughout text.

Generating questions

Teaching students to ask their own questions improves their active processing of text and their comprehension.

Teacher can use sentences at the bottom of the page to teach students to ask questions themselves (e.g., 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51).

Teacher can use sentences at the bottom of the page to teach students to ask questions themselves (e.g., 110, 112, 114, 120, 122, 124).

Teacher can use sentences at the bottom of the page to teach students to ask questions themselves (e.g., 17, 20, 23, 28, 31, 34, 37, 43).

Teacher can use sentences at the bottom of the page to teach students to ask questions themselves (e.g., 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57).

Recognizing story structure

Students who can recognize story structure have greater appreciation, understanding, and memory for stories.

Standard exceeds scope of program.

Standard exceeds scope of program.

Standard exceeds scope of program.

Standard exceeds scope of program.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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WHAT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RESEARCH TELLS US ABOUT TEXT COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTION, cont.

Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies.

Summarizing

Instruction in summarizing helps students identify main ideas, connect main or central ideas, eliminate redundant and unnecessary information, and remember what they have read.

Standard exceeds scope of program.

Standard exceeds scope of program.

Standard exceeds scope of program.

Standard exceeds scope of program.

Effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit, or direct. Explicit instruction includes:

· Direct explanation

Teacher can use text as a simple teaching tool for comprehension (e.g., use sentences at the bottom of pages).

Teacher can use text as a simple teaching tool for comprehension (e.g., use sentences at the bottom of pages).

Teacher can use text as a simple teaching tool for comprehension (e.g., use sentences at the bottom of pages).

Teacher can use text as a simple teaching tool for comprehension (e.g., use sentences at the bottom of pages).

· Modeling

Teacher can read sentences aloud.

Teacher can read sentences aloud.

Teacher can read sentences aloud.

Teacher can read sentences aloud.

· Guided practice

Student and teacher can read text together.

Student and teacher can read text together.

Student and teacher can read text together.

Student and teacher can read text together.

· Application

Student and teacher can read text together.

Student and teacher can read text together.

Student and teacher can read text together.

Student and teacher can read text together.

Effective comprehension strategy instruction can be accomplished through cooperative learning.

Teacher can create ways to use cooperative learning to help students comprehend text.

Teacher can create ways to use cooperative learning to help students comprehend text.

Teacher can create ways to use cooperative learning to help students comprehend text.

Teacher can create ways to use cooperative learning to help students comprehend text.

Effective instruction helps readers use comprehension strategies flexibly and in combination. These four strategies can be used flexibly as they are needed:

· asking questions about the text they are reading

· summarizing parts of the text

· clarifying words and sentences they don't understand

· predicting what might occur next

Teacher can adapt exercises in text to cover comprehension strategies with sentences at the bottom of pages.

Teacher can adapt exercises in text to cover comprehension strategies with sentences at the bottom of pages.

Teacher can adapt exercises in text to cover comprehension strategies with sentences at the bottom of pages.

Teacher can adapt exercises in text to cover comprehension strategies with sentences at the bottom of pages.

READING FIRSTPICTURE DICTIONARYWORKBOOK

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QUESTIONS YOU MAY HAVE ABOUT

TEXT COMPREHENSION INSTRUCTION

Is enough known about comprehension strategy instruction for me to implement it in my classroom?

Yes. Scientific study of text comprehension over the past 30 years has suggested instructional approaches that are ready to be implemented m classrooms.

When should text comprehension strategy instruction begin?

Teachers should emphasize text comprehension from the beginning. Beginning readers, as well as more advanced readers must understand that the ultimate goal of reading is comprehension.

This program is intended to be used along with a reading program and does not specifically focus on comprehension. However, text supports comprehension by expanding vocabulary and using practice sentences for reading and comprehending words in context.

This program is intended to be used along with a reading program and does not specifically focus on comprehension. However, text supports comprehension by expanding vocabulary and using practice sentences for reading and comprehending words in context.

This program is intended to be used along with a reading program and does not specifically focus on comprehension. However, text supports comprehension by expanding vocabulary and using practice sentences for reading and comprehending words in context.

This program is intended to be used along with a reading program and does not specifically focus on comprehension. However, text supports comprehension by expanding vocabulary and using practice sentences for reading and comprehending words in context.

Has research identified additional comprehension strategies?

Yes, the following two strategies have some research support.

Making use of prior knowledge

You can help your students make use of their prior knowledge to help improve their comprehension.

180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186

144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149

214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220

207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214

Using mental imagery

Readers (especially young readers) who visualize during reading understand and remember what they read better than readers who do not visualize.

Pictures are used throughout text to help visualize and learn material.

Pictures are used throughout text to help visualize and learn material.

Pictures are used throughout text to help visualize and learn material.

Pictures are used throughout text to help visualize and learn material.

Which comprehension strategies should be taught? When should they be taught?

Comprehension strategies are not ends in themselves; they are a means of helping students understand what they are reading. Help your students learn to use comprehension strategies in natural learning situations.

Teacher can use text with own discretion to teach strategies in natural learning situations.

Teacher can use text with own discretion to teach strategies in natural learning situations.

Teacher can use text with own discretion to teach strategies in natural learning situations.

Teacher can use text with own discretion to teach strategies in natural learning situations.

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