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  • Psychology 7e in Modules 1


    Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

    Chapter 1

    PSY 12000-003 Prof. Williams 2

    Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

    •  What’s wrong with relying too much on intuition? – We remember those occasions when our

    intuitions were correct – We forget or dismiss instances when our

    intuitions were incorrect – Thus, we overestimate the veracity of our


    Post-hoc Explanations

    •  Hindsight bias “I knew it all along” –  Why didn’t friends and family know that Jared L.

    Loughner was going to be violent and hurt people? –  It’s a lot easier explaining why something happened

    after the fact than predicting what will happen before the fact (“Hindsight is 20/20”)


    Application to You

    •  This is why you don’t look at the answers before you commit yourself to an answer on practice tests.

    •  The ______ is a computed measure of how much the scores vary around the mean score. A) correlation coefficient B) standard deviation C) median D) range

    4 Answer: B


    Overconfidence from Hindsight Bias Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know.




    WATER WREAT How long do you think it would take to unscramble

    these anagrams?

    People said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes

    (Goranson, 1978). 6

    Thinking Critically …

    • Can we find evidence of ESP –  Clairvoyance: ability to gain information about an object, person, location or physical event through means other than the known human senses.

    • How to answer this?   The Case Study   The Survey   Naturalistic Observation   Correlations   Experiments

  • Psychology 7e in Modules 2


    Thinking Critically …

    Case Studies   I read an article where a man “saw” his wife being

    killed in a car accident, and it turns out at that very moment she was indeed killed in a car accident 200 miles away.

     Problem: Self-selection/remembering supporting instances 8


    Random Sampling

    If each member of a population has an equal

    chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a

    random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is

    biased, its results are not valid. The fastest way to know about the

    marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.


    Thinking Critically …

    Surveys Q: Have you ever experienced the ability to know

    something without relying on your five senses? Q: Have you ever “known” something was going to

    happen, and it did? Q. Do you believe in ESP?

    Problems: Self-selection/beliefs aren’t necessarily accurate reflections of internal processes/question

    wording can alter answers 10

    Thinking Critically …

    Naturalistic Observation   I saw a TV show where the guy could tell what others

    were thinking.

    Problem: experimenter bias, trickery, self-selection


    Thinking Critically …

    Correlation  A “clairvoyant” makes a

    prediction about the stock market daily. He predicts either “up” or “down” and this is correlated with whether the market actually ended “up” or “down” on each day.

     His predictions correlated +.6.  Therefore???

    Problem: reverse causation or third variables accounting for effect: during a Bear Market, pessimism will be more accurate.



    When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.

    Correlation coefficient

    Indicates direction of relationship

    (positive or negative)

    Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00)

    r = 0.37 +

    Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between

    two variables.

  • Psychology 7e in Modules 3


    Psychological Science1

      How can we differentiate between uninformed opinions and examined conclusions?

      The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do.

    1One of the premier journals in our field is also called Psychological Science. It’s Editor is Robert Kail, Professor of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University! 14

    The Scientific Attitude

    The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning)

    and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).


    Critical Thinking

    Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly.

    It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.

    The Amazing Randi

    C ourtesy of the Jam

    es R andi Education Foundation

    The Experiment •



    Scientific Method

    Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that

    organize, summarize and simplify observations. journal-esp-paper-published-cornell/story?id=12556754

    NEWSFLASH: Study on ESP published in one of

    psychology’s top journals:


    A Theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events. From a

    theory, many hypotheses can be derived and tested. Grand Theories: tries to explain all (or nearly all)

    behavior. Example: Freud’s theory Mini Theories: tries to explain behavior within a

    specific domain. Example: Elaboration Likelihood Model tries to explain persuasion effects.


  • Psychology 7e in Modules 4


    A Hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by (derived from) a theory, or inferred from observing behaviors, to enable us to accept,

    reject or revise the theory.

    Deductive: Derived from Theory (top down) vs

    Inductive: Derived from Observation (bottom up)



    Thinking Critically …

    Experimentation  Exploring Cause and Effect  Experimental control: Controlling other variables

    while manipulating the ones of interest

     Control or comparison groups  Random assignment   Independent and Dependent Variables



    Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychology research. Experiments isolate causes and

    their effects.


    Exploring Cause and Effect


    Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors

    are kept under (2) control.

    Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships.

    Exploring Cause & Effect



     Experimental control: Controlling other variables while manipulating the ones of interest   What do we want to manipulate?   What do we want to hold constant?

     Control or comparison groups   What is (or are) the best control group(s)?   There can be more than one comparison/control group.


    Assigning participants to experimental (cell phone) and control (??) conditions by random assignment

    minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups.

    Random Assignment

    Random Selection Choosing participants so that they are a random

    sample from the population of interest (so that they are representative and not an unusual sample).

    For experiments, random assignment is essential; random selection is less important

  • Psychology 7e in Modules 5

    Example •  Mayo, A. M., Wade, M. G., & Stoffregen, T. A. (2010). Postural effects of the

    horizon on land and at sea. Psychological Science, 22, 118-124.

    •  Motion of a ship at sea creates challenges for control of the body. Anecdotal reports suggest that the body can be stabilized by standing on the open deck and looking at the horizon. This advice contrasts with land-based findings that looking at the horizon leads to increased body sway. We measured standing body sway in experienced maritime crew members on land and at sea. On land, body sway was greater when subjects looked at the horizon than when they did not—the classical effect. At sea, body sway was greater in a closed cabin than on the open deck. On the open deck, body sway when looking at the horizon was reduced relative to sway when looking at middistance targets on the ship. The results are consistent with centuries of anecdotal advice given to sea travelers and raise new questions about the referents that are used for the control of standing posture.


    Fig. 6. Body sway at sea without (Experiment 2) and with (Experiment 3) the visible horizon.

    Mayo A M et al. Psychological Science 2010;22:118-124

    Copyright © by Association for Psychological Science

    Without visible horizon

    With visible horizon

    At sea On land