THE WRITING PROESS Follow the links for some advice about ... Follow the links for some advice about

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  • WHY WRITING IS IMPORTANT

    Follow the links for some

    advice about various

    stages in the writing

    process

    Being able to write is one of the most important communication

    skills. While writing is essential for success in education at all

    levels, it is also important beyond formal schooling in careers,

    for citizenship and for general living.

    Writing is an organizational tool that is useful for recording expe-

    riences, creating memos and lists, leaving messages and so on.

    Every time we write an email or text someone, we are using

    written language. However, writing is also an important way to

    develop or explore ideas, provide information, express

    opinions ,persuade others or construct imaginative texts. These

    days the ability to write is also important in constructing

    multimodal texts.

    THE WRITING PROCESS

    Thebarton Senior College

    40 Ashley Street

    Torrensville

    SA 5031

     Pre-writing strategies

     Assessing audience and purpose

     Planning

     Drafting

     Reviewing/editing

     Proofreading

     Advice about grammar

     Using resources/references

     References and bibliographies

    stjschools.org

    dailywritingtips.com

    pctipstricks.com

  • PRE-WRITING STRATEGIES  Pre-writing strategies

     Assessing audience and purpose

     Planning

     Drafting

     Reviewing/editing

     Proofreading

     Advice about grammar

     Using resources/references

     References and bibliographies

     Back to The Writing Process

    Getting started:

    Sometimes just getting started is the difficult part. Here are

    some ideas and strategies that might help.

    Understanding the task

    If you are not clear about what is expected of you in the task,

    the first thing you need to do is CLARIFY what is required.

    UNDERLINE or HIGHLIGHT key words.

    Write down what you think the FOCUS is. For example:

    In this task I will… OR The focus for this task is…

    Brainstorming

    Brainstorming involves putting down all the thoughts and ideas

    relating to the topic or task. They don’t need to be ordered

    initially but you can cluster or categorise them later.

    Using web resources / active search programs:

    for example: http://www.eslflow.com

    How to improve your writing:

     Write something everyday —preferably in

    connected prose

     Read lots and write about what you read

     Share your writing with others

     Read your writing aloud and try to fix parts

    that don’t work so well

     Deliberately set out to write in different

    forms and genres

     Keep a folio of everything you write and re-

    read it every now and then to see how you

    are developing.

    Free writing

    Set yourself five minutes and start writing. You need to

    write continuously. At the end of the five minutes re-

    read what you have written and use a pen or highlighter

    to underline, highlight or circle key ideas, parts that flow

    or aspects that really strike home for you. This is particu-

    larly useful for narrative, expository or persuasive

    writing.

    Making lists

    This is a variation of brainstorming and free writing

    Using a graphic organiser

    There are lots of graphic organisers around . These are

    really useful for creating pictures of key points and how

    they connect. Try Inspiration, Lotus diagrams etc.

    Collaboration, research and observation

    Talk over possible ideas with others, do some research

    or do some observation where appropriate.

    Cubing Write notes to the six questions—Who?

    What? When? Where? Why? How?—great tool for

    narrative and recount writing.

    http://www.eslflow.com

  • ASSESSING AUDIENCE & PURPOSE  Pre-writing strategies

     Assessing audience and purpose

     Planning

     Drafting

     Reviewing/editing

     Proofreading

     Advice about grammar

     Using resources/references

     References and bibliographies

     Back to The Writing Process

    How audience influences how and what we write

    In most educational situations, when we are asked to write something

    we generally think of the teacher, tutor or lecturer as the audience.

    However, our writing is often stronger and better directed if we think

    of the authentic audience for which the writing is or might be intend-

    ed.

    Thinking about the audience helps us to make informed decisions

    about the appropriate form or genre and the level of formality re-

    quired. It will also influence the language or register we use and

    whether it is written in the first or third person or using active or

    passive voice.

    An example of this might be writing a job application. Here ,the

    language would be formal but you would use the first person ‘I’. In an

    essay, though, you would use formal language and third

    person voice. In a personal letter, however, you would

    most likely use informal language and the first person.

    Some common school text types and their purposeSome common school text types and their purposeSome common school text types and their purpose

    Procedure—To instruct how a task is done

    Personal recount—To retell important personal events

    Narrative—To entertain

    Report—To describe or classify living or non-living worlds

    Choosing the right text type or form

    Your choice of form will be determined largely by

    why you are writing whatever you are writing. That

    is, you need to be clear about your purpose. Are

    you writing to inform someone, persuade them,

    entertain them or to show someone else what you

    know or understand? There may be other reasons

    as well but what you answer to the why am I

    writing? question will determine what form you will

    use to convey what you want.

    More common school text types and their purposeMore common school text types and their purposeMore common school text types and their purpose

    Explanation—To explain how or why processes occur

    Argument—To persuade using one side of an issue

    Discussion—To persuade by presenting opposing points

    Review—To present a personal response to a text

    Adapted from Literacy Secretariat Draft Resource Paper 2010

    teacher-of-english.com

  • PURPOSE, AUDIENCE & FORM  Pre-writing strategies

     Assessing audience and purpose

     Planning

     Drafting

     Reviewing/editing

     Proofreading

     Advice about grammar

     Using resources/references

     References and bibliographies

     Back to The Writing Process

    The writer’s purpose

    Common purposes used by

    students are to:

     inform

     persuade

     argue

     narrate

     describe

     report

     reflect

     explain

     instruct

     analyse

     imagine

     compare

     contrast

     Share

    More text types

     descriptions

     dialogues

     web pages

    Possible audiences

    Popular audiences that

    students frequently write

    to—usually implied rather

    than real—include:

     peers

     employers

     editors

     general public

     politicians

     parents

     teachers

     professionals

     business people

     advisers

     writers

     experts

    Range of text types or forms

    Common text types or forms

    used by students—include:

     reports

     letters

     essays

     journals

     stories & poems

     news stories

     magazine articles

     biographies

     autobiographies

     brochures

     advertisements

     directions

     instructions

     reviews more text types

  • MORE TEXT TYPES  Pre-writing strategies

     Assessing audience and purpose

     Planning

     Drafting

     Reviewing/editing

     Proofreading

     Advice about grammar

     Using resources/references

     References and bibliographies

     Back to The Writing Process

    Here’s a useful link that will give you lots of examples of

    different text types and what they are used for. It says it is for

    primary students but the Writing Activities link has some useful

    planning sheets:

    http://www.inetword.com/mc10617316/Grammar%

    20Website_files/page0006.htm

    Here is another website that gives you lots of information about

    different text types, what they are used for, how they are struc-

    tured and the language used.

    http://ww