Chapter 16: The Late Renaissance and Mannerism in 16th Century Italy
The Late Renaissance and Mannerism in 16th Century ItalyEvents:Reorientation of trade routes from the east (Italy in prime location) to the west (discovery of America)Ever increasing threat of Turkish invasionMachiavelli publishes The Prince 1532: advocates that each situation determines whether one should be good or bad-moral and economic relativityClassical calm, harmonious images no longer in fashionArtistic license practiced more freely and openly (for a little while at least)
Map of 16th ItalyProtestant Reformation Events:Martin Luther 95 Theses, 1517Founder of Lutheranism95 arguments against the Catholic churchIndulgencesRole of artworks, abuse of power/idolatry Access to the Bible
Lucas Cranach, Portrait of Martin Luther, 1533. Oil on 14 x 18. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
RomeExample: Adjusts Bramantes central plan Greek cross inscribed in squareDome over crossingColossal order
Michelangelo, plan for new Saint Peters,1546.
Michelangelo, plan for new Saint Peters, 1546.
Donato dAnegelo Bramante, Original plan for St. Peters, Rome, 1502-1511. Fig. 15.5ItalyDates and Places: 1500 to 1600Rome, Florence, Milan, and Venice
People:HumanismReformation/Counter-ReformationPowerful courtsArtist-geniusInterior, Sistine Chapel showing Interior of the Sistine Chapel with frescoes by Michelangelo, Perugino, Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, and others, 1473-1541. Fig.15.9
RomeExample:Commissioned by Pope Paul III (Farnese)Subject reflects time based on MatthewNew take on traditional topic with possible pagan referencesCompression of spaceDynamic designDramatic composition
Michelangelo, Last Judgment, with detail of St. Bartholomew from the Sistine Chapel, fresco, 15341541, 48x44. Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. Fig. 16.5Rome
Michelangelo, detail scenes from Last Judgment, with detail of Christ and the Virgin Mary. Fresco, 15341541, 48x44. Sistine Chapel, Vatican City.
Michelangelo, Last Judgment, with detail of St. Bartholomew from the Sistine Chapel, fresco, 15341541, 48x44. Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. Fig. 14.28Self-portrait of MichelangeloItalian MannerismGeneral characteristics:c. 1520-1580Elegant and refined, sophisticated Artificial (versus naturalism of High Renaissance style)Courtly style Overelaborate distortionCompositional tension, not clarityPsychological tensionImpresses one with a feeling of awkwardnessSelf-conscious stylishness, not window onto world Complex, exaggerated, difficultUnstable composition, unnatural color
Rosso Fiorentino, Descent from the Cross, 1521. Oil on panel, 11 x 65 . Pinacoteca Comunale, Volterra, Italy. Fig. 16.2
Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572) Example: FlorenceElegant conception Figures elongated and have energetic, angular postures Arranged to create a decorative pattern No strong emotions, superficial Shallow space Forms tend to adhere to the vertical plane Mannerist refinement and artifice prevail over nature and feeling
Agnolo Bronzino , Allegory of Venus: Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, ca. 1546. Oil on panel, 51 x48 . National Gallery, London. Fig. 16.3Tiziano Vecellio (Titian 1488/90-1576)Example: Oil on canvas glowsVoluptuous body with smoky shadow, framed by curtain The artist was extremely successful and was even given the freedom of the city of Rome during a visit in 1546. The last twenty-five years of Titian's life were spent mainly as a portrait-painter and in the service of Philip II of Spain. He had painted Philip's portrait in 1550 and had also painted Philip's father The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.The artist's later paintings are executed with great freedom. He was so comfortable with his medium that one of his pupils, who had watched him work, stated that he finished the pictures 'more with his fingers than his brush'.
Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas, 3 11 x 5 5. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Fig. 16.11
Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c. 1509. Oil on canvas, 36 x 5 9.Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Oil on canvas, 3 11 x 5 5. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Fig. 16.11Manet, Olympia, 1865. Oil on canvas, 4 3 x 6 3. Muse d'Orsay, Paris Venice
Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1592-1594. Oil on canvas, 12x188. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. Fig 16.13Jacopo Robusti Tintoretto (1518-1594)Example: Paint like Titian, design like Michelangelo Counter-Reformation paintingStrong diagonals, site specificStrong use of light and darkMysterious light sourceNatural and supernatural worldsExaggeration of posesJudas again in the dark
Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1592-1594. Oil on canvas, 12x188. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. Fig 16.13
Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, c. 14951498. Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster), 15 1 1/8 x 28 10 . Refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. Fig. 15.2Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1592-1594. Oil on canvas, 12x188. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. Fig 16.13VicenzaAndrea Palladio, Villa Rotonda, ca. 15671570.Vicenza, Italy. Fig.16.14.
Andrea Palladio (1508-1580)Example: Greatest architect of late 16th centurySynthesizes elements of Mannerism with High Renaissance idealsNear VeniceCentral planDome over crossingFour facades like temple portalsPantheon likely modelWrote architectural treatise, Four Books of Architecture (1570)
Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotonda, ca. 15671570.Vicenza, Italy. Fig.16.14.
Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotonda, ca. 15671570. Vicenza, Italy. Fig.16.14.
Reconstruction of an Etruscan temple after VitruviusPantheon, 118-125 CE, Rome. Andrea Palladio (1506-1580)Example: Design aesthetic based on humanist educationPrivate residence, built for Venetian clericClassic temple portico (porch) with Ionic columns support entablature crowned by pedimentSymmetry in design=dignity and grandeurStrict symmetry is both Classical and Renaissance element
Andrea Palladio, floor plan Villa Rotonda, ca. 15671570.Vicenza, Italy. Fig.16.14.