Chapter 13The High Renaissance and Mannerismin ItalyCulture and Values, 8th Ed.Cunningham and Reich and Fichner-Rathus
Leo X (15131521)Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent; patronized Michelangelo and excommunicated Martin Luther.HadrianVI (15221523)Born in the Netherlands; a ferocious reformer and the last non-Italian pope until the 1970s.Clement VII (15231534)Grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent; commissioned the Medici tombs in Florence, andThe Last Judgmentfor the Sistine Chapel just before his death; excommunicated Henry VIII.Paul III (15341549)Commissioned Michelangelo to build the Farnese Palace in Rome; called the reform Council of Trent, which first met in 1545.Julius III (15501555)Patron of the composer Palestrina; confirmed the constitutions of the Jesuits in 1550; appointed Michelangelo as chief architect of Saint Peters.Marcellus II (1555)Reigned as pope for 22 days; honoree of Palestrinas Missa Papae Marcelli.Paul IV (15551559)A fanatical reformer; began the papal reaction against the Renaissance spirit; encouraged the Inquisition and instituted the Index of Forbidden Books in 1557.
Popes and PatronageVatican as center of wealth, stabilityPope Sixtus IVPope Julius IIBeginnings of High Renaissance (1503)il papa terribileRaphael, MichelangeloThe de Medici Family
The Visual ArtsLeonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, Madonna of the RocksOrthogonals, chiaroscuroNotebooksMathematics, natural world and humanity, love for beauty
13.3 Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495-1498, Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazi, Milan, Italy
13.4A Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, begun 1483. Musee du Louvre, Paris, France
13.5 Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, 1503-1505. Musee du Louvre, Paris, France
The Visual ArtsRaphael Sanzio (1483-1520)From Urbino to PerugiaApprentice to PeruginoFrom Perugia to Florence (1505)Madonna of the Meadow (1508)Pyramidal configurationRationally orderedModeling of human formsHuman quality of the divine figure
13.7 Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1508, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
The Visual ArtsRaphael Sanzio (1483-1520)From Florence to Vatican (1508)School of Athens (1509-1511)Symbolic homage to philosophyRenaissance idealBalance of philosophy and theology
13.8A Raphael, Philosophy (School of Athens), 1509-1511. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Vatican State, Italy
The Visual ArtsLorenzo de MediciMichelangelo Buonarroti (1476-1564)PietMichelangelos DavidStatement of idealized beautyPalazzo Vecchio: symbol of civic power
Pieta1498-9, marbleSt. PetersVaticanRome
13.10 Michelangelo, David, 1501-1504, Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence, Italy
The Visual ArtsMichelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)Tomb for Pope Julius II
Moses (1513-1515)Divine fury, divine lightTerribilit
13.11 Michelangelo, Moses, 1513-1515, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy
The Visual ArtsMichelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)The Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo, SculptorArchitectural and thematic motifsInterpretationNeo-PlatonismOld Testament and pagan prophetsComplex tree symbolismHuman wisdom + Gods revelation
13.12A Michelangelo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 1508-1511, Vatican Palace, Vatican State, Italy
13.13 Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, detail of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512, Vatican Palace, Vatican State, Italy
The Visual ArtsMichelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)MichelangelesqueMasculine anatomy, musculaturePhysical bulk, linear grace, emotionalityCreation of Adam (1508-1511)The Last Judgment (1534-1541)Medici ChapelArchitectural and sculptural designLife, death, resurrection
1534-41 The Last Judgement, fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican.
13.16 Michelangelo, Night, 1519-1531, detail of the tomb of Giuliano de Medici, Church of San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
The Visual ArtsMichelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564)The New Saint Peters
Donato Bramante (1444-1514)TempiettoMichelangelo as architect (1546)Bramantes plan Ribbed, arched dome Drum to support dome
Floor plans for the new Saint Peters Basilica, Rome, Italy, 15061666. (I) Bramantes plan, 15061514, shows a compact plan of a Greek cross with arms or transepts (b) of equal length meeting at a central altar (a) set under a dome, with each arm ending in a semicircular apse (e) opening to a portal or entrance (c), and including several chapels (d) for smaller services. (II) Antonio da Sangallos plan, 15161546, imposed a Latin cross, adding Raphaels choir (f) to surround the altar on three sides, closing the portals in favor of a formal entrance (c), and forming a nave (g) from the arm proceeding from a huge vestibule or narthex (h). (III) Michelangelos plan, 15471564, rejected Sangallos design and returned to a centralized domed Greek cross inscribed within a square but retained the vestibule (c), now fronted by a portico with giant columns. (IV) Carlo Madernas plan, 16061615, returned to a Latin cross with elongated nave (g), narthex (h), portico (c), and Baroque faade. This plan also shows Gian Lorenzo Berninis piazza (j) with colonnades, 16561667. Madernas final additions, especially the elongated nave, narthex, and large faade, obscured Michelangelos original design. Artwork by Cecilia Cunningham.
The High Renaissance in VeniceAndrea PalladioClassical Architecture of Greece reflected through Roman structuresFour Books of Architecture (1570)Palazzo Chiericati Harmony and balance
begun 1550s. Vicenza, Italy.
The High Renaissance in VenicePaintingTradition of easel paintingUse of oil paintsBrilliance of colorSubtlety of lightEye for close detailLove of landscape
The High Renaissance in VenicePainting
Titian (c. 1488-1576)Assumption of the Virgin (1516-1518)Venus of Urbino (1538)Tintoretto (1518-1594)The drawing of Michelangelo and the color of Titian.The Last Supper
13.20 Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy
1592-94, Tintoretto, The Last Supper, oil on canvas,San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy.
MannerismCharacteristics of MannerismDistortion and elongationFlattened, two-dimensional spaceLack of a defined focal pointDiscordant pastel huesJacopo Carucci da Pontormo (1494-1557)Deposition (c. 1528)Il BronzinoVenus, Cupid, Folly, and Time (The Exposure of Luxury)
Jacopo Pontormo (born Carucci),Entombment, 15251528. Oil on panel, 123 76 (312.4 193 cm). Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicit, Florence, Italy.
13.23 Bronzino, Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time (The Exposure of Luxury), 1546, National Gallery, London, England
MannerismLavinia Fontana (1552-1614)Daughter of Bolognese painterPortrait painter (Rome, Bologna)Exaggerated angles, use of colorSofonisba Anguissola (1532?-1624)Renaissance and Baroque mastersPictorial representationsContrasts of dark and light
13.24 Lavinia Fontana, Noli Me Tangere, 1581, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy
13.25 Sofonisba Anguissola, A Game of Chess, 1555, National Museum in Poznan, Poland
MannerismGiovanni da Bologna (1529-1608)SculptorAbduction of the Sabine WomenEl Greco (1541-1614)Distortion of figures and ambiguous spaceThe Burial of the Count of Orgaz
Giovanni da Bologna,Abduction of the Sabine Women, ca. 15811583. Marble, 135 (409 cm) high. Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence, Italy.
13.27 El Greco, The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, 1586, Santo Tome, Toledo, Spain
Music in the Sixteenth CenturyMusic at the Papal Court
Sistine Choir and Julian ChoirMale voices, a capellaJosquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521)Sistine Choir, composer and directorMotet for four voicesStructure, balance, lyrical quality
Music in the Sixteenth CenturyMusic at the Papal Court
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594)Choirmaster of capella Guilia (Julian choir)1571-1594 Vaticans music directorConservative masses in response to Catholic reform movement
Music in the Sixteenth CenturyVenetian Music
Adrian WillaertAndrea and Giovanni GabrieliChurch of St. Mark Split choirsInstrumental music in liturgyIntonazione, toccataIntellectual influence of Italian humanism
LiteratureLeonardo da Vinci13,000 pages of notesMichaelangelo BuonarrotiPoetryVittoria ColonnaBaldassare CastiglioneThe Book of the CourtierVeronica FrancoBenvenuto Cellini
Tintoretto,Veronica Franco, late 16th century. Oil on canvas, 18 24 (46 61 cm). Worcester Museum of Art, Worcester, Mass.
Compare & contrast
Compare & contrast
Chapter Thirteen: Discussion QuestionsCompare the artistic developments that took place in Rome and those that took place in Venice. To what can we attribute the differences? Explain.To what extent did Neo-Platonism manifest itself in the works of Michelangelo? Are there traces of this philosophy in works of other artists discussed in this chapter? Explain, citing specific artists and works.How did environmental factors and geography contribute to Venetian art during the Renaissance? Consider both visual and aural arts in your discussion.
***13.3 Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 14951498. Fresco, post-restoration, 145 x 2814. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy. Image The Gallery Collection/CORBIS*13.4A Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, begun 1483. Panel painting transferred to canvas, 78 x 48 (198.