The High and Late Middle Ages - The High and Late Middle Ages Chapter 8. Monarchs, Nobles and the Church

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  • The High and Late Middle Ages

    Chapter 8

  • Monarchs, Nobles and the Church During feudal times, monarchs in Europe stood at the head of society but had limited power. Nobles and the Church had as much—or more—power than the monarchs.

    -In order to expand their power, monarchs

    • set up royal courts • organized government bureaucracies • developed systems of taxation • built standing armies • strengthened ties with the middle class -In this way, little by little over many centuries, these monarchs built the framework for modern-day nation states.

  • ■ William of Normandy ■ Expansion of royal

    power: handling of land, building of castles, loyalty of vassals

    ■ Domesday book: a 1086 census

    ■ Henry II ■ Common law: based

    on custom and court rulings

    ■ Developed a grand jury ■ Which cases

    should be brought to trial

    ■ try clergy in royal courts

  • King John ■ Enemies towards King Philip II of

    France, Pope Innocent III and the English nobles

    ■ Magna Carta ■ In 1215, a group of rebellious barons

    forced King John to force a charter ■ Nobles had rights ■ The monarch must obey the law ■ Due process of law ■ Habeas corpus ■ Agreed not to raise new taxes

  • Edward I

    ■The Great Council evolved ■Parliament includes representatives of common people.

    ■ England’s legislature ■ “Power of the Purse” ■ A two-house system

    ■ House of Lords: nobles and clergy ■ House of Commons: knights and middle-class

  • France

    ■ Hugh Capet (986) ■ King of France ■ Won support of the

    Church ■ Established a

    hereditary throne ■ Built an effective

    bureaucracy: collecting taxes, royal law

  • Philip II ● Introduced a

    standing army ● Filled government

    positions with loyal followers

    ● Introduced a new national tax

    Louis IX ● Expanded Royal

    Courts ● Ended serfdom ● Centralized Monarchy

    Increased Royal Power over the Church.

  • Parliament VS Congress? How Parliament

    Works in 90 seconds:



    How Congress Works in 70 seconds:

    Start at 43 seconds - End at 1:53 m/watch?v=HuFR5XBY


  • Parliament VS Congress

    1. Create a T-Chart comparing Parliament VS Congress

    2. Justify which system you think is better: the parliamentary system or the congressional system? Use a minimum of 3 reasons to explain your answer.

  • Section 2

  • The Holy Roman Empire

    ■ Central and Eastern Europe ■ Otto I of Saxony became King of

    Germany ■ 962: Otto crowned emperor by the pope

    ■ “Holy”: crowned by the pope ■ “Roman”: heirs to the emperors of

    Rome ■ With secular and religious rulers

    advancing rival claims to power, explosive conflicts erupted between monarchs and the Church.

  • Henry IV vs. Gregory VII

    ■ Who had the right to appoint and install bishops in office

    ■ Henry IV: since they owned fiefs, he had the right

    ■ Gregory VII: only the spiritual church may do so

    ■ 1076, Henry IV was excommunicated ■ 1077, Gregory VII forgave him ■ Henry put down a rebellion against him; then

    forced the pope into exile

  • Church power reaches its heights

    ■ Pope Innocent III ■ claimed supremacy over all other

    rulers. He used the tools of excommunication and interdict to punish monarchs who challenged his power.

    ■ “The pope stands between God and man, lower than God, but higher than men, who judges all and is judged by no one.”

  • The Current Pope? Let’s research!

    1. Evaluate: What role does the Pope play in today’s world? In government?

    2. Justify: What are 2 main agendas Pope Francis is pursuing? Justify if you think these are valuable agendas for him to pursue.

    3. Analyze: what are the different viewpoints people have on the current Pope (and why do they have those opinions)? What is your viewpoint?

    Pope Francis

  • Section 3

  • The Crusades ■ Began in 1096;

    Christians battled Muslims for control of the Middle East

    ■ The Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzantine empire

    ■ 1071, the Turks controlled the Holy Land

    ■ Prevented Christian pilgrims from going to Jerusalem

  • Pope Urban II

    ■ Help the Byzantine empire unite with Europe

    ■ Fighting a losing Battle ■ Christian knights captured Jerusalem in

    1099 ■ Divided the land into four smaller states ■ Crusades went on for over 200 years ■ Salah al-Din, victorious Muslim leader ■ Fourth Crusade was Christians against


  • The Impact of the Crusades

    1. Christians vs. Muslims 2. Religious fury against Jews 3. European Economics Expand

    ■ Trade increased and expanded ■ Cotton, sugar, and rice ■ Peasants began to undermine serfdom

    4. Effects on Monarchs and the Church ■ Monarchs won new rights to collect taxes ■ Brought Papal power to new heights

    5. Marco Polo, 1271, set out for China

  • The Reconquista

    ■ To drive Muslim Moors from the Iberian peninsula

    ■ Christians conquer Spain ■ In 1469, the creation of Spain ■ Ferdinand and Isabella defeated the

    Moors in 1492 at Granada ■ Inquisition

    ■ Led by Queen Isabella against Muslims and Jews

    ■ Those who refused to conform to the Church teachings were burned at the stake

  • Section 4

  • Medieval Universities

    • By the 1100s, schools to train the clergy had sprung up around the great cathedrals. Some of these cathedral schools evolved into the first universities.

    • The first universities were in Salerno and Bologna in Italy, and then in Oxford and Paris.

    • The curriculum covered the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, grammar, rhetoric, and logic.

    • Women were not allowed to attend the universities.

    As economic and political conditions improved, the need for education expanded.


  • Europeans Acquire “New” Learning

    ■ Relied on the works of Aristotle and others ■ Use reason to discover basic truths

    ■ Scholasticism: use reason to support faith ■ Thomas Aquinas: Summa

    theologica brought Christian faith and classical Greek philosophy

    ■ Use of Arabic numerals evolved

  • Medieval Literature

    ■ Latin is the written language of scholars and churchmen

    ■ Vernacular: everyday language; French, German, Italian

    ■ Dante Alighieri: Divine Comedy imaginary journey into hell and purgatory

    ■ Geoffrey Chaucer: Canterbury Tales band of pilgrims traveling to Saint Thomas Becket’s tomb

  • Literature, Architecture, and Art

    Sculptors portrayed religious themes.

    Stained-glass windows added to the splendor of Gothic churches.

    The Gothic style was applied to painting and illumination, the artistic decoration of books.

    Towering stone cathedrals symbolized wealth and religious devotion.

    The Romanesque style reflected Roman influences. The Gothic Style was characterized by flying buttresses, or stone supports that stood outside the church.

    New writings in the vernacular, or language of everyday people, captured the spirit of the times.

    The epic Song of Roland (France) Dante’s Divine Comedy (Italy) Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (England)


    As economic and political conditions improved, Europeans made notable achievements in literature and the arts.


  • The Crusades VS Today? Are there similarities between the Crusades and events in modern history where religion is used to justify violent acts?

    ● 9/11 ● Suicide

    Bombers ● ISIS and

    other terrorist groups

    ● Oklahoma City Bombing

  • ACES+C “The Crusades”

    Justify whether or not the Crusades are similar to extremist Islamic violence in today’s world.

    If similar, provide 3 reasons why they are similar and explain in detail.

    If different, provide 3 reasons demonstrating why they are different and explain in detail.





  • Section 5

  • A Time of Crisis

    ■ How did the Black Death cause social and economic decline?

    ■ What problems afflicted the Church in the late Middle Ages?

    ■ What were the causes, turning points, and effects of the Hundred Years’ War?

  • Causes of the Black Death 1) Merchant ships 2) Fleas on rats 3) Poor sanitation and

    close cities (easily spread)

  • Killed an estimated 75-200 Million peo