Early-Late Middle Ages: Italy & Germany. 476-1500. Holy Roman Empire. 814, death of Charlemagne – Italy= CRAZO Sons inherited title of Holy Roman Emperor Multiple rulers in Italy Pope - Papal States Byzantines - ruled parts Arabs - ruled Sicily. Otto the Great. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Early-Late Middle Ages: Italy & Germany476-1500Holy Roman Empire814, death of Charlemagne Italy= CRAZOSons inherited title of Holy Roman EmperorMultiple rulers in ItalyPope - Papal StatesByzantines - ruled partsArabs - ruled Sicily
After death of Charlemagne - Italy in state of disorderDescendents inherited title of Holy Roman EmperorMultiple rulers in ItalyPope - Papal StatesByzantines - ruled partsArabs - ruled Sicily
2Otto the GreatKing of Germany (936)Desired central kingdom like CapetiansAlso wanted Italy= 951 - seized territory in N. ItalyHelped Pope John XII control nobles= crowned Emperor of the Romans in 962
Elected king of Germany (936)Desired strong central kingdom like Capetians in FranceAlso wanted Italy951 - seized territory in N. ItalyPope begs him for help dealing with noblesOtto agrees, and is crowned Emperor of the Romans in 962Controls Northern Italy3Henry IIIEmperor, 1046-1056Expected church to support him & the empireRemoved 3 popes & chose the next 3 himself
Emperor from 1046-1056Expected church to actively support him and the empire3 men claimed the papacy during his reignHe removed them and chose the next 3 popes himself
4Henry IV5 yrs old - chance for nobles to regain independence & feudal powerChurch wanted to regain lost power= Clashes w/ Pope Gregory VIIConflict over lay investiture Gregory --> NOHenry --> YESGregory had Henry excommunicated
5 years old - chance for nobles to regain independence and feudal powerChurch sought to regain lost powerClashes with Pope Gregory VIIConflict over lay investiture = an imperial rulers right to appoint bishopsGregory --> NOHenry --> YESGregory has Henry excommunicated
5Pope vs. King1077 -- Henry gets excommunication revoked1122 - Concordat of WormsLimits imperial power over churchOnly Pope can name BishopsDoes NOT end conflictInterference in Italy threatens Papal States
1077 --> Henry travels to meet the pope and beg for mercy = gets excommunication revoked1122 - Concordat of Worms- created by their repsEmperor could appoint bishops to fiefsLimits imperial power over churchOnly Pope can name BishopsDoes NOT end conflict between rulers and popesInterference in Italy threatens Papal States
6Frederick Barbarossa Ruled Germany from 1152-1190Wanted N. ItalyMerchant cities, Milan resisted= destroyed the cityResponse= Cities unite= Lombard LeagueDefeated Frederick in 1176Peace treatyFrederick = overlordCities govern themselves
Ruled Germany from 1152-1190Wanted to control Lombardy (N. Italy)Merchant citiesMilan resisted, so he destroyed the cityCities united as the Lombard LeagueDefeated Frederick in 1176Peace treatyFrederick = overlordCities could govern themselves
7Pope Innocent III (1198-1216)Strongest medieval popeEVERYONE is a servant of the churchSettled all political AND spiritual mattersUsed excommunication & interdict freelyKing John & England - interdictPhilip Augustus - interdictOverthrew 2 German kings
Strongest medieval popeBelieved emperors/kings were no more than servants of the churchHe could settle all political AND spiritual mattersUsed excommunication and interdict freelyKing John and England - interdictPhilip Augustus - interdictOverthrew 2 German kings
8Failed UnificationItaly & Germany never unitedFrederick II = FAILEDItaly 3 regionsN. Italy - Lombard citiesC. Italy (Papal States) - PopeS. Italy - kingdom of Sicily
Italy and Germany never unitedFrederick II tried to bring both countries together under his rule = FAILItaly divided into 3 regionsN. Italy - Lombard citiesCentral Italy (Papal States) - PopeS. Italy - kingdom of Sicily
9Quick ReviewWhy was Otto the Great crowned Emperor of the Romans?
Why was there conflict with Pope Gregory and Henry IV, and how was it resolved?
What was the Lombard League?
Who was Pope Innocent III?