The Late Middle Ages (1200-1400)

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The Late Middle Ages (1200-1400). World History - Libertyville HS. Characteristics of Period. Agriculture Limits of agricultural land reached “Mini Ice Age” caused famines, loss of crops due to poor growing seasons / long winters Politics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Late Middle Ages and the Bubonic Plague

The Late Middle Ages (1200-1400)World History - Libertyville HSCharacteristics of PeriodAgricultureLimits of agricultural land reachedMini Ice Age caused famines, loss of crops due to poor growing seasons / long wintersPoliticsWars common through period as political consolidation continued

Characteristics of PeriodEconomicInvention of double entry bookkeeping allowed for keeping track of debts and income at same timeLed to development of bankingRise of Italian banking familiesMedici, of FlorenceBecame patrons of the Renaissance

Characteristics of PeriodHanseatic League (N. Holy Roman Empire)Trading federation among Baltic Sea & inland HREPolitical, economic force in late Middle Ages (fish on Fridays)Helped create larger, more varied European trading communitiesLuxury goods became more available for richIron tools became more common for poor

Characteristics of Period

ReligiousReal and perceived corruption of ChurchSimony, sale of indulgencesRise of heretics (people who disagree with Catholic church)Jon Hus Czech philosopher who opposed simony, indulgencesInvited to debate churchImprisoned, burned at stakeImportant because he foreshadowed Protestant ReformationInquisition

Characteristics of PeriodEducationRise of universities in 1100s, in EuropeUniversity = community of scholarsUniversities usually run by priests, monksPurpose of learning was to understand God betterUniversities surprisingly accepting of ideas from other cultures (zero, Arabic numbers for math)

Black Death (1347-1350)

Estimated death toll = 50 millionBetween 1/3 and of population of EuropeDeath toll high, but not only b/c of plagueTrade stopped (no food)FaminesLabor shortages, in fields100 Years War started in 1337Black Death (Bubonic Plague)Bubonic plague carried by fleasFleas carried by RatsPlague actually a virusMade its way to Europe from ChinaProbably brought from East by Italian merchantsRats on ships brought infected fleas to Europe

Bubonic Plague CharacteristicsFever, blotches all over bodyHuge swelling under armpits, around lymph nodes, called buboesIf they burst, you were ok; if not, you were dead within hoursPuncturing them with a knife did not help

Responses to the PlagueDoctors thought it was transmitted through the air (herbs, incense)Religious leaders thought God was punishing man for sinsFlagellant cult: travelling groups who prayed for forgiveness & whipped themselves as a sign of repentanceBlamed Jews for plague (attacks)

Effects of Plague

Peasant life improvedPopulation way down, but their service became valuableDemanded wages, better working conditions from LordsIf life didnt improve, peasants rebelledNobility were less affected by plagueLess contact with virus carrying rats1 prince, relatively few nobles diedAffected more by economic, political changes