The Art of Accompanying Classical Ballet Technique Classes

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    University of Iowa

    Iowa Research Online

    e+e+ a&d D++e*a'&+

    2011

    Te art of accompanying classical ballet technique classes

     Yee Sik Wong University of Iowa

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    THE ART OF ACCOMPANYING CLASSICAL BALLET TECHNIQUE CLASSES

    by

    Yee Sik Wong

    An essay submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of

    Musical Arts degree in the Graduate College of

    The University of Iowa

    July 2011

    Essay Supervisors: Professor Rene Lecuona

    Assistant Professor Deanna Carter

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    Graduate College The University of Iowa

    Iowa City, Iowa

    CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

    _______________________

    D.M.A. ESSAY

    _______________

    This is to certify that the D.M.A. essay of

    Yee Sik Wong

    has been approved by the Examining Committee for the essay requirement for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree at the July 2011 graduation.

    Essay Committee: ___________________________________ Rene Lecuona, Essay Supervisor

    ___________________________________ Deanna Carter, Essay Supervisor

    ___________________________________ Kate Gfeller

    ___________________________________ Rachel Joselson

    ___________________________________ Volkan Orhon

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      ii

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    I would like to extend my gratitude to Professor Rene Lecuona and Professor

    Deanna Carter, supervisors for this essay, for their time, guidance and valuable

    suggestions through the process of this project. I am also thankful to my D.M.A. essay

    committee members, Professor Kate Gfeller, Professor Rachel Joselson, and Professor

    Volkan Orhon, for their time and assistance.

    I wish to thank The University of Iowa Youth Ballet and the Department of Dance

    at The University of Iowa for exposing me to the field of ballet accompaniment and for giving me opportunities to be practically involved and to experiment in the field.

    My thanks also to Eileen Bartos, whose editorial expertise has made the written

    style of this essay more elegant and presentable. Special thanks go to composer Lan-Chee

    Lam from the University of Toronto and to Calvin Wong for their generous and timely

    help with the editing of my musical selections.

    Finally, I want to thank my family for their unconditional support throughout the

    course of my doctoral studies. Without their constant help and encouragement, this

    project could have never come to fruition.

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      iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................1  

    Statement of the Problem ..................................................................................1  Objective of this Essay .....................................................................................2 

    Methodology .....................................................................................................3  Limitations of the Study ...................................................................................4  

    CHAPTER 1 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ...............................................................6 

    CHAPTER 2 APPLYING PRINCIPLES OF MUSIC TO BALLET TECHNIQUE CLASSES .......................................................................................................16

     

    The Structure of a Ballet Technique Class .....................................................16  The Role of the Ballet Teacher and the Role of the Accompanist .................17 

    Similarities to and Differences from Instrumental and Vocal Accompaniment .......................................................................................19

     

    Counting .........................................................................................................23  Tempo .............................................................................................................26

     

    Phrasing ..........................................................................................................26  Musical Introduction .......................................................................................27  Phrase Endings and Cadences ........................................................................30

     

    Switching Sides and Vamp .............................................................................31  

    CHAPTER 3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ESSENTIAL BALLET MOVEMENTS AND MUSIC ........................................................................33 

    Combinations at the Barre ..............................................................................35  

    Pliés .........................................................................................................35  Battements Tendus ..................................................................................36 

    Battements Dégagés ................................................................................39  

    Ronds de Jambe par Terre .......................................................................40  

    Battements Fondus ..................................................................................42  

    Enveloppés and Ronds de Jambe en l’Air ...............................................44  Battements Frappés .................................................................................45  Adage .......................................................................................................47  Petits Battements .....................................................................................48

     

    Balançoire / En Cloche ............................................................................49  

    Grands Battements ...................................................................................49  Stretches ..................................................................................................51 

    Combinations in the Center ............................................................................52  Tendus in the Center ................................................................................52

     

    Port de Bras and Adage ...........................................................................53  

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      iv

    Pirouettes .................................................................................................55  Petit Allegro .............................................................................................59  Medium Allegro ......................................................................................60

     

    Grand Allegro ..........................................................................................62  Big Jumps with Beats ..............................................................................65 

    Turns en Diagonale (Chaînés) .................................................................67  Grand Pirouettes ......................................................................................67  Reverence ................................................................................................68

     

    Pointe Class ....................................................................................................69  

    Slow Prances and Warm-Up ..........................................

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