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THE AGONY OF RECONSTRUCTION. America: Past and Present Chapter 16. The President Versus Congress. The North split on reconstructing the South White House seeks speedy Reconstruction with minimum changes in the South Congress seeks slower Reconstruction, demands protection for freedmen. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • THE AGONY OF RECONSTRUCTIONAmerica: Past and PresentChapter 16

  • The President Versus CongressThe North split on reconstructing the SouthWhite House seeks speedy Reconstruction with minimum changes in the SouthCongress seeks slower Reconstruction, demands protection for freedmen

  • Wartime ReconstructionLincoln announces lenient policy in 1863Congress resents Lincolns effort to control Congressmen seek to condition readmission to Union on black suffrage Congress mistrusts white Southerners

  • Andrew Johnson at the HelmRepublicans initially support Southern Democrat Johnson as enemy of planter classJohnson, Republicans split on ReconstructionJohnson instructs Southern conventions todeclare secession illegalrepudiate Confederate debt ratify the Thirteenth Amendment

  • Andrew Johnson at the Helm (2)Southern conventions reluctantly carry out Johnsons ordersConventions pass Black CodesJohnson approves conventions actionsCongress condemns conventions

  • Congress Takes the InitiativeCongress insists on black suffrageMixed motivesRepublicans expect to get black voteideological commitment to equal rights fear that South would fall under great planter control without black suffrage

  • Congress Takes the Initiative (2)1866--Johnson vetoes two bills extension of Freedmens Bureaucivil rights bill to overturn Black CodesRepublicans pass Fourteenth Amendment Johnsons National Union party runs against Republican congressmen in electionsElections of 1866 strengthen Republicans

  • Congressional Reconstruction Plan EnactedSouth under military rule until black suffrage fully securedSplit over duration of federal protectionRadicals recognize need for long periodmost wish military occupation to be shortAssumption: black suffrage sufficient to empower freedmen to protect themselves

  • Reconstruction

  • The Impeachment CrisisJohnson moves to obstruct ReconstructionFebruary, 1868--Congress impeachesSenate refuses to convict JohnsonRadical Republicans seen as subversive of Constitution, lose public support

  • Reconstructing Southern SocietyThree contending interests in South Southern whites seek to keep newly-freed blacks inferiorNorthern whites seek to make money or to "civilize" the regionblacks seek equalityDecline of federal interest in Reconstruction permits triumph of reaction and racism

  • Reorganizing Land and LaborEx-slaves wish to work their own landFederal government sometimes grants landLand reverts to white owners under JohnsonSlaveowners try to impose contract labor Blacks insist on sharecroppingSharecropping soon becomes peonage

  • Black Codes: A New Name for Slavery?South increasingly segregated after WarBlack Codes designed to return blacks to quasi-slaverycodes overturned by CongressViolence and discrimination continued on a large scale

  • Republican Rule in the South1867--Southern Republican party organizedbusinesspeople want government aidwhite farmers want protection from creditorsblacks form majority of party, want social and political equalityRepublican coalition unstableRepublicans break up when whites leave

  • Republican Rule in the South (2)Republicans improve public education, welfare, and transportationRepublican state legislatures corruptwhites control most Radical state governmentsAfrican Americans given blame for corruption

  • Claiming Public and Private RightsFreed slaves viewed legalized marriage as an important step in claiming political rightsThey also formed churches, fraternal and benevolent associations, political organizations, and schoolsEducation for children was a top priority

  • Retreat from ReconstructionEnormous problems 1868-1876Grants weak principles contribute to failure

  • Rise of the Money QuestionPanic of 1873 raises the money question debtors seek inflationary monetary policy by continuing circulation of "greenbacks" creditors, intellectuals support hard money1875--government commits to hard money1876--Greenback party formed, makes gains in congressional races

  • Final Efforts of Reconstruction1869--15th Amendment passedalso enfranchised Northern blacksWomens rights group were upset that they were not granted the voteNorthern support for black citizenship waned

  • A Reign of Terror Against BlacksSecret societies sought to keep blacks out of the political processThey also brought insurrections against state governments1870s--Congress tries to suppress Ku Klux Klan, other Southern terrorist groups By 1876 Republicans control only South Carolina, Louisiana, and FloridaNorthern support for military action wanes

  • Spoilsmen Versus ReformersRumors of corruption during Grant's first term discredit Republicans1872--Grant wins reelection over Liberal Republican, Democrat Horace Greeley Grants second term rocked by scandal

  • Reunion and the New SouthNorth and South reconcile after 1877Terms of reconciliationAfrican Americans stripped of political gainsbig business interests favored over small farmer

  • The Compromise of 1877Election of 1876 disputed Special Congressional commission gives disputed vote to Rutherford B. HayesSouthern Democrats accept on two conditionsguarantee of federal aid to the Southremoval of all remaining federal troopsHayes agreement ends Reconstruction

  • Redeeming a New SouthSouthern "Redeemers" favor commerce, manufacturing over agricultureGain power by doctrine of white supremacy Neglect problems of small farmers

  • The Rise of Jim CrowRedeemer Democrats systematically exclude black voters Jim Crow laws legalize segregation and restrict black civil rightsBy 1910 the process was completeThe North and the federal government did little or nothing to prevent it

  • The Rise of Jim Crow (2)Lynching187 blacks lynched yearly 1889-1899U.S. Supreme Court decisions gut Reconstruction Amendments 1875-1896Reunion accomplished as North tacitly acquiesces in Southern discrimination

  • Henry McNeal Turner and the Unfinished RevolutionHenry McNeal Turners career summarized the Southern black experience during and after ReconstructionHe supported the Union during the warAfter Reconstruction Northerners tacitly approved oppression of Southern blacks