Terminologi Kedokteran - LEG

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terminologi kedokteran

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<ul><li><p>Medical TerminologyBlock 1</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*dr. Legiran, M.KesS1 FK Unsri PalembangS2 Anatomi PPs UGM YogyakartaPengajar Anatomi ManusiaKoordinator Komisi IV Unit Pendidikan Kedokteran FK Unsri (UPK)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Concepts of Medical TerminologySpecial vocabulary used by health care professionals for effective and accurate communicationConsistent and uniform throughout the worldMost medical terms are based on Latin and Greek wordsA few are adapted from modern languages</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Four PartsWord Rootthe word part that is the core of the wordSuffixa word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaningPrefixa word part attached to the beginning of a word root to modify its meaningCombining Vowela word part, usually an O</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Word RootThe word root is the word part that is the core of the wordFundamental unit of each medical wordEstablishes basic meaning of wordIt cannot stand alone a suffix must be added. Part to which prefixes and suffixes are added</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Word Root (contd)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Word Root (contd)Begin with learnLearn + -er = one who learnsRe + learn = to learn againGreek word for heart is kardiaForms word root cardiLatin word for lung is pulmoForms word root pulm</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Word Root (contd)Word Roots Indicating ColorCyanosisCyan/o ( blue color of skin caused by lack of O2 ) + osis (condition)Erythrocyteserythr/o (red) + cytes (cells)Poliomyelitis Polio (gray) + myel (spinal cord) + itis (inflammation)Melanocytes Melano/o (black) + cytes (cells)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Suffixes</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes Suffix = word ending that modifies a rootModifies the meaning of the rootMay indicate a noun or adjectiveUsually indicates procedure, condition, disorder, or disease.</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Tonsill/o means tonsils. A suffix completes the word and tells what is happening to the tonsils.</p><p>Tonsillitis.tonsill (tonsil) + itis (inflammation).Tonsillectomy tonsill (tonsil) + ectomy (surgical removal).</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Some suffixes change the word root into an adjective.Cardiac cardi/o (heart) + ac (pertaining to).Some suffixes change the word root into a noun.Cranium crani (skull) + um (noun ending). </p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Suffixes Meaning Abnormal Conditionosis means an abnormal condition or diseaseGastrosis means any disease of the stomach</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Suffixes Related to Pathology algia means painGastralgiadynia means painGastrodyniaitis means inflammationGastritismalacia means abnormal softeningArteriomalacia </p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Suffixes Related to PathologyMegaly means enlargementHepatomegalyNecrosis means tissue deathArterionecrosis Sclerosis means abnormal hardeningArteriosclerosisStenosis means abnormal narrowingArteriostenosis </p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Suffixes Related to Procedures centesis surgical puncture to remove fluidAbdominocentesisectomy surgical removalAppendectomy </p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Suffixes Related to Procedures graphy means the process of recording a picture or recordArteriographygram - a record or pictureArteriogram</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)The Double RRsrrhage and rrhagia mean abnormal excessive fluid discharge or bleedingHemorrhagerrhaphy to stitchAneurysmorraphy rrhea abnormal flow or dischargeDiarrhearrhexis rupturemyorrexis </p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Words Ending in xChange x to c or g when adding a suffixPharynx (throat) becomes pharyngeal (fa-RIN-je-al) (pertaining to the throat)Thorax (chest) becomes thoracotomy (thor-a-KOT-o-me) (an incision into the chest)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Look-alike Sound-alike Terms and Word PartsArteri/o = arteryAther/o = plaque or fatty substanceArthr/o = joint</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Look-alike Sound-alike Terms and Word PartsIleum = part of small intestineIlium = part of the hip bone</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Suffixes (contd)Look-alike Sound-alike Terms and Word PartsMucous adjective that describes specialized mucous membranes that line the body cavities.Mucus a noun and the name of the substance secreted by the mucous membranes.</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Adjective SuffixesAdjective endings meaning pertaining to or resembling include:-ac as in cardiac-form as in muciform-ory as in respiratoryNo rules for which ending to use with a given noun</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Forming PluralsSpecial plural formsWords ending in a carry plural ending ae:Gingiva vs. gingivaeWords ending in is carry plural ending es:Diagnosis vs. diagnoses</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Some Exceptions to the RulesPlural of virus is virusesPlural of serums is seraPlural of carcinoma is carcinomata</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Prefixes </p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*PrefixesPrefix = short word part added before a word root to modify the meaningUni- (one) + lateral = unilateral (affecting or involving one side)Contra- (against) + lateral = contralateral (opposite side)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes (contd)Prefixes usually indicate location, time or number.Natal means pertaining to(al) + birth (nat).Prenatal means time &amp; events before birth.Perinatal means time and events just before, during, &amp; after birth.Postnatal means time &amp; event after birth.</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes for NumbersMono = 1; Uni = 1Bi = 2 Di = 2Tri = 3Quad = 4Nulli = noneHemi = half Multi = many Poly = many Semi = partial or half</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes for NumbersPrim/i- = firstprimitive (occurring first in time)Bi- = two, twicebicuspid (a tooth with two points)Tetra- = fourtetrahedron (a figure with four surfaces)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes for ColorsCyan/o- = bluecyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen)Leuk/o- = white, colorlessleukoplakia (white patches in the mouth)Xanth/o- = yellowxanthodermia (yellow discoloration of the skin)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Negative PrefixesA-, an- = not; withoutaseptic (free of infectious organisms)Dis- = absence, removal, separationdissect (to separate tissues for anatomical study)Non- = notnoninfectious (not able to spread disease)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes for DirectionAd- = toward; nearadhere (to attach or stick together)Per- = throughpercutaneous (through the skin)Trans- = throughtransfusion (introduction of blood or blood components into the blood stream)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes for DegreeHyper- = over, excess, abnormally highhyperventilation (excess breathing)Hypo- = under; belowhypoxia (decreased oxygen in the tissues)Super- = above, excesssupernumerary (in excess number)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes for Size and ComparisonIso- = equal, sameisograft (graft between two genetically identical individuals)Micro- = smallmicroscopic (extremely small; visible only through a microscope)Re- = again; backregurgitation (backward or return flow)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes for Time and/or PositionAnte- = beforeantenatal (before birth)Pro- = before, in front ofprodrome (symptom that precedes a disease)Post- = after, behindpostmenopausal (after menopause)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Prefixes for PositionEc-, ecto- = out; outsideexcise (to cut out)End/o = in; withinendoscope (device for viewing the inside of a cavity or organ)Mes/o- = middlemesencephalon (midbrain)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Combining Form</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Combining Form</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Combining Form (contd)Combining VowelIt is usually an oIt is between two root wordsIt can be between a root word and a suffixIt eases pronunciationWhen combining a word root and a suffix, if suffix begins with vowel a combining vowel is not necessary. For example gastr/ectomy.When connecting two root words the o is used even if the second root begins with a vowel, example: gastroenteritis.</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Combining Form (contd)Insert an o before a suffix beginning with a consonant when added to a root-logy = study ofNeur = nerve or nervous systemNeur + o + logy = neurology (study of the nervous system)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Combining Form (contd)Roots shown with a combining vowel are called combining formsVowels added after a slashCalled rootsNeur/oCombining vowel omitted if suffix begins with a vowelNeur + it is = neuritis (inflammation of a nerve)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Combining Form (contd)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Word DerivationsMost word parts derived from Greek (G) and Latin (L)Muscle is Latin for mouseCoccyx named for the cuckoos bill</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*PronunciationUse phonetic pronunciations providedRepeat words aloud Pronunciations may change when parts are combined</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Pronunciation (cont)Vowels with no pronunciation marks get short pronunciationa as in hatShort line over vowel gives it long pronunciationa as in sayAccented syllable indicated with capital letters</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Soft and Hard c and gSoft c, as in racer = (RA-ser)Hard c, as in candy = (KAN-de)</p><p>Soft g, as in page, written as j = (paj)Hard g, as in grow = (gro)</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*Silent Letters and Unusual PronunciationsGnathic = (NATH-ic)Pertaining to the jawApnea = (AP-ne-a)Cessation of breathNephroptosis = (nef-rop-TO-sis)Dropping of the kidney</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*SymbolsUsed as shorthand in case histories = right = increase</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*AbbreviationsCan save time May cause confusion Acronym = abbreviation formed from first letter of each word in a phraseASAP = as soon as possible</p><p>Leg@2007</p></li><li><p>Leg@2007*</p><p>Leg@2007</p><p>*Leg@2007*Leg@2007*Leg@2007*Leg@2007*Leg@2007*Leg@2007</p></li></ul>