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Teach Yourself Swahili © Hassan O. Ali & Ali M. Mazrui August 3, 2004

Teach Yourself Swahili

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Teach Yourself Swahili Hassan O. Ali & Ali M. MazruiAugust 3, 2004

ContentsABOUT THIS COURSE.............................................................................................................................. 1 ABOUT SWAHILI....................................................................................................................................... 1 LESSON 1: LESSON 2: ALPHABET ..................................................................................................................... 3 PRONUNCIATION GUIDE........................................................................................... 3

VOWELS ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 SYLLABLES ................................................................................................................................................. 3 SAME SOUND AS IN ENGLISH: F, H , L, M, N, S, V, W, Y, Z ............................................................................. 4 HARD CONSONANTS: B, D, G, J................................................................................................................. 4 ROLLING R .............................................................................................................................................. 4 TWO-CONSONANT COMBINATIONS: CH, DH, GH, KH, MB, MY, ND, NG, NG, NJ, NY, SH, TH, VY .................... 5 TWO DISTICT SOUNDS: CH, K, P, T ............................................................................................................... 5 ADDITION OF W....................................................................................................................................... 6 LESSON 3: LESSON 4: LESSON 5: LETTER SOUNDS .......................................................................................................... 7 SYLLABLE SOUNDS ................................................................................................... 12 EMPHASIS..................................................................................................................... 13

TEST YOURSELF 1 .................................................................................................................................. 14 LESSON 6: LESSON 7: LESSON 8: LESSON 9: LESSON 10: PERSONAL PRONOUNS ............................................................................................ 15 PREFIXES THE BASICS.......................................................................................... 15 PREFIXES FOR PRONOUNS AND TENSES ........................................................... 17 VERBS ............................................................................................................................ 19 SENTENCE EXAMPLES............................................................................................. 20

TEST YOURSELF 2 .................................................................................................................................. 27 LESSON 11: LESSON 12: LESSON 13: LESSON 14: LESSON 15: LESSON 16: LESSON 17: LESSON 18: LESSON 19: LESSON 20: LESSON 21: LESSON 22: LESSON 23: LESSON 24: GREETINGS.................................................................................................................. 28 SELF-INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 28 ASKING FOR DIRECTION ........................................................................................ 29 ASKING FOR HELP .................................................................................................... 30 RELATIONS.................................................................................................................. 30 HUMAN BODY PARTS ............................................................................................... 31 FOOD.............................................................................................................................. 32 NUMBERS ..................................................................................................................... 33 DAYS OF THE WEEK ................................................................................................. 35 TIME............................................................................................................................... 35 CLOTHES AND ADORNMENT ................................................................................. 37 ANIMALS AND INSECTS........................................................................................... 38 PROFESSIONS.............................................................................................................. 46 COURTESY AND EMERGENCY .............................................................................. 46

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LESSON 25: LESSON 26: LESSON 27: LESSON 28: LESSON 29:

ENTERTAINMENT...................................................................................................... 47 HOME............................................................................................................................. 48 OFFICE .......................................................................................................................... 49 TRAVEL......................................................................................................................... 50 SHOPPING..................................................................................................................... 51

DICTIONARY............................................................................................................................................ 52

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Teach Yourself SwahiliHassan O. Ali & Ali M. Mazrui

ABOUT THIS COURSEThis is a unique Teach Yourself Swahili course. We have designed it to give you a very easy way to learn to speak, read, and even write Swahili words correctly. It gives you the ability to learn new Swahili words not only by the way they are written, but also with correct pronunciation. We have made great efforts to provide in this course many useful Swahili words that you will sure find handy in many practical situations. Just click on the words written in blue1 to listen to the way the words are correctly pronounced. We hope youll enjoy this course!

ABOUT SWAHILIFirst of all, is it Swahili or Kiswahili? Its both! Its Swahili if you say it in English, and Kiswahili if you say it in Swahili. The following example will make it more clear. The language spoken in France is French in English, Franais in French, and Kifaransa in Swahili. Calling the language spoken in Tanzania, Kiswahili, while speaking in English is like calling the language spoken in France, Franais, while speaking in Swahili instead of Kifaransa. Now, what is this language called Swahili? It belongs to a family of Bantu (African) languages spoken mostly in eastern, central, and southern Africa. Due to historical reasons, it has borrowed heavily from Arabic, Persian, Kutchi (Indian), and English languages. It has also borrowed to a lesser extent from other languages such as German, and Portuguese. While the vocabulary is of mixed origins, the language syntax and grammar is purely Bantu. For centuries, Swahili remained as the language of the people of the East African coast. In fact the word Swahili itself was originally used by early Arab visitors to the coast and it means "the coast". Ultimately it came to be applied to the people and the language. Long-time interactions with other people bordering the Indian Ocean spread the Swahili language to distant places such as on the islands of Comoro and Madagascar and even far beyond to South Africa, Oman and United Arab Emirates. Trade and migration from thePronunciation of the words is provided only in the Teach Yourself Swahili CD that can be ordered from http://www.glcom.com/swahili/lessons/teach_yourself_swahili.html for only US$25. This document represents the CD content minus the sound.1

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Swahili coast during the nineteenth-century helped spread the language to the interior of particularly Tanzania. It also reached Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Central African Republic, and Mozambique. Christian missionaries adopted Swahili as the language of communication to spread the Gospel in Eastern Africa. So, the missionaries also helped to spread the language. As a matter of fact the first Swahili-English dictionary was prepared by a missionary. During the colonial time, Swahili was used for communication with the local inhabitants. Hence the colonial administrators pioneered the effort of standardizing the Swahili language. Zanzibar was the epicenter of culture and commerce. For that reason, colonial administrators selected the dialect of the Zanzibar (Unguja) town as the Standard Swahili. The Unguja dialect (Kiunguja) was then used for all formal communication such as in schools, in mass media (newspapers and radio), in books and other publications. Now Swahili is spoken in many countries of eastern, central, and southern Africa. For Tanzania, deliberate efforts were made by the independent nation to promote the language (thanks to the efforts of the former head of state, Julius K. Nyerere). Tanzania's special relations with countries of southern Africa was the main reason behind the spread of Swahili to Zambia, Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries to the south. Swahili is the national as well as the official language of Tanzania - almost all Tanzanians speak Swahili proficiently and are unified by it. In Kenya and Uganda, it is the national language, but official correspondence is still conducted in English. Swahili is the most widely spoken language of eastern Africa. It is one of the languages that feature in some world radio stations such as, the BBC, Radio Cairo (Egypt), the Voice of America (U.S.A.), Radio Deutschewelle (Germany), Radio Moscow International (Russia), Radio Japan International, Radio China International, Radio Sudan, and Radio South Africa. The Swahili language is also making its presence in the art world - in songs, theatres, movies and television programs. For example, the lyrics for the song titled Liberian girl by Michael Jackson have Swahili phrases: "Nakupenda pia, nakutaka pia, mpenzi we!" (I love you, and I want you, my dear!). The wellcelebrated Disney movie, "The Lion King" featured several Swahili words, for example "simba" (lion), "rafiki" (friend), as the names of the characters. The Swahili phrase "hakuna matata" (No troubles or no problems) was also used in that movie. The promotion of the Swahili language is not only in its use but also deliberate efforts are made throughout the world to include it in education curriculums for higher institutions of learning. It is taught in many parts of the world.

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LESSON 1:

ALPHABET

The Swahili language doesnt have its own alphabet. It was originally written using the Arabic alphabet. For the sounds missing in the Arabic alphabet like CH and G, Farsi characters were used. Later on in history, the colonial rulers in East Africa and Christian missionaries started to write Swahili words using the English alphabet. Swahili words can be written fully using the English alphabet. Some sounds are represented by letter combinations just like in English. For example, the TH letter combination in Swahili sounds the same way as in the English word THINK. No words, however, use letters Q, X, and lone C. Letter C only appears in a CH letter combination that sounds like in the English word CHURCH.

LESSON 2:

PRONUNCIATION GUIDE

Swahili pronunciation is extremely easy. Youll learn in this lesson how syllables are constructed in Swahili and how to pronounce them. Well start our lesson with vowels the most important building blocks of most Swahili syllables.

VowelsVowels are called vokali in Swahili. They are, a, e, i, o, u - just as in English, but pronounced a little differently. In every Swahili word the vowels make exactly the same sounds no exception what-so-ever! For example, in English, the vowel e sounds differently in words Peter and elephant. Its not like that in Swahili. Vowel e in every word sounds like e as in elephant.

SyllablesSyllables in Swahili are made of vowels alone, or combinations of consonants and vowels. The exception is with letters m and n which form syllables just by themselves in some words e.g. mtu (person), nchi (country). Swahili people dont like hanging consonants consonants that are not followed by vowels. Therefore, if your name is John with a hanging n, theyll call you Joni with a vowel i added at the end. If youre Bruce with a hanging s sound theyll call you Brusi. If youre Rose with a hanging z sound theyll call you Rozi. Of course the Arabic name Salim becomes Salimu. You have to watchout if your name is Cook or Cooke because they will call you Kuku which actually means chicken in Swahili! The most common consonants that can be forgiven to appear in a hanging state are f, k, l, m, n, and s, appearing in the middle. For

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example, afya (health), maktaba (library), almasi (diamond), mamlaka (authority), mantiki (logic), and mstari (line).

Same sound as in English: f, h , l, m, n, s, v, w, y, zThe above-listed letters make exactly the same sounds as in English: f h l m n s v w y z farasi (horse), fedha (silver), figo (kidney), foronya (pillow-case), kifua (chest) hatari (danger), hewa (air), historia (history), hoteli (hotel), huduma (service) saladi (salad), leseni (license), limau (lemon), lozi (almond), lugha (language) maji (water), meza (table), mimi (I), moja (one), muhimu (important) nazi (coconut), nane (eight), nani (who), neno (word), nusu (half) safari (journey), serikali (government), siri (secret), sokwe (chimpanzee), kasuku (parrot) vanila (vanilla), veli (veil), vita (war), volkano (volcano), vumbi (dust) watu (people), wembe (razor blade), wiki (week), woga (fear) yaya (maid), yeye (he/she), yeyote (anyone), yunifomu (uniform) zabibu (grape), zege (concrete), ziwa (lake), zoezi (exercise), zulia (carpet)

Hard consonants: b, d, g, jThe above four letters make sounds that are slightly different from English. They are pronounced in a hard way rather than the English soft way. For example, the word for father should correctly be pronounced as baba, not baba. The word for boat is boti, not boti. The word for sister is dada, not dada. The word for cheetah is duma, not duma. The word for car is gari, not gari. The word for knee is goti, not goti. The word for yesterday is jana, not jana. The word for jinni is jini not jini.

Rolling rThe letter r is always pronounced with a rolling tongue. For example, rangi (color), redio (radio), habari (news), robo (quarter), rubani (pilot).

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Two-consonant combinations: ch, dh, gh, kh, mb, my, nd, ng, ng, nj, ny, sh, th, vySome Swahili sounds are created using two-consonant combinations as listed above. The following are examples of words with those consonant combinations: ch dh gh kh mb my nd ng ng nj ny sh th vy chakula (food), cheche (spark), chizi (cheese), choo (toilet), chupi (underwear) dhahabu (gold), fedheha (shame), dhiki (hardship), dhoruba (storm), dhumna (domino) ghali (expensive), ghorofa (storey), ghuba (gulf), Alkhamisi (Thursday) mbali (far), mbegu (seed), mbili (two), mboga (vegetable), mbuzi (goat) kimya (quiet) ndama (calf), ndevu (beard), ndizi (banana), ndoto (dream), bunduki (gun) ngamia (camel), kengele (bell), ngisi (squid), ngome (fort), nguva (mermaid) ninginiza (hang), ngombe (cow), mungunye (squash) njaa (hunger), njegere (green peas), njiwa (dove), njozi (dream), njugu (peanuts) nyama (meat), nyeti (sensitive), nyika (bush), nyoka (snake), nyumba (house) shavu (cheek), sheria (law), shingo (neck), shoka (axe), shule (school) thamani (value), theluji (snow), ithibati (proof), kitunguu-thomu (garlic), thuluthi (one-third) vyama (parties), vyema (well), vyovyote (anyhow), vyuma (pieces of iron)

Two distict sounds: ch, k, p, tLetter combination ch, and letters k, p, and t have two distinct sound formats in Swahili. One format is light and the other is heavy. The light format is exactly the same as in English. That is, ch as in chat, k as in keep, p as in put, and t as in take. The heavy format can easily be understood through examples. In English it is chat, not chat; keep, not keep; put, not put; take, not take. However, in Swahili both two sound formats exist and give different meanings to words that have otherwise same spellings. See example below: Light changu (snapper fish) kaa (crab), mkunga (midwife) paa (deer), pima (two-arm length) taa (rayfish) Heavy changu (mine) kaa (charcoal), mkunga (eel) paa (roof), pima (measure) taa (lamp/light)

ch k p t

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Addition of wLetter w can be added to some consonants and consonant combinations to give some interesting sounds. The following are the possible combinations: bw, chw, gw, jw, kw, lw, mbw, mw, ndw, ngw, ngw, njw, nyw, pw, shw, sw, tw, zw. Syllables made up of those consonant combinations rarely carry vowels o and u. The table below provides some word examples for those letter combinations: Bwana (Mister), bweha (jackal), chubwi (sinker) kichwa (head), uachwe (you should be freed), huachwi (you wont be freed) amepigwa (he/she has been beaten), apigwe (he/she should be beaten), hapigwi (he/she wont be beaten) jw ametajwa (he/she has been named), atajwe (he/she should be named), hatajwi (he/she wont be named) kw kwapa (armpit), kweli (true), kwikwi (hiccup) lw Kilwa (Kilwa name of a town in Tanzania) mbw mbweu (burp) mw mwaka (year), mwezi (month/moon), mwili (body) ndw ninapendwa (Im loved), nipendwe (so that I get loved), sipendwi (Im not loved) ngw Imetungwa (Its been authored), kongwe (very old), haijengwi (it wont be built) ngw ngwafua (bite forcefully), ngwengwe (big shot/big boss) njw ugonjwa (disease), isionjwe (It should not be tasted) nyw kinywaji (a drink), nywele (hair), sinywi (I dont drink), pw pwani (by the acean/coastal), pweza (octopus), kupwita (to pulsate) shw imepitishwa (it has been passed), ipitishwe (it has to be passed), haipitishwi (it will not be passed) sw swala (impala), sweta (sweater), swichi (switch) tw kutwa (all day), tweka (set sail), twiga (giraffe) zw kuongozwa (to be led), niongezwe (I should be given more), siongezwi (I wont be given more) bw chw gw

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LESSON 3:

LETTER SOUNDS

Here is a list of various Swahili letters and letter combinations with distinct sounds. Please click on the words written in blue to learn how they sound like in Swahili. A Almasi (Diamond) B Bakuli (Bowl) CH Chungwa (Orange) CH Chui (Leopard)

D Darubini (Microscope)

DH Dhumna (Domino)

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E Embe (Mango)

F Farasi (Horse)

G Gari (Car)

GH Ghuba (Gulf)

H Herini (Earring)

I Iliki (Cardamom)

J Jicho (Eye)

K Kufuli (Padlock)

K Kuku (Chicken)

KH Khamis

L Lozi (Almond)

Name of a person

M Mende (Cockroach)

M Mdomo (Mouth)

MB Mbwa (Dog)

MB Mbuni (Ostrich)

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N Nanasi (Pineapple)

ND Ndizi (Banana)

NG Ngoma (Drum)

NG Nge (Scorpion)

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NG Ngombe (Cow)

NJ Njia (Road)

NY Nyati (Buffalo)

O Ofisi (Office)

P Paa (Roof)

P Paa (Deer)

R Roketi (Rocket)

S Simu (Telephone)

SH Shati (Shirt)

T Taa (Lamp/Light)

T Taa (Rayfish)

TH Theluji (Snow)

U Ufunguo (Key)

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V Volkano (Volcano)

W Waridi (Rose)

Y Yai (Egg)

Z Zulia (Carpet)

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LESSON 4:

SYLLABLE SOUNDS

Here is a list of the syllables made up of one or two consonants and vowels. Please click on the syllables to hear how they sound like. A E I O U B BA BE BI BO BU CH CHA CHE CHI CHO CHU CH CHA CHE CHI CHO CHU D DA DE DI DO DU DH DHA DHE DHI DHO DHU F FA FE FI FO FU G GA GE GI GO GU GH GHA GHE GHI GHO GHU H HA HE HI HO HU J JA JE JI JO JU K KA KE KI KO KU K KA KE KI KO KU KH KHA KHE KHI KHO KHU L LA LE LI LO LU M MA ME MI MO MU MB MBA MBE MBI MBO MBU N NA NE NI NO NU ND NDA NDE NDI NDO NDU NG NGA NGE NGI NGO NGU NG NGA NGE NGI NGO NGU NJ NJA NJE NJI NJO NJU NY NYA NYE NYI NYO NYU P PA PE PI PO PU P PA PE PI PO PU R RA RE RI RO RU S SA SE SI SO SU SH SHA SHE SHI SHO SHU T TA TE TI TO TU T TA TE TI TO TU TH THA THE THI THO THU V VA VE VI VO VU W WA WE WI WO WU Y YA YE YI YO YU Z ZA ZE ZI ZO ZU

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Here is a list of all the three- and four-letter syllables including letter W. Please click on them to learn how to pronounce them. A BWA CHWA CHWA GWA JWA KWA KWA LWA MWA MBWA NDWA NGWA NGWA NJWA NYWA PWA PWA SWA SHWA TWA ZWA E BWE CHWE CHWE GWE JWE KWE KWE LWE MWE MBWE NDWE NGWE NGWE NJWE NYWE PWE PWE SWE SHWE TWE ZWE I BWI CHWI CHWI GWI JWI KWI KWI LWI MWI MBWI NDWI NGWI NGWI NJWI NYWI PWI PWI SWI SHWI TWI ZWI

B CH CH G J K K L M MB ND NG NG NJ NY P P S SH T Z

LESSON 5:

EMPHASIS

Emphasis (stress) in Swahili words is so simple to understand. For most words, use the following simple rule: No stress except on the last but one syllable. Of course, in twosyllable words, the first syllable has to be stressed! Here are some examples: WORD Habari! Samaki Ninakula Sitaki Tanzania Mama Sikiliza! Marekani Sigara MEANING Hello! Fish Im eating I dont want An East African country (Wrong pronunciation: Tanzania) Mother Listen! United States of America Cigarette

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TEST YOURSELF 1Pronounce the following words. Click on them to check if you were correct. WORD Hujambo? Sijambo! Hakuna matata! Sina chochote! Ninakupenda Hongera! Jina lako nani? Mnyanganye Ninginiza MEANING Are you fine? Im fine No problem! Ive got nothing! I love you Congratulations! Whats your name? Snatch it off from him Hang it

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LESSON 6:PERSON First Second Third

PERSONAL PRONOUNSSINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH I Mimi You Wewe He/She Yeye PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH We Sisi You Nyinyi They Wao

LESSON 7:

PREFIXES THE BASICS

This lesson provides the basic information needed for sentence construction. Most sentences need verbs. But verbs are a different can of worms in Swahili. And we mean that literally! Swahili verbs are sticky parasites just like worms! They have no life just by themselves. They have to attach themselves to other things to make sense (in life). In Swahili, we call those poor things viambishi, in plural, and kiambishi in singular. Viambishi literally means attachments which in English are referred to as prefixes, affixes, or suffixes depending on where they appear at the beginning of the word, in the middle, or at the end. For the sake of simplicity, well continue to use viambishi in plural and kiambishi in singular in this course whenever we refer to prefixes, affixes, and suffixes. Viambishi modify verbs in many ways. Primarily they modify verbs to show the subject, the tense, and the object of a sentence. They also modify other parts of speech such as adjectives and possessives to agree with the nouns and pronouns used in the sentence. Viambishi vary with words associated with different classes of nouns. Different noun classes go with different sets of viambishi. Noun classification itself is not very straight forward in Swahili. There are various ways that Swahili nouns have been classified. Generally the classes are determined by the way the nouns are spoken in singular and plural. Unfortunately there are no short cuts for new Swahili speakers. In most cases they just have to know how to speak Swahili words both in singular and plural. Thats why we took efforts to include plural forms of various useful words in various lessons of this course. We list down below, simplified Swahili noun classes just to show the variation and agreement in viambishi that go with them. In the example sentences, viambishi related to the considered noun class are marked in red.

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NOUN CLASS

M-WA

M-MI

JI-MA

SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH Mtu mrefu amekuja A tall person has come Your small child is Mtoto wako mdogo crying analia You are my guest Wewe ni mgeni wangu Nimechukua mkoba Im carrying a big bag mkubwa A nice town Mji mzuri A horses leg Mguu wa farasi A red eye Jicho jekundu Jina lako silijui I dont know your name Jani pana la mgomba A wide banana leaf Kichwa chake kikubwa Kijiko cha dhahabu Kitabu cha hadithi Ndizi yangu mbivu Nazi hii ya nani? Nyumba ya waziri Ukuta wa Berlin Uzi mrefu wa hariri Ubao wangu Umekaa mahali pangu Mahali pazuri pa kupumzikia Ulipopapata ni pakubwa sana Utanikuta nyumbani kwangu Akili kichwani kwako! Kwake kuzuri His head is big A golden spoon A story book My ripe banana Whose coconut is this? A ministers house The Berlin wall A long silk thread My board You are seating on my place A nice resting place

KI-VI

N

U

PA

KU

MU

Youve achieved a lot You will meet me at my house Brain in your head! (Think about it!) His/Her place is nice Ninakupenda moyoni I love you in my heart mwangu

PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH Tall persons have Watu warefu come wamekuja Your small children Watoto wako are crying wadogo wanalia You are my guests Nyinyi ni wageni wangu Im carrying big Nimechukua bags mikoba mikubwa Nice towns Miji mizuri Horses legs Miguu ya farasi Red eyes Macho mekundu I dont your names Majina yenu siyajui Majani mapana ya Wide banana leaves mgomba Their heads are big Vichwa vyao vikubwa Golden spoons Vijiko vya dhahabu Vitabu vya hadithi Story books Ndizi zangu mbivu My ripe bananas Whose coconuts are Nazi hizi za nani? these? Ministers houses Nyumba za waziri Berlin walls Kuta za Berlin Long silk threads Nyuzi ndefu za hariri My boards Mbao zangu You are seating on Mmekaa mwahali my places mwangu Nice resting places Mwahali muzuri mwa kupumzikia Youve achieved a Mlimomupata ni lot mukubwa sana You will meet me at Utanikuta nyumbani mwangu my houses Brain in your heads! Akili vichwani (Think about it!) mwenu! His/Her places are Mwake muzuri nice We love you in our Tunakupenda hearts mioyoni mwetu

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Mwako au mwangu mote sawa tu! Damu imo mwilini mwangu

In your place or in my place, all the same! Blood is in my body

Mwenu au mwetu mote sawa tu! Damu imo mwilini mwetu

In your places or in our places, all the same! Blood is in our bodies

LESSON 8:

PREFIXES FOR PRONOUNS AND TENSES

As mentioned above, viambishi (prefixes) vary with different classes of nouns and their respective pronouns. The easiest to understand is the way viambishi change with pronouns. In this section well discuss viambishi for personal pronouns of the M-WA noun class and those for most common tenses. This lesson is intended to provide a general sense of how viambishi work in Swahili. Viambishi for the personal pronouns of the M-WA noun class are shown in the table below. SINGULAR SUBJECT OBJECTSWAHILI ENGLISH SWAHILI ENGLISH

PLURAL SUBJECTSWAHILI ENGLISH

PERSON First Second Third

OBJECTSWAHILI

ENGLISH

niua-

I you he/she

-ni-ku-m-

me you him/her

tumwa-

we you they

-tu-wa-wa-

us you them

Viambishi that show the tense of a sentence do not vary with nouns and pronouns. They, obviously, only change with tense as shown below. TENSE KIAMBISHI Past -liPresent Perfect -mePresent -naPresent Continuous -naFuture -ta-

Did we say verbs are a different can of worms in Swahili? Yes we did! And if you didnt believe us here are some more facts about verbs and viambishi that may knock your sox off! Viambishi for subject and tense actually change when used to express a negative action. Well show examples of that in a moment but at this point just mark in the two tables below, viambishi for personal pronouns associated with negative actions.

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PERSON First Second Third TENSE KIAMBISHI Past -ku-

KIAMBISHI FOR SUBJECT SINGULAR PLURALSWAHILI ENGLISH SWAHILI ENGLISH

sihuhaPresent Perfect -ja-

I you he/she

hatuhamhawa-

we you they Present Continuous -i Future -ta-

Present -i

For negative actions, sometimes kiambishi, -to-, is used instead of -ta-, to show the future tense. For example, sitopenda (I will not like) instead of sitapenda (I will not like). Also note that when the subject is the same as the object, the kiambishi for object is always -ji-, for all pronouns for positive and negative actions. And lastly, also note that for the present tense, showing a habitual (everyday) action, only kiambishi hu- is normally used to serve both the tense and all forms of subjects. Usually, the actual noun or pronoun would precede the verb to show the subject of the sentence. For example, Mimi hupenda kusoma (I like to read); Watoto hupenda kucheza (Children like to play). Dont worry if its all fuzzy for you now. It will become clearer when we review several examples.

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LESSON 9:

VERBS

Believe it or not, with the knowledge of viambishi you gained in LESSON 8:, you are ready to start creating your own Swahili sentences. But, wait a minute! Most sentences need verbs, and we havent learned a single verb yet! So, its now the right time to introduce verbs. Since Swahili verbs are parasites, it would be difficult to learn stand-alone verbs. For that reason, well introduce here, some common verbs in the infinitive form. Observe kiambishi, ku, at the beginning of each word. This kiambishi is used with the infinitive form of verbs. When you remove ku, the remaining part is the root of the verb. It is this root of the verb viambishi attach to in different circumstances. SWAHILI kuweza kununua kuja kupika kulia kunywa kula kuhisi kupa kutoa kuenda/kwenda kusikia kucheka kupenda kusikiliza kutazama kutafuta kulipa ENGLISH to be able to buy to come to cook to cry to drink to eat to feel to give to give out to go to hear to laugh to like/to love to listen to look at to look for to pay SWAHILI kusoma kutoa kusema kuona kuuza kukaa kulala kusema kusimama kufikiri kusafiri kuamka kutembea kutaka kuosha kutazama/kuangalia kufanyakazi kuandika ENGLISH to read to remove to say to see to sell to sit to sleep to speak to stand up to think to travel to wake up to walk to want to wash to watch to work to write

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LESSON 10:

SENTENCE EXAMPLES

Armed with the knowledge of viambishi, and some verbs, were now ready to construct our first Swahili sentences! Lets start with positive sentences using the verb soma (read). In the tables below, viambishi for subject are in red and those for tense are in green. FIRST PERSON SINGULAR TENSE SWAHILI ENGLISH I read a book Past Nilisoma kitabu I have read a Present Perfect Nimesoma book kitabu Present Ninasoma kitabu I read a book Present Ninasoma kitabu I am reading a book Continuous Future Nitasoma kitabu I will read a book SECOND PERSON SINGULAR TENSE SWAHILI ENGLISH You read a book Past Ulisoma kitabu You have read a Present Perfect Umesoma kitabu book Present Unasoma kitabu You read a book You are reading a Present Unasoma kitabu book Continuous You will read a Future Utasoma kitabu book THIRD PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH He/She read a Past Alisoma kitabu book He/She has read a Present Perfect Amesoma kitabu book He/She reads a Present Anasoma kitabu book He/She is reading Present Anasoma kitabu a book Continuous He/She will read Future Atasoma kitabu a book TENSE FIRST PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH We read a book Tulisoma kitabu We have read a book Tumesoma kitabu Tunasoma kitabu We read a book Tunasoma kitabu We are reading a book Tutasoma kitabu We will read a book SECOND PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH You read a book Mlisoma kitabu You have read a Mmesoma kitabu book Mnasoma kitabu You read a book You are reading a Mnasoma kitabu book Mtasoma kitabu You will read a book

THIRD PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH Walisoma kitabu Wamesoma kitabu Wanasoma kitabu Wanasoma kitabu Watasoma kitabu They read a book They have read a book They read a book They are reading a book They will read a book

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And now, lets make some negative sentences using the same verb soma: FIRST PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH I didnt read a Past Sikusoma kitabu book I have not read a Present Perfect Sijasoma kitabu book I dont read a Present Sisomi kitabu book I am not reading a Present Sisomi kitabu book Continuous I will not read a Future Sitasoma kitabu book TENSE SECOND PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH You didnt read a Hukusoma Past book kitabu You have not Hujasoma Present Perfect read a book kitabu You dont read a Present Husomi kitabu book You are not Present Husomi kitabu reading a book Continuous You will not read Hutasoma Future a book kitabu TENSE THIRD PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH He/She didnt Hakusoma read a book kitabu He/She has not Hajasoma kitabu read a book He/She doesnt Hasomi kitabu read a book He/She is not Hasomi kitabu reading a book He/She will not Hatasoma kitabu read a book FIRST PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH We didnt read a Hatukusoma book kitabu We have not read a Hatujasoma book kitabu We dont read a Hatusomi kitabu book We are not reading a Hatusomi kitabu book We will not read a Hatutasoma book kitabu SECOND PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH You didnt read a Hamkusoma book kitabu You have not read a Hamjasoma book kitabu You dont read a Hamsomi kitabu book You are not reading a Hamsomi kitabu book We will not read a Hamtasoma book kitabu THIRD PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH They didnt read a Hawakusoma book kitabu They have not read a Hawajasoma book kitabu They dont read a Hawasomi kitabu book They are not reading Hawasomi kitabu a book They will not read a Hawatasoma book kitabu

TENSE Past Present Perfect Present Present Continuous Future

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Lets now have a little more difficult example. This one will have a regular verb penda (like) and an infinitive kusema (to speak). Well start with positive sentences. FIRST PERSON SINGULAR TENSE SWAHILI ENGLISH I liked to Past Nilipenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili I have liked to Present Nimependa speak Swahili kusema Perfect Kiswahili I like to speak Present Ninapenda Swahili kusema Kiswahili I am liking to Present Ninapenda speak Swahili Continuous kusema Kiswahili I will like to Future Nitapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili FIRST PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH We liked to speak Tulipenda Swahili kusema Kiswahili We have liked to Tumependa speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili We like to speak Tunapenda Swahili kusema Kiswahili We are liking to Tunapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili We will like to Tutapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili SECOND PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH You liked to Mlipenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You have liked Mmependa to speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You like to speak Mnapenda Swahili kusema Kiswahili You are liking to Mnapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You will like to Mtapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili

SECOND PERSON SINGULAR TENSE SWAHILI ENGLISH You liked to Past Ulipenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You have liked Present Umependa to speak Swahili Perfect kusema Kiswahili You like to Present Unapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You are liking to Present Unapenda speak Swahili Continuous kusema Kiswahili You will like to Future Utapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili

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THIRD PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH He/She liked to Alipenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili He/She has liked Present Amependa to speak Swahili kusema Perfect Kiswahili H/She likes to Present Anapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili He/She is liking Present Anapenda to speak Swahili Continuous kusema Kiswahili He/She will like Future Atapenda to speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili TENSE Past And now the corresponding negative sentences:

THIRD PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH They liked to Walipenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili They have liked Wamependa to speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili They like to Wanapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili They are liking Wanapenda to speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili They will like to Watapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili

TENSE Past

Present Perfect Present

FIRST PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH I didnt like to Sikupenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili I have not liked to Sijapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili Sipendi kusema I dont like to speak Swahili Kiswahili I am not liking to speak Swahili I will not like to speak Swahili

Sipendi kusema Present Continuous Kiswahili Future Sitapenda kusema Kiswahili

FIRST PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH We didnt like to Hatukupenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili We have not liked Hatujapenda to speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili We dont like to Hatupendi speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili We are not liking to Hatupendi speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili We will not like to Hatutapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili

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SECOND PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH You didnt like to Hukupenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You have not liked Present Hujapenda to speak Swahili kusema Perfect Kiswahili You dont like to Present Hupendi speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You are not liking Present Hupendi to speak Swahili Continuous kusema Kiswahili You will not like to Future Hutapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili TENSE Past THIRD PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH He/She didnt like Hakupenda to speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili He/She has not Hajapenda liked to speak kusema Swahili Kiswahili Hapendi kusema He/She doesnt like to speak Swahili Kiswahili

SECOND PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH You didnt like to Hamkupenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You have not liked Hamjapenda to speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You dont like to Hampendi speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You are not liking Hampendi to speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili You will not like to Hamtapenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili

THIRD PERSON PLURAL TENSE SWAHILI ENGLISH They didnt like to Past Hawakupenda speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili They have not liked Present Hawajapenda to speak Swahili Perfect kusema Kiswahili They dont like to Present Hawapendi speak Swahili kusema Kiswahili They are not liking Hapendi kusema He/She is not liking Hawapendi Present to speak Swahili to speak Swahili Continuous Kiswahili kusema Kiswahili He/She will not like Hawatapenda They will not like Future Hatapenda to speak Swahili to speak Swahili kusema kusema Kiswahili Kiswahili

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And now, a much tougher example! Well see an example of a verb carrying various types of viambishi for subject (shown in red), for object (shown in purple), and for tense (shown in green). In this example, the object is in the second person singular hence its corresponding kiambishi is -ku- for all the cases except when the subject is also in the second person, in which case the correct kiambishi is -ji-. FIRST PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH I loved you Nilikupenda Nimekupenda I have loved you I love you I am loving you I will love you FIRST PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH We loved you Tulikupenda Tumekupenda We have loved you Tunakupenda We love you Tunakupenda We are loving you Tutakupenda We will love you

TENSE Past Present Perfect Present Ninakupenda Present Ninakupenda Continuous Future Nitakupenda

TENSE Past Present Perfect Present

SECOND PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH You loved yourself Ulijipenda Umejipenda Unajipenda You have loved yourself You love yourself You are loving yourself You will love yourself

Present Unajipenda Continuous Future Utajipenda

SECOND PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH You loved Mlijipenda yourselves Mmejipenda You have loved yourselves You love Mnajipenda yourselves You are loving Mnajipenda yourselves You will love Mtajipenda yourselves THIRD PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH They loved you Walikupenda Wamekupenda They have loved you Wanakupenda They love you Wanakupenda They are loving you Watakupenda They will love you

TENSE Past Present Perfect Present Present Continuous Future

THIRD PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH He/She loved you Alikupenda Amekupenda He/She has loved you Anakupenda He/She loves you Anakupenda He/She is loving you Atakupenda He/She will love you

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Now lets make the corresponding negative sentences. FIRST PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH Sikukupenda I didnt love you Sijakupenda Sikupendi I have not loved you I dont love you I am not loving you I will not love you FIRST PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH Hatukukupenda We didnt love you Hatujakupenda We have not loved you We dont love Hatukupendi you We are not loving Hatukupendi you Hatutakupenda We will not love you SECOND PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH Hamkujipenda You didnt love yourselves Hamjajipenda You have not loved yourselves You dont love Hamjipendi yourselves You are not loving Hamjipendi yourselves Hamtajipenda You will not love yourselves THIRD PERSON PLURAL SWAHILI ENGLISH Hawakukupenda They didnt love you Hawajakupenda They have not loved you They dont love Hawakupendi you They are not Hawakupendi loving you Hawatakupenda They will not love you

TENSE Past Present Perfect Present

Present Sikupendi Continuous Future Sitakupenda

SECOND PERSON SINGULAR SWAHILI ENGLISH Hukujipenda You didnt love yourself Present Hujajipenda You have not loved yourself Perfect You dont love Present Hujipendi yourself You are not loving Present Hujipendi yourself Continuous Future Hutajipenda You will not love yourself TENSE Past THIRD PERSON SINGULAR TENSE SWAHILI ENGLISH Past Hakukupenda He/She didnt love you Present Hajakupenda He/She has not loved you Perfect He/She doesnt Present Hakupendi love you He/She is not Present Hakupendi loving you Continuous Future Hatakupenda He/She will not love you

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TEST YOURSELF 2Use the words and techniques youve learned so far to make Swahili sentences with the meaning provided in the right column of the table below. You can find many useful words in various lessons of this course. For example, you can find the Swahili word for television in LESSON 25:. More words can be found from the Dictionary provided in this course. Click on Show sentence to show the correct sentence.SWAHILI SENTENCE Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence Show sentence SWAHILI SENTENCE Ninataka kutazama televisheni Sitaki kutazama televisheni Atakuja baadaye Hatokuja Tunapika ndizi Tulipika ndizi jana Unapenda kucheka Hupendi kucheka Wanakunywa maziwa Hawanywi maziwa, wanakunywa kahawa! Nilimpa zawadi Tulimpa zawadi Utampa zawadi Wamempa zawadi Nimekula samaki na wali Wamekula kuku na mbatata MEANING I want to watch television I dont want to watch television She will come later She will not come We are cooking bananas We cooked bananas yesterday You like to laugh You dont like to laugh They are drinking milk They are not drinking milk, they are drinking coffee! I gave her a gift We gave her gifts You will give her a gift They have given her gifts I have eaten fish and rice They have eaten chicken and potatoes MEANING I want to watch television I dont want to watch television She will come later She will not come We are cooking bananas We cooked bananas yesterday You like to laugh You dont like to laugh They are drinking milk They are not drinking milk, they are drinking coffee! I gave her a gift We gave her gifts You will give her a gift They have given her gifts I have eaten fish and rice They have eaten chicken and potatoes

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LESSON 11:

GREETINGS

The table below gives words/phrases that convey greetings. You will respond with a word or a phrase written in blue to the corresponding word or phrase written in red. SWAHILI Shikamoo! (to a person older than you) Marahaba! Habari/Habari gani? Nzuri! Sio nzuri!/Mbaya! Hujambo? Sijambo! Karibu kwetu! Asante!/Asante sana! Karibu nyumbani! Asante!/Asante sana! Kwaheri! Karibu. Tutaonana baadaye! ENGLISH Hello/Hi! Hello to you! Hello/Hi! Good/Fine! Not good! How are you? I am fine! Welcome to our home/country! Thank you!/Thank you very much! Welcome home! (at persons house) Thank you!/Thank you very much! Goodbye! Goodbye! See you later!

LESSON 12:

SELF-INTRODUCTION

Sometimes we feel the need to introduce ourselves or we may be in a situation in which we are required to do so. In any case, here is a list of commonly used sentences for selfintroduction. SWAHILI Unasema Kiswahili? Kidogo tu! Hapana! Sisemi Kiswahili. Ninasema Kiingereza. Jina lako nani?/Unaitwaje? Jina langu Adam Unatokea wapi? Ninatokea Marekani Ulifika hapa lini? Nilifika hapa kiasi wiki mbili zilizopita. Unafanya kazi gani? Mimi ni mhasibu. Uko hapa kikazi au matembezi? Niko hapa kwa matembezi. Umeoa? (question to a male) Umeolewa? (question to a female) Ndio, nimeoa (response from a male). ENGLISH Do you speak Swahili? Just a little bit! No! I dont speak Swahili. I speak English. What is your name? My name is Adam Where are you from? I am from United States of America When did you arrive here? I arrived here about two weeks ago. What do you do? I am an accountant. Are you here on business or leisure? I am just visiting. Are you married? Are you married? Yes, I am married.

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Hapana, sijaoa (response from a male). Ndio, nimeolewa (response from a female). Hapana, sijaolewa (response from a female). Familia yako iko wapi? Familia yako iko hapa? Ndio, familia yangu iko hapa. Hapana, familia yangu iko nyumbani. Unao watoto wangapi? Ninao watoto wawili. Sina watoto. Watoto wako wana umri gani? Mimi ninaishi hapa. Umeishi hapa miaka mingapi? Nimeishi hapa miaka sita. Umeishi hapa muda gani? Nimeishi hapa kwa muda mrefu sana. Nimefurahi kujuana na wewe. Nimefurahi kuonana na wewe. Tutaonana baadaye

No, I am not married. Yes, I am married. No, I am not married. Where is your family? Is your family here? Yes, my family is here. No, my family is at home. How many children do you have? I have two children. I do not have children. How old are your children? I live here. How many years have you lived here? I have lived here for six years. How long have you lived here? I have lived here for a long time. Im pleased to know you. Im pleased to meet you. We will meet later.

LESSON 13:

ASKING FOR DIRECTIONENGLISH Where is the airport? How do I get to hospital? Which direction is north? Which direction is south? Which direction is east? Which direction is west? Which direction is this? Please show me the way to town. What is the name of this village? How far is it to the town? Which bus goes to the town? Where is the bus station? How do I get to your house? What is the name of this road? Where does this road go?

SWAHILI Uwanja wa ndege uko wapi? Nitafikaje hospitali? Upande gani ni kaskazini? Upande gani ni kusini? Upande gani ni mashariki? Upande gani ni magharibi? Huu ni upande gani? Tafadhali nioneshe njia ya mjini Kijiji hiki kinaitwaje? Ni masafa gani mpaka mjini? Basi lipi linakwenda mjini? Kituo cha basi kiko wapi? Nitafikaje nyumbani kwako? Njia hii inaitwaje? Njia hii inakwenda wapi?

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LESSON 14:

ASKING FOR HELPENGLISH I am thirsty / I am very thirsty! I am thirsty / I am very thirsty! Get me some water, please. Bring me some water, please. Get me a cold drink, please. Bring me some refreshment, please. I am hungry / I am very hungry! I am hungry / I am very hungry! Get me some food, please. Bring me some hot food, please. I have got headache Do you have headache medicine? Get me some medicine, please! May I use the restroom/toilet, please? Can you help me, please? Get me some change, please. I would like to go to hospital. Could you take me to hospital, please? Give me some discount, please. Im your friend.

SWAHILI Nina kiu / Nina kiu sana! Nasikia kiu / Nasikia kiu sana! Tafadhali nipatie maji ya kunywa. Tafadhali niletee maji ya kunywa. Tafadhali nipatie kinywaji baridi. Tafadhali niletee kiburudisho. Nina njaa / Nina njaa sana! Nasikia njaa / Nasikia njaa sana! Tafadhali nipatie chakula. Tafadhali niletee chakula moto. Kichwa kinaniuma. Unazo dawa za kichwa? Tafadhali nipatie dawa. Naweza kutumia choo, tafadhali? Unaweza kunisaidia, tafadhali? Tafadhali nipatie chenji. Ninataka kwenda hospitali. Unaweza kunipeleka hospitali, tafadhali? Nipunguzie bei, tafadhali. Mimi rafiki yako.

LESSON 15:SWAHILIkaka ndugu shemeji/ shemegi mtoto/watoto mtoto wa kike baba mkwe shoga mchumba rafiki/marafiki mjukuu/ wajukuu babu bibi

RELATIONSENGLISH SWAHILImjomba mama mama mkuu mama mdogo mpwa shangazi ami bintiami binami dada mtoto wa kiume baba wa kambo ndugu wa kambo

ENGLISHmaternal uncle mother mothers elder sister mothers younger sister nephew/niece paternal aunt paternal uncle paternal uncles daughter paternal uncles son sister son step-father step-brother/ step-sister

brother brother/sister brother-in-law/sister-in-law (also husbands/wifes brother) child/children daughter father father-in-law/mother-in-law female friend of a female person fianc friend/friends grand-child/ grand-children grandfather grandmother

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kitukuu mlezi mume wifi

great grand-child guardian husband husbands sister

mtoto wa kambo mama wa kambo mapacha mke

step-child step-mother twins wife

LESSON 16:SWAHILImkono/mikono kwapa/kwapa mgongo/migongo ndevu tumbo kitovu mwili/miili matiti matako shavu/mashavu kifua/vifua kidevu/videvu sikio/masikio jicho/macho nyusi/nyusi kope/kope kidole/vidole kidole cha mkono mguu/miguu paji la uso nywele mkono/mikono

HUMAN BODY PARTSENGLISHarm/arms armpit/armpits back/backs beard belly/tummy belly-button/navel body/bodies breast buttocks cheek/cheeks chest/chests chin/chins ear/ears eye/eyes eyebrow/eyebrows eyelash/eyelashes finger/fingers; toe/toes finger foot/feet forehead hair hand/hands

SWAHILIkichwa/vichwa kisigino/visigino kiuno/viuno goti/magoti mguu/miguu mdomo/midomo masharubu mdomo/midomo kucha/kucha shingo/shingo pua/pua kiganja/viganja ubavu/mbavu muundi/miundi bega/mabega ngozi unyayo/nyayo paja/mapaja kidole gumba kidole cha mguu ulimi/ndimi jino/meno

ENGLISHhead/heads heel/heels hip/hips knee/knees leg/legs lip/lips moustache mouth/mouths nail/nails neck/necks nose/noses palm/palms rib/ribs sheen/sheens shoulder/shoulders skin sole/soles thigh/thighs thumb toe tongue/tongues tooth/teeth

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LESSON 17:SWAHILI

FOODENGLISHalcoholic drink almond/almonds apple/apples banana/bananas bean/beans beef beer black pepper bread breakfast butter cabbage cake cashew nuts chicken (meat) chili pepper clam/clams coffee corn/corns

SWAHILIunga wa mahindi/sembe kaa/kaa kitango chakula cha jioni kinywaji mkunga yai/mayai samaki unga chakula tunda/matunda kitunguu thomu samli zabibu/zabibu barafu jamu sharubati nyama ya kondoo ndimu/ndimu

ENGLISHcorn flour crab/crabs cucumber dinner drink eel egg/eggs fish flour food fruit/fruits garlic ghee grape/grapes ice jam juice lamb lime/limes

pombe lozi/lozi tofaa/matofaa ndizi/ndizi kunde/kunde nyama ya ng'ombe bia pilipili manga mkate kifungua kinywa/chai siagi kabichi keki korosho nyama ya kuku pilipili chaza/chaza kahawa hindi/mahindi

SWAHILIlimau/malimau kamba/kamba chakula cha mchana embe/maembe siagi nyama maziwa mafuta bamia kitunguu/vitunguu chungwa/machungwa papai/mapapai njugu/njugu njegere achari nanasi/mananasi mbatata/mbatata boga/maboga

ENGLISHlemon/lemons lobster/lobsters lunch mango/mangoes margarine meat milk oil okra onion/onions orange/oranges papaya/papayas peanut/peanuts peas pickle pineapple/pineapples potato/potatoes pumpkin/pumpkins

SWAHILImchele (wali) saladi chumvi mchuzi kamba soda supu maharage mchicha sukari kiazi kitamu chai nyanya/tungule mboga maji unga wa ngano hamira mtindi

ENGLISHrice (cooked rice) salad salt sauce shrimp soda soup soy beans spinach sugar sweet potato tea tomato vegetables water wheat flour yeast yoghurt

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LESSON 18:

NUMBERS

Numbers in Swahili are very easy to say. If you know how to say 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 1000, 1000000, and 1000000000, you should be able to say any other (practical) number. Thats because, the other numbers are spoken as combinations of the above-mentioned numbers. For example, 1932, is elfu moja mia tisa thalathini na mbili which is an exact literal translation of one thousand nine hundred thirty two. The only (minor) difference here is the addition of na which means and, between the Swahili word for thirty (thalathini) and two (mbili). In Swahili, na is always added between tens and unit digits. There are a few other twists. Read on to learn more about them. Of course you also need to know how to say fractional and decimal numbers as well as percentages. Swahili people also have a habit of using a number called laki, which is 100,000. So, numbers in hundreds of thousand are alternatively spoken using laki. For example, 324,167 can be spoken as mia tatu ishirini na nne elfu, mia moja sitini na saba, or alternatively, laki tatu, ishirini na nne elfu, mia moja sitini na saba. Both forms are correct. Please find below examples of numbers as spoken in Swahili. SWAHILI ENGLISH SWAHILIsifuri moja mbili tatu nne tano sita saba nane tisa kumi kumi na moja kumi na mbili kumi na tatu kumi na nne kumi na tano kumi na sita kumi na saba kumi na nane kumi na tisa ishirini ishirini na moja ishirini na mbili 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 ishirini na tatu thalathini thalathini na moja thalathini na mbili arubaini arubaini na moja arubaini na mbili hamsini hamsini na moja hamsini na mbili sitini sitini na moja sitini na mbili sabini sabini na moja sabini na mbili thamanini thamanini na moja thamanini na mbili tisini tisini na moja tisini na mbili mia

ENGLISH23 30 31 32 40 41 42 50 51 52 60 61 62 70 71 72 80 81 82 90 91 92 100

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SWAHILI mia na moja mia na mbili mia moja na kumi mia moja kumi na moja mia moja ishirini mia moja ishirini na moja mia moja thalathini mia mbili

ENGLISH SWAHILI 101 elfu 102 elfu moja mia tisa tisini na saba kumi na tatu elfu mia saba 110 arubaini 111 120 121 130 200 ishirini na tisa elfu na tatu thalathini na sita elfu, na ishirini na saba mia nne kumi na mbili elfu, mia mbili thalathini na nane milioni tatu sitini na saba elfu, mia nane thamanini na tatu mia tano sitini na mbili milioni, mia nne tisini na tano elfu na kumi na moja bilioni mbili, mia mbili thamanini na tisa milioni, mia moja arubaini na tatu elfu, mia mbili na sita SWAHILI thuluthi nusu thuluthi mbili robo tatu

ENGLISH 1000 1997 13,740 29,003 36,027 412,238 3,067,883 562,495,011

mia tatu

300

2,289,143,206

SWAHILI sehemu thumni sudusi robo nukta mbili nukta nne tano sifuri nukta mbili mbili nne asilimia asilimia mia moja

ENGLISH fraction 1/8 1/6 1/4 decimal point 2.45 0.224

ENGLISH 1/3 1/2 2/3 3/4 45,391.365 253.009 0.00701

arubaini na tano elfu, mia tatu tisini na moja nukta tatu sita tano mia mbili hamsini na tatu nukta sifuri sifuri tisa sifuri nukta sifuri sifuri saba sifuri moja asilimia kumi na tatu nukta nne tano asilimia moja

percent (%) 100%

13.45% 1%

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LESSON 19:

DAYS OF THE WEEK

In the Swahili world, the week (wiki) has seven days (siku) just like in the West. The first day of the week, however, is different. It is Saturday! The sixth day of the week, Thursday, is sometimes pronounced as Alkhamisi instead of Alhamisi. The names for Thursday (Alhamisi) and Friday (Ijumaa) are of Arabic origin. They probably replaced the original Bantu names of those days due to their special place in the Islamic religion. Note that in the Arab world, Alkhamis means the fifth day of the week, but the same name is used in the Swahili world for the sixth day of the week! Someone messed up on that! Enough talk on language mess, here are the days of the week: SWAHILI Jumamosi Jumapili Jumatatu Jumanne Jumatano Alhamisi Ijumaa ENGLISH Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

LESSON 20:

TIME

Lets talk a little bit about time. Swahili people seem to have ALL the time for ALL the things. And they dont like to be rushed into and out of any event! They like to take their own time! When you deal with Swahili people, youll be well served to bear that in mind! Its interesting to note that in the Swahili culture the day starts at sunrise. This is in contrast to the Arab world where the day starts at sunset and in the Western world where the day starts at midnight. Sunrise in East Africa happens everyday at around 6:00 a.m. Thats because East Africa falls right on the Equator. So, 6:00 a.m. is 0:00 morning Swahili time. 7:00 a.m. is 1:00 morning (saa moja asubuhi) Swahili time. Its also worth noting that Swahili time doesnt use noon as the reference as in a.m. (before noon), and p.m. (after noon). Swahili time is spoken using the following loose references: alfajiri: early morning time before sunrise asubuhi: from sunrise to a little before noon mchana: from around noon to around 3:00 p.m.

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alasiri: from around 3:00 p.m. to sunset jioni: from around 3:00 p.m. to a little before 7:00 p.m. usiku: from around 7:00 p.m. to early morning

The following are some words associated with time: SWAHILI karne saa siku/siku keshokutwa juzi mchana magharibi mapema kipupwe saa/saa usiku wa manane baadaye/halafu dakika/dakika mwezi/miezi usiku sasa haraka ENGLISH century clock day/days day after tomorrow day before yesterday daytime dusk early fall hour/hours late night later minute/minutes month/months night time now quick/quickly SWAHILI msimu sekunde polepole vuli ghafla kaskazi mapambazuko machweo wakati/saa leo kesho saa wiki/wiki Saa ngapi? masika mwaka/miaka jana ENGLISH season second slow/slowly spring sudden summer sunrise sunset time today tomorrow watch week/weeks What time is it? winter year/years yesterday

The table below shows how you tell the time. Observe that after 30 minutes past the hour the time is usually told using the number of minutes before the coming hour. For example, 3:47 p.m. is spoken as 13 minutes short of 4 p.m. That is, Saa kumi kasoro dakika kumi na tatu jioni. The word kasoro means short of or before. For 15 minutes before the hour, the word kasorobo (also kasarobo) is used.

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SWAHILI ENGLISH SWAHILI Saa mbili kamili asubuhi 8:00 a.m. Saa mbili kasorobo usiku 8 oclock Saa tatu kasoro dakika Saa mbili barabara sharp moja usiku Saa tano na dakika moja Saa tatu unusu asubuhi 9:30 a.m. usiku noon Saa sita usiku Saa sita mchana Saa saba na dakika 1:16 p.m. Saa nane na robo usiku kumi na sita mchana Saa tisa kasoro dakika Saa kumi na moja na 2:44 p.m. dakika tatu alfajiri kumi na sita mchana Saa tisa na dakika Saa kumi na mbili na 3:25 p.m. robo asubuhi ishirini na tano alasiri Saa kumi na mbili na Saa moja kasoro dakika 6:15 p.m. kumi asubuhi robo jioni

ENGLISH 7:45 p.m. 8:59 p.m. 11:01 p.m. midnight 2:15 a.m. 5:03 a.m. 6:15 a.m. 6:50 a.m.

LESSON 21:SWAHILI bangili buti sidiria mkufu nguo/nguo koti/makoti nepi/nepi gauni/magauni herini/herini dhahabu mkoba/mikoba kofia/kofia kilemba pasi rangi ya mdomo wanja kidani/mkufu mafuta

CLOTHES AND ADORNMENTENGLISH bangle/bracelet boot brassier chain cloth/clothes coat/coats diaper/diapers dress/dresses earring/earrings gold handbag/handbags hat/hats headscarf/turban iron lipstick mascara necklace oil SWAHILI suruali poda pete/pete kanzu/kanzu ndara/ndara skafu/skafu shimizi shati/mashati kiatu/viatu fedha skati/sketi soksi suti tai/tai mtandio fulana chupi pochi ENGLISH pants powder ring/rings robe/robes sandal/sandals scarf/scarves chemise shirt/shirts shoe/shoes silver skirt sox suit tie/ties top-throw T-shirt/vest underwear wallet

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LESSON 22:SWAHILI

ANIMALS AND INSECTSPICTURE ENGLISH

mnyama/wanyama

animal/animals

mdudu/wadudu

ant/ants

nyani

baboon

dubu/madubu

bear/bears

ndege/ndege

bird/birds

nguruwe-mwitu

boar

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nyati

buffalo

kipepeo/vipepeo

butterfly/butterflies

paka/paka

cat/cats

duma/duma

cheetah

kuku

chicken/hen

sokwe

chimpanzee

mende/mende

cockroach/cockroaches

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ng'ombe/ngombe

cow/cows

mamba/mamba

crocodile/crocodiles

paa/paa

deer/deers

mbwa/mbwa

dog/dogs

punda/punda

donkey/donkeys

bata/mabata

duck/ducks

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tembo/tembo

elephant/elephants

samaki

fish

nzi/nzi

fly/flies

twiga/twiga

giraffe/giraffes

mbuzi/mbuzi

goat/goats

panzi/panzi

grasshopper/grasshoppers

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kiboko

hippopotamus

farasi/farasi

horse/horses

fisi/fisi

hyena/hyenas

swala/swala

impala/impala

mdudu/wadudu

insect/insects

chui/chui

leopard/leopards

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simba/simba

lion/lions

kima/kima

monkey/monkeys

panya/panya

mouse/mice

mbuni/mbuni

ostrich/ostriches

ng'ombe dume

ox

kasuku/kasuku

parrot/parrots

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tausi/tausi

peacock/peacocks

nguruwe/nguruwe

pig/pigs

chatu/chatu

python/pythons

sungura/sungura

rabbit/rabbits

kifaru/vifaru

rhinoceros/rhinoceros

papa/papa

shark/sharks

kondoo/kondoo

sheep/sheep

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nyoka/nyoka

snake/snakes

kobe/makobe

tortoise/tortoise

bata-mzinga

turkey/turkeys

kasa/kasa

turtle/turtles

ngiri/ngiri

warthog/warthogs

nyangumi/nyangumi

whale/whales

punda-milia/punda-milia

zebra/zebras

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LESSON 23:SWAHILI

PROFESSIONSENGLISH SWAHILI ENGLISHminister/ministers nurse/nurses police officer/police officers politician president/presidents prime minister professor/professors security officer shopkeeper soldier/soldiers tailor/tailors taxi driver teacher/teachers technician/technicians work worker/workers

mtangazaji/watangazaji announcer/announcers waziri/mawaziri army officer/ muuguzi/wauguzi mwanajeshi/wanajeshi army officers kinyozi/vinyozi mjenzi mfanyabiashara/ wafanyabiashara karani/makarani fundi wa kompyuta daktari/madaktari dereva/madereva mhandisi/wahandisi mkulima/wakulima mvuvi/wavuvi muuza samaki mlinzi/walinzi mwandishi wa habari/ waandishi wa habari mbunge/wabunge barber/barbers builder/mason businessman/ businessmen clerk/clerks computer technician doctor/doctors driver/drivers engineer/engineers farmer/farmers fisherman/fishermen fish-vendor guard/guards journalist/journalists polisi/polisi mwanasiasa raisi/maraisi waziri mkuu profesa/maprofesa afisa usalama muuza duka askari/askari mshoni/washoni dereva wa teksi mwalimu/walimu fundi/mafundi kazi

member of parliament/ mfanyakazi/ members of parliament wafanyakazi

LESSON 24:SWAHILI ambalesi choo Hatari! Moto! Toka! Ondoka! Kwaheri! Nisaidie hospitali Vipi? Nimeumia Ninaumwa Hodi? dawa Hapana!

COURTESY AND EMERGENCYENGLISH ambulance bathroom/restroom Danger! Fire! Get out! Go away! Goodbye! Help me hospital How? I'm hurt I'm sick May I come in? medicine No! SWAHILI tafadhali Kimbia! Samahani! Pole! Simama! Asante! Asante sana! mwizi karibu Nini? Lini? Wapi? Ipi? Nani? Ndio! ENGLISH please Run away! Sorry! (to apologize) Sorry! (to sympathize) Stop! Thank you! Thank you very much! thief welcome/come again What? When? Where? Which? Who? Yes!

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LESSON 25:SWAHILI riadha mpira/mipira mpira wa kikapu bao ngumi karata/karata bingwa mashindano chesi sinema nage suluhu filamu mchezo/michezo kipa goli/magoli mchezo wa kuruka juu mshindwa gololi/gololi kitabu cha hadithi

ENTERTAINMENTENGLISH athletics ball/balls basketball board game boxing card/cards champion championship/tournament chess cinema dodge ball draw film game/games goalkeeper goal/goals high-jump loser marble/marbles novel SWAHILI cheza uwanja mchezaji shairi/mashairi mbio redio refa soka/kandanda stesheni hadithi/hadithi kuogelea foliti televisheni tenisi mchezo wa kuigiza mpira wa wavu firimbi/firimbi mshindi/washindi dama video ENGLISH play play ground player poem/poems race radio referee soccer station story/stories swimming tag game television tennis theatrical play volleyball whistle/whistles winner/winners X-and-O game video

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LESSON 26:SWAHILI choo/vyoo kitanda/vitandachumba cha kulala/ vyumba vya kulala

HOMEENGLISH bathroom/bathrooms bed/bedsbedroom/bedrooms

SWAHILI gilasi/gilasi motonyumba/nyumba

ENGLISH glass/glasses hothouse/houses; home/homes

shuka/shuka blangeti/mablangeti bakuli/bakuli busati/mabusati dari kiti/viti baridi sufuria/masufuria kochi/makochi kikombe/vikombe kabati/makabati pazia/mapaziachumba cha kulia

bed sheet/bed sheets blanket/blankets bowl/bowls carpet/carpets ceiling chair/chairs cold cooking pot/cooking pots couch/couches cup/cups cupboard/cupboards curtain/curtainsdining room

pasi/pasi jagi/majagi birika/birika jiko/majiko kisu/visu taa/taa ukumbi/kumbi godoro/magodoro karai/makarai mto/mito sahani/sahani paa/mapaakisahani/visahani

iron/irons jug/jugs kettle/kettle kitchen/kitchens knife/knives light/lights;lamp/lamps living room/living rooms mattress/mattresses pan/pans pillow/pillows plate/plates roof/roofssaucer/saucers

mlango/milango umeme feni/mafenisakafu

door/doors electricity fan/fansfloor

rafu/rafu kijiko/vijiko swichi/swichimeza/meza

shelf/shelves spoon/spoons switch/switchestable/tables

uma/nyuma friji/mafriji

fork/forks fridge/fridges

ukuta/kuta dirisha/madirisha

wall/walls window/windows

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LESSON 27:SWAHILI bodi kitabu/vitabu kabati/makabati kiti/viti mwenyekiti karani/makarani kompyuta/kompyuta monita/monita

OFFICEENGLISH board (as in board of directors) book/books cabinet/cabinets chair/chairs chairman clerk/clerks computer/computers computer monitor/ computer monitors conference room director/directors drawer fax machine file/files folder/folders janitor letter/letters manager/managers meeting minutes SWAHILI mkutano ofisi/ofisi tarishi/matarishi ofisa/maofisa karatasi kalamu/kalamu penseli/penseli fotokopi printa/printa ENGLISH meeting/conference office/offices messenger/messengers officer/officers paper pen/pens pencil/pencils photocopy

chumba cha mkutano mkurugenzi/ wakurugenzi mtoto wa meza faksi faili/mafaili jalada/majalada msafishaji barua/barua meneja/meneja kumbukumbu za mkutano

printer/printers record book/record daftari/madaftari books report/reports ripoti/ripoti secretary katibu shelf/shelves rafu/rafu supervisor muangalizi table/desk meza telephone simu work/job kazi mfanyakazi worker

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LESSON 28:SWAHILIanga ndege/ndege uwanja wa ndege begi/mabegi sanduku/masanduku baiskeli/baiskeli mashua/mashua basi/mabasi kondakta/utingo mtumbwi/dau gari/gari karibu jahazi masafa dereva/madereva mashariki mbali nauli kituo cha mafuta zawadi/zawadi bandari/bandarini hapa barabara hoteli/hoteli safari

TRAVELENGLISHair/space airplane/airplanes airport bag/bags box/boxes bicycle/bicycles boat/boats bus/busses bus conductor canoe car/cars close to/nearby dhow distance driver/drivers east far fare gas station gift/gifts harbor/at the harbor here highway hotel/hotels journey

SWAHILImzigo/mizigo ramani/ramani pikipiki kaskazini sio mbali sio mbali sana pasi/pasipoti rubani/marubani reli mkahawa/mikahawa njia/njia baharia/mabaharia bahari meli kusini mtaa teksi pale/kule tiketi/tiketi mtalii/watalii gari-moshi/magari-moshi kadi ya mchanjo karibu sana mbali sana magharibi

ENGLISHluggage map/maps motorbike north not far not very far passport pilot/pilots rail restaurant/restaurants road/roads sailor/sailors sea ship south street taxi there ticket/tickets tourist/tourists train/trains vaccination card very close very far west

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LESSON 29:SWAHILI duka la vitabu duka la nyama nunua senti chenji rahisi/bei nafuu dola/dola ghali duka la nguo soko la samaki duka la chakula nusu kilo kubwa

SHOPPINGENGLISH bookstore butchery buy cent change cheap dollar/dollars expensive fashion store fish market grocery store half kilo large SWAHILI soko/masoko kati-na-kati/wastani pesa noti ratili pauni bei robo shilingi duka muuza duka kiasi ndogo ghala ENGLISH market/markets medium money note (paper money) pound (weight) pound (currency) price quarter shilling shop/store shopkeeper size small store (for storage)

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DICTIONARYENGLISH0 0.00701 1% 13.45% 0.224 100% 1 2 2.45 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 30 31 32 40 41

SWAHILIsifuri sifuri nukta sifuri sifuri saba sifuri moja asilimia moja asilimia kumi na tatu nukta nne tano sifuri nukta mbili mbili nne asilimia mia moja moja mbili mbili nukta nne tano tatu nne tano sita saba nane tisa kumi kumi na moja kumi na mbili kumi na tatu kumi na nne kumi na tano kumi na sita kumi na saba kumi na nane kumi na tisa ishirini ishirini na moja ishirini na mbili ishirini na tatu thalathini thalathini na moja thalathini na mbili arubaini arubaini na moja

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42 50 51 52 60 61 62 70 71 72 80 81 82 90 91 92 100 101 102 110 111 120 121 130 200 253.009 300 1000 1997 13,740 29,003 36,027 45,391.37 412,238 3,067,883 562,495,011

arubaini na mbili hamsini hamsini na moja hamsini na mbili sitini sitini na moja sitini na mbili sabini sabini na moja sabini na mbili thamanini thamanini na moja thamanini na mbili tisini tisini na moja tisini na mbili mia mia na moja mia na mbili mia moja na kumi mia moja kumi na moja mia moja ishirini mia moja ishirini na moja mia moja thalathini mia mbili mia mbili hamsini na tatu nukta sifuri sifuri tisa mia tatu elfu elfu moja mia tisa tisini na saba kumi na tatu elfu mia saba arubaini ishirini na tisa elfu na tatu thalathini na sita elfu, na ishirini na saba arubaini na tano elfu, mia tatu tisini na moja nukta tatu sita tano mia nne kumi na mbili elfu, mia mbili thalathini na nane milioni tatu sitini na saba elfu, mia nane thamanini na tatu mia tano sitini na mbili milioni, mia nne tisini na tano elfu na kumi na moja

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2,289,143,206 1:16 p.m. 11:01 p.m. 2:15 a.m. 2:44 p.m. 3:25 p.m. 5:03 a.m. 6:15 a.m. 6:15 p.m. 6:50 a.m. 7:45 p.m. 8 oclock sharp 8:00 a.m. 8:59 p.m. 9:30 a.m. accountant air air/space airplane/airplanes airport alcoholic drink almond/almonds ambulance American (national) and animal/animals announcer/announcers ant/ants anyhow anyone (person) anyone (thing) apple/apples Arab (national) Arabic (language) arm/arms armpit/armpits army officer/army officers

bilioni mbili, mia mbili thamanini na tisa milioni, mia moja arubaini na tatu elfu, mia mbili na sita Saa saba na dakika kumi na sita mchana Saa tano na dakika moja usiku Saa nane na robo usiku Saa tisa kasoro dakika kumi na sita mchana Saa tisa na dakika ishirini na tano alasiri Saa kumi na moja na dakika tatu alfajiri Saa kumi na mbili na robo asubuhi Saa kumi na mbili na robo jioni Saa moja kasoro dakika kumi asubuhi Saa mbili kasorobo usiku Saa mbili barabara Saa mbili kamili asubuhi Saa tatu kasoro dakika moja usiku Saa tatu unusu asubuhi mhasibu hewa anga ndege/ndege uwanja wa ndege pombe lozi/lozi ambalesi Mmarekani na mnyama/wanyama mtangazaji/watangazaji mdudu/wadudu vyovyote yeyote yoyote tofaa/matofaa Muarabu Kiarabu mkono/mikono kwapa/kwapa mwanajeshi/wanajeshi

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athletics authority axe baboon back/backs bad bag/bags ball/balls banana/bananas bangle/bracelet barber/barbers basketball bathroom/bathrooms bathroom/restroom bean/beans bear/bears beard bed sheet/bed sheets bed/beds bedroom/bedrooms beef beer bell belly/tummy belly-button/navel bicycle/bicycles bird/birds black pepper blanket/blankets blue boar board board game boat/boats body/bodies book/books bookstore boot

riadha mamlaka shoka nyani mgongo/migongo mbaya begi/mabegi mpira/mipira ndizi/ndizi bangili kinyozi/vinyozi mpira wa kikapu choo/vyoo choo kunde/kunde dubu/madubu ndevu shuka/shuka kitanda/vitanda chumba cha kulala/vyumba vya kulala nyama ya ng'ombe bia kengele tumbo kitovu baiskeli/baiskeli ndege/ndege pilipili manga blangeti/mablangeti buluu nguruwe-mwitu bodi bao mashua/mashua mwili/miili kitabu/vitabu duka la vitabu buti

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bowl/bowls box/boxes boxing brassier bread breakfast breast brother (older male sibbling) brother/sister (younger sibbling) brother-in-law/sister-in-law (also husbands/wifes brother) buffalo builder/mason burp (noun) bus conductor bus/busses bush businessman/businessmen butchery butter butterfly/butterflies buttocks buy cabbage cabinet/cabinets cake calf camel canoe car/cars card/cards carpet/carpets cashew nuts cat/cats ceiling cent century chain

bakuli/bakuli sanduku/masanduku ngumi sidiria mkate kifungua kinywa/chai matiti kaka ndugu shemeji/shemegi nyati mjenzi mbweu kondakta/utingo basi/mabasi nyika mfanyabiashara/wafanyabiashara duka la nyama siagi kipepeo/vipepeo matako nunua kabichi kabati/makabati keki ndama ngamia mtumbwi/dau gari/gari karata/karata busati/mabusati korosho paka/paka dari senti karne mkufu

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chair/chairs chairman champion championship/tournament change charcoal cheap cheek/cheeks cheetah chemise chess chest/chests chicken (meat) chicken/hen child/children chili pepper chimpanzee chin/chins Chinese (language) Chinese (national) cinema clam/clams clerk/clerks clock close to/nearby cloth/clothes coat/coats cockroach/cockroaches coconut coffee cold computer monitor/computer monitors computer technician computer/computers concrete conference room cooking pot/cooking pots

kiti/viti mwenyekiti bingwa mashindano chenji kaa rahisi/bei nafuu shavu/mashavu duma/duma shimizi chesi kifua/vifua nyama ya kuku kuku mtoto/watoto pilipili sokwe kidevu/videvu Kichina Mchina sinema chaza/chaza karani/makarani saa karibu nguo/nguo koti/makoti mende/mende nazi kahawa baridi monita/monita fundi wa kompyuta kompyuta/kompyuta zege chumba cha mkutano sufuria/masufuria

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corn flour corn/corns couch/couches country cow/cows crab/crabs crocodile/crocodiles cucumber cup/cups cupboard/cupboards curtain/curtains Danger! daughter day after tomorrow day before yesterday day/days daytime decimal point deer/deers dhow diaper/diapers dining room dinner director/directors disease distance doctor/doctors dodge ball dog/dogs dollar/dollars donkey/donkeys door/doors dove down draw (in a match) drawer dream

unga wa mahindi/sembe hindi/mahindi kochi/makochi nchi ng'ombe/ngombe kaa/kaa mamba/mamba kitango kikombe/vikombe kabati/makabati pazia/mapazia Hatari! mtoto wa kike keshokutwa juzi siku/siku mchana nukta paa/paa jahazi nepi/nepi chumba cha kulia chakula cha jioni mkurugenzi/wakurugenzi ugonjwa masafa daktari/madaktari nage mbwa/mbwa dola/dola punda/punda mlango/milango njiwa chini suluhu mtoto wa meza ndoto/njozi

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dress/dresses drink driver/drivers duck/ducks dusk dust ear/ears early earring/earrings east eel egg/eggs electricity elephant/elephants engineer/engineers English (language) English (national) exercise expensive eye/eyes eyebrow/eyebrows eyelash/eyelashes fall family fan/fans far fare farmer/farmers fashion store father father-in-law/mother-in-law fax machine fear female friend of a female person fianc file/files film finger/fingers

gauni/magauni kinywaji dereva/madereva bata/mabata magharibi vumbi sikio/masikio mapema herini/herini mashariki mkunga yai/mayai umeme tembo/tembo mhandisi/wahandisi Kiingereza Muingereza zoezi ghali jicho/macho nyusi/nyusi kope/kope kipupwe familia feni/mafeni mbali nauli mkulima/wakulima duka la nguo baba mkwe faksi woga shoga mchumba faili/mafaili filamu kidole cha mkono/vidole vya mkono

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Fire fish fish market fisherman/fishermen fish-vendor floor flour fly/flies folder/folders food foot/feet forehead fork/forks fort fraction French (language) French (national) Friday fridge/fridges friend/friends fruit/fruits game/games garlic gas station Get out! ghee gift/gifts giraffe/giraffes glass/glasses Go away! goal/goals goalkeeper goat/goats gold good Goodbye! government grand-child/grand-children

Moto samaki soko la samaki mvuvi/wavuvi muuza samaki sakafu unga nzi/nzi jalada/majalada chakula mguu/miguu paji la uso uma/nyuma ngome sehemu Kifaransa Mfaransa Ijumaa friji/mafriji rafiki/marafiki tunda/matunda mchezo/michezo kitunguu thomu kituo cha mafuta Toka! samli zawadi/zawadi twiga/twiga gilasi/gilasi Ondoka! goli/magoli kipa mbuzi/mbuzi dhahabu nzuri Kwaheri! serikali mjukuu/wajukuu

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grandfather grandmother grape/grapes grasshopper/grasshoppers great grand-child green grocery store guard/guards guardian gun hair half hand/hands handbag/handbags hang harbor/at the harbor hardship hat/hats head/heads headscarf/turban health heel/heels Hello! help Help me here Hi! hiccup high-jump highway hip/hips hippopotamus history horse horse/horses hospital hot hotel/hotels

babu bibi zabibu/zabibu panzi/panzi kitukuu kijani duka la chakula mlinzi/walinzi mlezi bunduki nywele nusu mkono/mikono mkoba/mikoba ning'iniza/tundika bandari/bandarini dhiki kofia/kofia kichwa/vichwa kilemba afya kisigino/visigino Habari! msaada Nisaidie hapa Habari! kwikwi mchezo wa kuruka juu barabara kiuno/viuno kiboko historia farasi farasi/farasi hospitali moto hoteli/hoteli

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hour/hours house/houses; home/homes How? hunger husband husbands sister hyena/hyenas ice I'm hurt I'm sick impala/impala important insect/insects iron/irons jam janitor Japanese (language) Japanese (national) jinni journalist/journalists journey jug/jugs juice kettle/kettle kidney kilo kitchen/kitchens knee/knees knife/knives lake lamb language large late night later law leg/legs lemon/lemons

saa/saa nyumba/nyumba Vipi? njaa mume wifi fisi/fisi barafu Nimeumia Ninaumwa swala/swala muhimu mdudu/wadudu pasi/pasi jamu msafishaji Kijapani Mjapani jini mwandishi wa habari/waandishi wa habari safari jagi/majagi sharubati birika/birika figo kilo jiko/majiko goti/magoti kisu/visu ziwa nyama ya kondoo lugha kubwa usiku wa manane baadaye/halafu sheria mguu/miguu limau/malimau

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leopard/leopards letter/letters library license light/lights;lamp/lamps lime/limes line lion/lions lip/lips lipstick little living room/living rooms lobster/lobsters logic loser luggage lunch maid manager/managers mango/mangoes map/maps marble/marbles margarine market/markets mascara maternal uncle mattress/mattresses May I come in? meat medicine medium meeting minutes meeting/conference member of parliament/members of parliament mermaid messenger/messengers midnight milk

chui/chui barua/barua maktaba leseni taa/taa ndimu/ndimu mstari simba/simba mdomo/midomo rangi ya mdomo kidogo ukumbi/kumbi kamba/kamba mantiki mshindwa mzigo/mizigo chakula cha mchana yaya meneja/meneja embe/maembe ramani/ramani gololi/gololi siagi soko/masoko wanja mjomba godoro/magodoro Hodi? nyama dawa kati-na-kati/wastani kumbukumbu za mkutano mkutano mbunge/wabunge nguva tarishi/matarishi Saa sita usiku maziwa

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minister/ministers minute/minutes Mister Monday money monkey/monkeys month/months mother mothers elder sister mothers younger sister motorbike mouse/mice moustache mouth/mouths nail/nails name neck/necks necklace nephew/niece news nice night time No! noon north nose/noses not far not very far note (paper money) novel now nurse/nurses octopus office/offices officer/officers ogre oil okra

waziri/mawaziri dakika/dakika Bwana Jumatatu pesa kima/kima mwezi/miezi mama mama mkuu mama mdogo pikipiki panya/panya masharubu mdomo/midomo kucha/kucha jina shingo/shingo kidani/mkufu mpwa habari nzuri usiku Hapana! Saa sita mchana kaskazini pua/pua sio mbali sio mbali sana noti kitabu cha hadithi sasa muuguzi/wauguzi pweza ofisi/ofisi ofisa/maofisa zimwi mafuta bamia

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one eighth one sixth one third onion/onions orange/oranges ostrich/ostriches ox palm/palms pan/pans pants papaya/papayas paper parrot/parrots party/parties passport paternal aunt paternal uncle paternal uncles daughter paternal uncles son peacock/peacocks peanut/peanuts peas pen/pens pencil/pencils people percent (%) person photocopy pickle pig/pigs pillow/pillows pillow-case pilot/pilots pineapple/pineapples plate/plates play play ground player

thumni sudusi thuluthi kitunguu/vitunguu chungwa/machungwa mbuni/mbuni ng'ombe dume kiganja/viganja karai/makarai suruali papai/mapapai karatasi kasuku/kasuku chama/vyama pasi/pasipoti shangazi ami bintiami binami tausi/tausi njugu/njugu njegere kalamu/kalamu penseli/penseli watu asilimia mtu fotokopi achari nguruwe/nguruwe mto/mito foronya rubani/marubani nanasi/mananasi sahani/sahani cheza uwanja mchezaji

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please poem/poems police officer/police officers politician potato/potatoes pound (currency) pound (weight) powder president/presidents price prime minister printer/printers professor/professors proof pumpkin/pumpkins python/pythons quarter quarter quick/quickly quiet rabbit/rabbits race radio rail razor record book/record books red referee report/reports restaurant/restaurants rhinoceros/rhinoceros rib/ribs rice (cooked rice) ring/rings river road/roads robe/robes roof/roofs

tafadhali shairi/mashairi polisi/polisi mwanasiasa mbatata/mbatata pauni ratili poda raisi/maraisi bei waziri mkuu printa/printa profesa/maprofesa ithibati boga/maboga chatu/chatu robo robo haraka kimya sungura/sungura mbio redio reli wembe daftari/madaftari nyekundu refa ripoti/ripoti mkahawa/mikahawa kifaru/vifaru ubavu/mbavu mchele (wali) pete/pete mto njia/njia kanzu/kanzu paa/mapaa

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rule/rules ruler Run away! sailor/sailors salad salt sandal/sandals Saturday sauce saucer/saucers scarf/scarves school sea season second secret secretary security officer seed sensitive service shame shark/sharks sheen/sheens sheep/sheep shelf/shelves shilling ship shirt/shirts shoe/shoes shop/store shopkeeper shoulder/shoulders shrimp silver sister sit size

sheria mstari Kimbia! baharia/mabaharia saladi chumvi ndara/ndara Jumamosi mchuzi kisahani/visahani skafu/skafu shule bahari msimu sekunde siri katibu afisa usalama mbegu nyeti huduma fedheha papa/papa muundi/miundi kondoo/kondoo rafu/rafu shilingi meli shati/mashati kiatu/viatu duka muuza duka bega/mabega kamba fedha dada kaa kiasi

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skin skirt slow/slowly small snake/snakes soccer soda soldier sole/soles son Sorry! (to apologize) Sorry! (to sympathize) soup south sox soy beans spark spinach spoon/spoons spring squash squid stand up station step-brother/step-sister step-child step-father step-mother Stop! store (for storage) storey storm story/stories street sudden sugar suit summer Sunday sunrise

ngozi skati/sketi polepole ndogo nyoka/nyoka soka/kandanda soda askari/askari unyayo/nyayo mtoto wa kiume Samahani! Pole! supu kusini soksi maharage cheche mchicha kijiko/vijiko vuli mung'unye ngisi simama stesheni ndugu wa kambo mtoto wa kambo baba wa kambo mama wa kambo Simama! ghala ghorofa dhoruba hadithi/hadithi mtaa ghafla sukari suti kaskazi Jumapili mapambazuko

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sunset supervisor sweater sweet potato swimming switch/switches table/tables tag game tailor/tailors taxi taxi driver tea teacher/teachers technician/technicians telephone television tennis Thank you very much! Thank you! theatrical play there thief thigh/thighs three quarters thumb Thursday ticket/tickets tie/ties time to be able to buy to come to cook to cry to drink to eat to feel to give to give out to go

machweo muangalizi sweta kiazi kitamu kuogelea swichi/swichi meza/meza foliti mshoni/washoni teksi dereva wa teksi chai mwalimu/walimu fundi/mafundi simu televisheni tenisi Asante sana! Asante! mchezo wa kuigiza pale/kule mwizi paja/mapaja robo tatu kidole gumba Alhamisi tiketi/tiketi tai/tai wakati/saa kuweza kununua kuja kupika kulia kunywa kula kuhisi kupa kutoa kuenda/kwenda

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to hear to laugh to like/to love to listen to look at to look for to pay to read to remove to say to see to sell to sit to sleep to speak to stand up to think to travel to wake up to walk to want to wash to watch to work to write today toe toe/toes tomato tomorrow tongue/tongues tooth/teeth top-throw tortoise/tortoise tourist/tourists train/trains true/truth T-shirt/vest Tuesday turkey/turkeys

kusikia kucheka kupenda kusikiliza kutazama kutafuta kulipa kusoma kutoa kusema kuona kuuza kukaa kulala kusema kusimama kufikiri kusafiri kuamka kutembea kutaka kuosha kutazama/kuangalia kufanyakazi kuandika leo kidole cha mguu kidole cha mguu/vidole vya mguu nyanya/tungule kesho ulimi/ndimi jino/meno mtandio kobe/makobe mtalii/watalii gari-moshi/magari-moshi kweli fulana Jumanne bata-mzinga

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turtle/turtles twins two thirds underwear up vaccination card value vegetables veil very close very far video visit (noun) volleyball wall/walls wallet war warthog/warthogs watch water Wednesday week/weeks welcome/come again well west whale/whales What time is it? What? wheat flour When? Where? Which? whistle/whistles Who? wife window/windows winner/winners winter word/words

kasa/kasa mapacha thuluthi mbili chupi juu kadi ya mchanjo thamani mboga veli karibu sana mbali sana video matembezi mpira wa wavu ukuta/kuta pochi vita ngiri/ngiri saa maji Jumatano wiki/wiki karibu vyema magharibi nyangumi/nyangumi Saa ngapi? Nini? unga wa ngano Lini? Wapi? Ipi? firimbi/firimbi Nani? mke dirisha/madirisha mshindi/washindi masika neno/maneno

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work/job worker/workers X-and-O game year/years yeast Yes! yesterday yoghurt zebra/zebras

kazi mfanyakazi/wafanyakazi dama mwaka/miaka hamira Ndio! jana mtindi punda-milia/punda-milia

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