Stance in Political Discourse: Arabic Translations of ...usir. ... Stance in Political Discourse: Arabic

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  • Stance in Political Discourse:

    Arabic Translations of American Newspaper Opinion

    Articles on the ‘Arab Spring’

    Mohammad Al-Shunnag

    School of Humanities, Languages and Social Sciences

    College of Arts and Social Sciences

    University of Salford, Salford, UK

    Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of

    Philosophy, August 2014

  • To my beloved son, Ahmed

    To my father and my mother

    To my wife

    To my brothers

    To my uncle, Abu Ra’ed

    And in memory of my grandfathers, Abu Odeh and Abu Fawzi, who always believed in me.

  • I

    Table of contents

    List of tables and illustrations .................................................................................................. V

    Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................. VI

    Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................... VII

    Abstract .................................................................................................................................... VIII

    Chapter One: Introduction

    1.1 Scope of the study ............................................................................................................. 1

    1.2 Aims and research questions ............................................................................................ 8

    1.3 Background to the study ................................................................................................... 10

    1.3.1 Why stance? ............................................................................................................ 10

    1.3.2 Why newspaper opinion articles on the Arab Spring? ............................................ 12

    1.4 Structure of the thesis ....................................................................................................... 13

    Chapter Two: Political Discourse

    2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 18

    2.2 Politics and language ........................................................................................................ 19

    2.3 Key features of political discourse .................................................................................... 25

    2.4 Political discourse in Translation Studies ......................................................................... 29

    2.5 Political discourse and the media ...................................................................................... 37

    2.5.1 Newspaper opinion articles as a political genre ........................................................ 39

    2.6 Concluding remarks .......................................................................................................... 41

    Chapter Three: Newspaper Opinion Articles in English and Arabic

    3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 43

    3.2 The language of newspapers ............................................................................................. 44

    3.2.1 Objectivity and subjectivity ...................................................................................... 46

    3.2.2 English-language newspaper opinion pieces ............................................................ 49

  • II

    3.2.2.1 The genre of newspaper opinion articles ....................................................... 51

    3.2.2.1.1 Conventions of the argumentative text-type with respect to English

    newspaper opinion articles ............................................................. 56

    3.3 The language of Arabic newspapers .................................................................................. 60

    3.3.1 The genre of newspaper opinion articles in Arabic .................................................. 63

    3.3.1.1 Conventions of argumentative text-type in Arabic newspaper opinion

    Articles ......................................................................................................... 64

    3.4 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................................... 67

    Chapter Four: The Concept of Stance

    4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 70

    4.2 Defining stance ................................................................................................................. 71

    4.3 The model of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) ..................................................... 74

    4.4 Stance as an aspect of interpersonal meaning .................................................................. 80

    4.4.1 Other terms related to stance .................................................................................. 81

    4.4.1.1 Evaluation ................................................................................................... 82

    4.4.1.2 Appraisal ..................................................................................................... 84

    4.4.2 Stance as an umbrella term ..................................................................................... 86

    4.5 The theorisation of the concept of stance ......................................................................... 88

    4.6 Studies of stance in translation ......................................................................................... 97

    4.7 Concluding remarks .......................................................................................................... 99

    Chapter Five: Theoretical Background

    5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 102

    5.2 Two relevant trends in Translation Studies ..................................................................... 103

    5.2.1 Corpus-based translation studies ............................................................................ 105

    5.2.2 Discourse-oriented translation studies ................................................................... 109

    5.3 Approaches related to the analysis of political discourse ................................................. 111

    5.3.1 Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) ........................................................................ 112

    5.3.2 Narrative Theory (Baker, 2006) ............................................................................. 118

    5.4 The utility of using a combined research methodology ................................................... 122

  • III

    5.5 Concluding remarks .......................................................................................................... 124

    Chapter Six: Corpus Design and Research Methodology

    6.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 127

    6.2 The corpus ......................................................................................................................... 128

    6.2.1 Overview of the corpus ........................................................................................... 128

    6.2.2 Corpus selection criteria .......................................................................................... 130

    6.2.3 Text collection ......................................................................................................... 135

    6.3 The combined research methodology ................................................................................ 139

    6.3.1 The lexico-grammatical framework of stance (Biber et al., 1999; Biber, 2006) ..... 141

    6.3.1.1 Lexical marking of stance ........................................................................... 142

    6.3.1.2 Grammatical marking of stance .................................................................. 143

    6.3.1.2.1 Modals ......................................................................................... 144

    6.3.1.2.2 Adverbials ................................................................................... 145

    6.3.1.2.3 Stance Complement clauses ........................................................ 147

    6.3.2 Appraisal theory (Martin and White, 2005) ............................................................. 149

    6.3.2.1 Attitude ...................................................................................