Reaksi Organik - Kimia Organik 4

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REAKSI ORGANIK

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20/02/2013KIMIA ORGANIK 4

JENIS REAKSI ORGANIK1. REAKSI ADISIOccur when two reactants add together to form a single product with no atoms left over.

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Occur when a single reactant splits into two products, often with formation of a small molecule2. REAKSI ELIMINASI

JENIS REAKSI ORGANIK

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Occur when two reactants exchange parts to give two new products3. REAKSI SUBSTITUSI

JENIS REAKSI ORGANIK

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4. REAKSI REARRANGEMENTOccur when a single reactant undergoes a reorganization of bonds and atoms to yield an isomeric product

JENIS REAKSI ORGANIK

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Classify each of the following reactions as an addition, elimination, substitution, or rearrangement:EXERCISES

SUBSTITUSIELIMINASIADISI

MEKANISME REAKSI7Reaction mechanism describes bond-breaking and bond-making :

Which bonds are broken and in what orderWhich bonds are formed and in what order What the relative rates of the steps are Account for all reactants used and all products formed

8MEKANISME REAKSIBOND BREAKING1. HOMOLYTIC CLEAVAGESymmetrical bond-breaking : One bonding electron stays with each product

9Unsymmetrical bond-breaking (polar): Two bonding electrons stay with one product.MEKANISME REAKSIBOND BREAKING2. HETEROLYTIC CLEAVAGE

101. Symmetrical bond-forming : One bonding electron is donated by each reactantMEKANISME REAKSIBOND FORMING

112. Unsymmetrical bond-forming : two bonding electrons are donated by one reactantMEKANISME REAKSIBOND FORMING

REAKSI POLARThe fundamental characteristic of all polar organic reactions :Electron-rich sites react with electron-poor sitesBonds are made when an electron-rich atom donates a pair of electrons to an electron poor atomBonds are broken when one atom leaves with both electrons from the former bond

REAKSI POLAR

REAKSI POLARPOLARIZABILITASLarger atoms with more loosely held electrons are more polarizableSmaller atoms with fewer, tightly held electrons are less polarizableEx : Sulfur is more polarizable than oxygen, and iodine is more polarizable than chlorine. The measure of the response to an external electrical influence

The effect of this higher polarizability for sulfur and iodine is that carbonsulfur and carboniodine bonds, although nonpolar according to electronegativity values, nevertheless usually react as if they were polarREAKSI POLAR

REAKSI POLAR

REAKSI POLARElectrophile is electron-loving.

An electrophile has a positively polarized, electron poor atom and can form a bond by accepting a pair of electrons from a nucleophile. Electrophiles can be either neutral or positively charged. Nucleophile is a nucleus-loving. A nucleophile has a negatively polarized, electron-rich atom and can form a bond by donating a pair of electrons to a positively polarized, electronpoor atom. Nucleophiles can be either neutral or negatively charged

REAKSI POLAR

REAKSI POLAREXERCISES

REAKSI POLAREXERCISES

a)TUGASDesigned by TheTemplateMart.comJelaskan yang dimaksud dengan :Reaksi Eksergonis dan EndergonisReaksi Eksotermis dan EndotermisEnergi Disosiasi IkatanAnalisalah diagram reaksi di bawah ini, dan berikan penjelasannya

b)