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Pronoun / Antecedent Agreement. Definitions. Pronoun = word that refers to another noun (he, she, it, they, my, your, etc .) Antecedent = noun to which the pronoun refers. Sally (Ant.) drank her (Pro.) milk slowly. Rule 1. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Definitions Pronoun = word that refers to another
noun (he, she, it, they, my, your, etc.)
Antecedent = noun to which the pronoun refers.
Sally (Ant.) drank her (Pro.) milk slowly.
Rule 1 A pronoun should agree in number,
gender, and person with its antecedent.
Agreement in Number
• Singular: Sammy Davis Jr. made his movie debut in 1931.
• Plural: The hikers took their canteens with them.
Agreement in Gender• Gender Pronouns: he, him,
his, himself, she, her, hers, herself
• Neither Masculine nor Feminine: it, its, and itself
Agreement in Person First: I need a transcript of my grades. Second: Have you fastened your seat
belt? Third: He said they made their own
costumes. Third person can be singular or plural
Singular = he/him/his, she/her/hers Plural = they/their
Rule 2 Using indefinite pronouns as part of the
antecedent may require a single or plural pronoun, or sometimes could use either, depending on meaning.
Indefinite pronouns in antecedent = single, plural, or both
Chart of Indefinite Pronouns
Singular Both PluralAnybody,,, each, either, everybody, neither, nobody, somebody ***Gender neutral pronouns
all, any, more, most, none, some ***If the subject is countable, use a plural pronoun. If the subject is uncountable, use a singular pronoun.
both, few, many, and several
Examples using indefinite pronouns Singular example:
Each of the boys brought his own mitt. If the antecedent may be either gender, use both. EX: Any interested person may send his or her
resume. Plural example
Both of the debaters persuasively presented their arguments.
Both example Some of the students did their homework. All of the sugar fell out of its bag.
Rule 3 Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or
more antecedents joined by “and”. If Joann and Ben call, tell them that I
will not be home until this evening. Antecedents joined by “and” may name
only one person, place, thing, or idea The corned beef and cabbage was
delicious; I ate two servings of it.
Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor. Neither Cindy nor Carla thinks she is
ready to audition.
Practice Exercise 13 page 538 1-10: Write the
pronoun that completes the sentence
Problems with Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement
Rule #5 A collective noun can be either singular or
plural, depending on how it is used Singular: refers to the group as a unit
The committee comprised three juniors and two seniors; its chairperson was Angelo. [Angelo was chairperson of the committee as unit]
Plural: refers to the individual members or part of the group The committee discussed their varied schedules.
[The members of the committee had different schedules.]
Rule #6 Some antecedents require singular pronouns,
even though they look pluralCivics MeaslesMolasses EconomicsMumps Electronics News GeneticsPhysics GymnasticsSummons Mathematics I’m looking forward to studying physics next
year; it is my favorite subject.
Rule #6 Cont. Some nouns take plural pronouns even
when they refer to single items BinocularsPants ShearsEyeglasses Pliers ShortsOlympics Slacks Scissors
Whenever the Olympics are held, they attract athletes from all over the world.
I have misplaced my eyeglasses. Have you seen them?
An expression of an amount (a measurement, a percentage, or a fraction) may be singular or plural, depending on how it is used. Five thousand bricks is a heavy load; it
almost ruined the truck’s suspension. [The bricks are thought of a unit (one load)]
Two thirds of the apples are rotten; they should be thrown out. [The fraction refers to the plural noun apples]
Practice Pg. 539 Exercise H: EVEN NUMBERS
ONLY You do NOT have to write the whole
sentence EVERY sentence has an error.
Pronoun Case and Reference
Definition Case: the form that a noun or a pronoun
takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence Nominative/Subjective (subject of
sentence) Objective (object of sentence) Possessive (showing possession)
Examples The general explained the strategy
[nominative subject]. The strategy was explained by the
general [objective object]. The general’s explanation was both
clear and concise [possessive].
Copy chart on pg. 548 of your textbook into your notes
Rule 1 Nominative Case is used when the
pronoun is the subject of the verb. We ordered the concert tickets [We is the
subject of the verb ordered].
Tip: find the verb first, to decide what pronoun is in the nominative case.
Rule 2 A personal pronoun used as a predicate
nominative usually completes the meaning of a form of the verb “be”: am, is, are, was, were, be, been, or being The chairperson of the prom committee is
she. The one who made the comment was I.
Tip: find the “be” verb first, then the pronoun that follows.
Rule 3 A direct and indirect object should be in
the objective case. My pen pal from Manila visited me last
summer. The coach awarded her a varsity letter.
Tip: remember that the object of a sentence answers the question “who?” as well as “to whom?” or “for whom?”
Rule 4 Possessive pronouns can be used in the
same ways as nominative and objective. Your car and mine need to be washed
[nominative]. Mrs. Fong takes hers for a walk twice a
Rule 5 A pronoun ending in –self or –selves
should not be used in place of a personal pronoun Did Rosa make lunch for herself and
yourself [incorrect]? Did Rosa make lunch for herself and you
[correct]? Tip: Remove the other –self or –
selves pronoun, and see what makes sense,
Rule 6 Who vs. whom
“Who” is always a subject and is followed by a verb.
“Whom” is an object
Examples Who wants some key lime pie? Nortel hired whom? She works for whom?
Notice that “whom” may come after a verb or a preposition.
Tricks for deciding If you could substitute “he/she” and the
sentence makes sense, use who. If you could substitute “him/her” and
the sentence makes sense, use whom. He wants some key lime pie? Who
wants some key lime pie? Nortel hired her? Nortel hired whom? She works for him? She works for
PracticeLabel the pronoun as nominative, objective, or possessive. I passed the class. The teacher gave us homework. The book is theirs. You and I should go to the movie.
PracticeFill in the blank with the correct pronoun OR who/whom. With ______ did you go to tolo?
(who/whom) ______ told you that rumor? (who/whom) Is this Ms. Eaton? Yes, this is ______.
PracticeFix the error in the following sentences Did you and her fight? You and me should go to the movie. Me and him snorkeled. Us skiers love cocoa. Her and Ryan are engaged.