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  • PPT Accompaniment for Carolina K-12s lesson

    The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment

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  • U.S. Public Health Service begins study on effects of syphilis

    In1932,thePublicHealthService,workingwiththeTuskegeeInstitute,beganastudyoftheeffectsofsyphilisonthehumanbody.

  • U.S. Public Health Service begins study on effects of syphilis The1932studywascalledthe"TuskegeeStudy

    ofUntreatedSyphilisintheNegroMale." Thestudyinitiallyinvolved600blackmale

    volunteers 399withsyphilis,201whodidnothavethedisease.

    GovernmentofficialsrecruitedAfricanAmericanparticipantsinthestudybyofferingfreemedicalcaretothem.Theywerealsogivenfreemealsandburialinsurance.

    Themenrecruitedweremostlypoorsharecropper'sfromMaconCounty,Alabama.(MaconCountyhadaparticularlyhighrateofsyphiliscases.)Thesemenhaddifficultlives,hoeingsmallplotsofland,livinginwoodenshacks,andpickingcottonintheseason.TherewaslittlewealthinMaconCountyandaverysmallchanceofseeingadoctor,eventhoughsyphiliswasmorerampanttherethananywhereelseintheSouth.

    Themenenrolledinthestudywerenevertoldtheyhadsyphilis.Instead,researcherskeptthisinformationfromthemandtoldthepatientsthattheywerebeingtreatedfor"badblood,"alocaltermusedtodescribeseveralailments,includingsyphilis,anemia,andfatigue.

  • U.S. Public Health Service begins study on effects of syphilis Intruth,the399syphiliticpatientsdidnotreceivewhattheysignedup

    for.Theywerenevergiventhepropertreatmentneededtocuretheirsyphilis,sincethegovernmentwantedtostudyuntreatedsyphilis.Thedoctorswerealsointerestedinwhetherthediseaseaffectedwhitesandblacksdifferently.

    Eachtimetheyvisitedthedoctors,thementhoughttheirconditionwasbeingtreatedandcured.Insteadhowever,themedicineprovidedtothemwasfakeandcontainednomedicinalproperties.Thedoctorsandnurseswerenottheretocure,buttoobservetheprogressofuntreatedsyphilis.

    Althoughoriginallyprojectedtolast6months,thestudyactuallywentonfor40years,theentiretimetheparticipantsassumingtheywerebeingtreated.Instead,thegovernmentwaspurposelylettingtheirdiseaseprogressforthestudy.

  • U.S. Public Health Service begins study on effects of syphilis

    Penicillincameintousein1947,whichcouldcuresyphilis.Hadpenicillinbeenadministeredtothesyphiliticmeninthestudy,manywouldhaveleadlongerandmorecomfortablelives.However,thegovernmentdidnottreatthem.

    Toensurethatthemenwouldshowupforapainfulandpotentiallydangerousspinaltap,thedoctorsmisledthemwithaletterfullofpromotionalhype:LastChanceforSpecialFreeTreatment.

    Thefactthatautopsieswouldeventuallyberequiredwasalsoconcealed.(Itwasfromtheautopsiesthatthegovernmentwouldgettheirfinaldata.)

    TheexperimentcontinuedinspiteoftheHendersonAct(1943),apublichealthlawrequiringtestingandtreatmentforvenerealdisease,andinspiteoftheWorldHealthOrganization'sDeclarationofHelsinki(1964),whichspecifiedthatinformedconsentwasneededforexperimentsinvolvinghumanbeings.

    Bythetimethestudywasexposedin1972,28menhaddiedofsyphilis,100othersweredeadofrelatedcomplications,atleast40wiveshadbeeninfectedand19childrenhadcontractedthediseaseatbirth.

    Patientswhoareuntreatedsometimesdevelopnosymptoms,andsometimesspontaneouslyrecover;buttheycanalsosuffergreatly.Rashes,skingrowths,liverdeformity,heartdamage,paralysis,insanity,anddeathareallpossibleoutcomesoftheuntreateddisease. Syphilis rash on hand

  • Reconsider this poster.

    ConsideringwhatyouhavenowlearnedaboutTuskegee,doesyourinterpretationofthisposteranditspurposechange?Explain.

    InwhatwaysdoesthemessageofthispostercontradicttheactionsoftheUSHealthDept.?

  • The study becomes public ThestoryfinallybrokeintheWashingtonStar onJuly25,1972,in

    anarticlebyJeanHelleroftheAssociatedPress.HersourcewasPeterBuxtun,aformerPHSvenerealdiseaseinterviewerandoneofthefewwhistleblowersovertheyears.

    Whentheexperimentwasbroughttotheattentionofthemediain1972,newsanchorHarryReasoner describeditasanexperimentthatusedhumanbeingsaslaboratoryanimalsinalongandinefficientstudyofhowlongittakessyphilistokillsomeone.

    ManybegantocompareTuskegeetotheappallingexperimentsperformedbyNazidoctorsontheirJewishvictimsduringWorldWarII.

    ThePHS,however,remainedunrepentant,claimingthemenhadbeenvolunteersandwerealwayshappytoseethedoctors,andanAlabamastatehealthofficerwhohadbeeninvolvedclaimedsomebodyistryingtomakeamountainoutofamolehill.

    Undertheglareofpublicity,thegovernmentendedtheirexperiment,andforthefirsttimeprovidedthemenwitheffectivemedicaltreatmentforsyphilis.

  • The end of the study AftertheTuskegeestudybecamepublic,itcaused

    apublicoutcrythatledtheAssistantSecretaryforHealthandScientificAffairstoappointanAdHocAdvisoryPaneltoreviewthestudy.

    Thepanelhadninemembersfromthefieldsofmedicine,law,religion,labor,education,healthadministration,andpublicaffairs.

    Thepanelfoundthatthemenhadagreedfreelytobeexaminedandtreated. However,therewasnoevidencethatresearchershadinformedthemofthestudyoritsrealpurpose. Infact,themenhadbeenmisledandhadnotbeengivenallthefactsrequiredtoprovideinformedconsent.

    Themenwerenevergivenadequatetreatmentfortheirdisease. Evenwhenpenicillinbecamethedrugofchoiceforsyphilisin1947,researchersdidnotofferittothesubjects. Theadvisorypanelfoundnothingtoshowthatsubjectswereevergiventhechoiceofquittingthestudy,evenwhenthisnew,highlyeffectivetreatmentbecamewidelyused.

  • The end of the study TheadvisorypanelconcludedthattheTuskegeeStudywas"ethically

    unjustified"--theknowledgegainedwassparsewhencomparedwiththerisksthestudyposedforitssubjects.

    InOctober1972,thepaneladvisedstoppingthestudyatonce.Amonthlater,theAssistantSecretaryforHealthandScientificAffairsannouncedtheendoftheTuskegeeStudy.

    In"Tuskegee's"wake,majorchangesinfederalrulesgoverningmedicalresearchwereestablished,includingwritteninformedconsentandthecreationofinstitutionalreviewboardstooverseehumansubjectresearch.

    Thestudyalsocreatedanotherlegacy--itbecamethemetaphorforthedistrustofscientificresearch,therisksofgovernmentprovisionofmedicalcare,andtheexploitationofpoorpatients.

  • Ernest Hendon

  • Reparations Inthesummerof1973,aclass-actionlawsuitwasfiledonbehalfofthe

    studyparticipantsandtheirfamilies.FredGray,alawyerwhohadpreviouslydefendedRosaParksandMartinLutherKing,wastheleadattorney.In1974,a$10millionout-of-courtsettlementwasreached.(Thisresultedinonlyaround$37,000forsurvivors.)

    Aspartofthesettlement,theU.S.governmentpromisedtogivelifetimemedicalbenefitsandburialservicestoalllivingparticipants.TheTuskegeeHealthBenefitProgram(THBP)wasestablishedtoprovidetheseservices.

    In1975,wives,widowsandoffspringwereaddedtotheprogram. In1995,theprogramwasexpandedtoincludehealthaswellasmedical

    benefits. ItwasntuntilMay,1997thattheUSgovernment

    acknowledgeditswrongdoingduringtheexperimentswhenPresidentBillClintonissuedaformalapology.

    ThelaststudyparticipantdiedinJanuary2004.ThelastwidowreceivingbenefitsdiedinJanuary2009.Asof2009,therewere15offspringreceivingmedicalandhealthbenefits.

  • Sources http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtuskegee1.html http://www.huffingtonpost.com/susan-reverby/a-new-lesson-

    from-the-old_b_378649.html http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/luna/servlet/detail/NLMNLM~1~1~101447

    551~209482:The-duties-of-the-health-department