Text of THE DEPRESSION ERA BY: Stephanie Sciturro-Smith. ï‚ Important occurrences in the...
THE DEPRESSION ERA BY: Stephanie Sciturro-Smith
Important occurrences in the 1930s: Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment- (1932-1972) Tuskegee, Alabama Wanted to see long symptoms/ effects We have a cure but do not give it to them 399 black men with syphilis choosen for this study Told they had bad blood Government said they would monitor their health and give them care Over 40 years they died off, given no treatment, besides a nurse visiting Some nurses and doctors were black themselves We apologized to the eight not dead under President Clinton (1997)
Scottsboro Boys- (March 1931) Scottsboro, Alabama Riding the rails (illegally jumped on trains); because homeless and unemployed 9 black men and 2 white women They start talking to each other; share alcohol Cops find them so to cover up for riding the rails they say they were raped by the black men Black men get charged for raping these women NAACP and Communist Party get involved Doesnt end for six years Some are sentenced to 20, 99, and 75 years Charges dropped on 4 of them One death sentence reduced to life in prison By the 1950s all of them are found not guilty and released
In 1939 one of the most famous opera singers was barred from singing in the constitution hall because she was black ( Marian Anderson) Eleanor Roosevelt ( first lady), quits this organization, because they wont let that women sing, so she sets up for her to sing at the Lincoln memorial steps
Causes of the Depression: Buying more, but on credit No social security / No unemployment options Too much inventory in businesses Labor units could not help/govt. stops strikes Produce more than people were buying Stock market crash Banks were not well managed and speculated with citizens money Stocks not regulated Farming crisis- over production, credit, spent too much on technology
Definitions: Hooverville- the nickname given to shantytowns in the United States during the Depression Bonus Army- A group of veterans that made a month long march to Washington to lobby Congress to get their bonus early / denied Dust bowl- the name given to the area of the southern Great Plains severely damaged by droughts and dust storms during the 1930s Brain Trust- It was Roosevelts advisers who were experts in their fields Margin Buying- The buying of stocks only by paying a fraction of the price and borrowing the rest The New Deal- Roosevelts policies for ending the Depression Relief, recovery, and reform Speculation- The act of buying stocks at great risk with the anticipation that the prices will rise Black Tuesday- The day of October 29 th, 1929; when the stock market took the steepest drive ever Hobos- People who were homeless, that wonder around the country in search for a better life and better opportunities Riding the Rails- Sneaking past railroad police to slip into open box cars on freight trains for a ride to another place
Stock market helps Trigger Depression: Bull market encouraged widespread speculation. Many investors bought stocks on margin. Sharp drop in market prices left investors in debt. Bank closings left many in debt. Underlying causes of Great Depression: Overproduction and low interest rates Uneven distribution of income, which led to low demand Depressed farm sector Weak international market with high tariffs
Downward Momentum of the Depression: Low Sales Job Layoffs Less Income Fewer Purchases More Job Layoffs
Financial and Debt: Emergency Banking Relief Act regulated banks. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insured bank deposits. Farm Credit Administration refinanced farm mortgages. Home Owners Loan Corporation financed homeowners mortgages. Work and Relief: Civilian Conservation Corps created forestry jobs for young men. Federal Emergency Relief Administration funded city and state relief programs. Public Works Administration created work programs to build public projects, such as roads, bridges, and schools.
Agriculture and Industry: Agricultural Adjustment Administration paid farmers to limit surplus production. National Industrial Recovery Act limited industrial production and set prices. National Labor Relations Act gave workers the right to organize unions and bargain collectively. Tennessee Valley Authority financed rural electrification and helped develop the economy of a seven-state region. Social Safety Net: Social Security Act provided: income for elderly, handicapped, and unemployed. monthly retirement benefit for people over 65
AgencyEstablishedFunction Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) March 1933 Employed single men, ages 18- 25, for natural resource conservation Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) May 1933 Built hydroelectric plants and dams aimed at improving seven southern states and attracting industry to the south Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) May 1933 Reduced agricultural surplus and raised prices for struggling farmers Federal Emergency Relief Agency (FERA) May 1933 Granted federal money to state and local governments to be used to help unemployed National Recovery Administration (NRA) June 1933 Controlled industrial production and prices with industry- created codes of fair competition Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDRA) June 1933 Guaranteed bank deposits up to $2,500 Public Works Administration (PWA) Civil Works Administration (CWA) June 1933 November 1933 (Canceled 1934) Provided employment in construction of airports, parks schools, and roads Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) June 1934 Regulated the stock market to avoid dishonest practices
1. At ten years of age, the young Amelia Earhart saw her first plane, which did not interest her at all, because it was not in good shape. 2. Almost ten years later, when she attended a stunt flying exhibition, was the day she became interesting in flying. 3. A pilot by the name of Frank Hawks gave Amelia her first plane ride, where she instantly knew that she had to fly. 4. She was tom boy, who always liked a challange and she did things not many women would do. Including climbing different trees and shooting rats with a rifle. 5. She took her first flying lesson after graduating form Hyde Park University and being a nurse aide for the military. 6. Being a nurse aid helped her raise enough money to buy her first plane, which she decided to name Canary.
7. She set her first record by flying up 14,000 feet in that plane. 8. She received a phone call from a stranger, which she thought was a prank, but she was asked if she wanted to be the first women to fly over the Atlantic, but it would not happen till years later. 9. There was a challenge to the flight though because three women who tried died. 10. She worked on secret plans on how she would fly over the Atlantic and five years to the day after Charles Lindbergh flew, she took off. 11. The weather was so icy and bad that it caused problems and it forced her to immediately land.
12. The news spread globally and Earhart was given many awards for her intelligence, speed, daringness, and coordination. 13. Her main goal to cross the Atlantic got pushed further and further back, but in the mean time she claimed more records such as being the first women to cross the pacific from Hawaii to California 14. She made many attempts to make her goal but something always went wrong such as damaging her plane; but she was not one to give up and her her newest goal was to be the first women to fly around the world. 15. Two U.S. ships burned every light on board for markers to light the way for her plane because the island was hard to locate because of its small size.
16. When she landed in New Guinea and she was to leave for the island of Lae she decided to empty out any unneeded material in order to make room for extra fuel that was needed to make it to Lae. 17. ITASCA radioed her but she could not hear the messages, and ITASCA never heard back from her and they assumed she had died because her plane was low on fuel. 18. A light house, many streets, schools, and airports are named after her. 19. Her awards and scholarships are given out every year. 20. She may of not died on that day many say, but if so, she will always be in the peoples memories for her achievements as women of aviation. The Earhart Family."Amelia Earhart". The Official Website. Retrieved 28 November 2009..
1. _____was the nickname given to shantytowns in the United States during the Depression? A) Smallville B) Hoover Village C) Hoover Town D) Hooverville (Correct) 2. What were three causes of the Depression? A) Taxes, no security, and disease B) The President, war, and no food C) People were buying more, labor unions were not helping, and the stock market crash (Correct) D) None of the Above 3. Who was the women who wasn't allowed to sing in the constitution hall? A) Eleanor Roosevelt B) Marian Anderson (Correct) C) Aretha Franklin D) Susan B. Anthony 4. How long did the Scottsboro boys trial last? A) 6 years (Correct) B) 4 days C)2 years D) There was never a trial
5. How did the Stock market help trigger the Depression? A) It made everyone rich B) Banks closed leaving many in debt C) Bull market encouraged widespread speculation D) Both B and C (Correct) 6. _____ was Roosevelt a