POETRY AND ITS ELEMENTS

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Mr. Nicanor L. GuintoDept. of Languages, Literature and HumanitiesCollege of Arts and SciencesSouthern Luzon State UniversityNarrative PoetrvP poems that tell stories in verse formP story may be sad or filled with adventureP Kinds of Narrative PoetryO EpicO Metrical TaleO Metrical RomanceO BalladNarrative Poetrv: LpioP long narrative that recounts the adventures of a warrior, a king or a hero in a dignified languageP presented in a series of adventuresP told in episodes important to the history of a nation or raceP opens in medias resP setting is vastP begins with an invocation to a museNarrative Poetrv: LpioP starts with a statement of the themeP uses epithetsP includes long listsP features long and formal speechesP shows divine interventionP "star hero embodies the values of the civilizationP Kinds of EpicO Folk EpicO Literary EpicNarrative Poetrv: LpioP Folk EpicO Beowulf (England)O Ramayana & Mahabharata (ndia)O Kalevala (Finland)O Song of Roland (France)O Nibelungenlied (Germany)O El Cid (Spain)O Biag Ni Lam-Ang (Philippines)Narrative Poetrv: LpioP Literary EpicO The liad and Odyssey (Homer, Greece)O Divine Comedy (Dante Alighieri, taly)O Uncle Tom's Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe, USA)O Aenid (Virgil, Rome)O Jerusalem Delivered (Tasso)O Paradise Lost (John Milton)Narrative Poetrv: Metrioal 1aleP poem of real or imaginary incidentP simple, straightforward story in verseNarrative Poetrv: Metrioal RomanoeP long rambling love story in verseP centers around the adventures of knights and lords and their royal ladies during the age of chivalryP characterized by ideals of truth, courage, revenge and justice.Narrative Poetrv: BalladP short simple narrative intended to be sungP characterized by its presentation of a dramatic or exciting episodes in simple narrative formP Kinds of BalladsO Folk BalladO Literary BalladO Broadside BalladNarrative Poetrv: BalladP aIIad of a Mother's Heart by Jose La ViIIa TierraThe night was dark,For the moon was young,And the Stars were asleep and rare,The clouds were thick,Yet Youth went out,To see his Maiden fair.Dear one,he pleaded as he knelt before her feet in tears.My love is true,Why you have kept me waiting all this years?The maiden looked at him.Unmoved it seemed,And whispered low.Narrative Poetrv: BalladP Persistent Youth,You have to prove by deeds,Your love is true."There's not a thing would not do for you, Beloved" said he."Then, go." said she. "To your mother dear,And bring her heart to me.Without another word,Youth left and went to his mother dear.He opened her breast and took her heart!But he did not shed a tear.Then back to his Maiden fair,He run unmindful of the rain.But his feet slipped, And he fell down,And loud, he groaned with pain!Narrative Poetrv: BalladPStill in his hand he held the prize,That would win his Maiden's hands.But he thought of his mother dear,So kind, so sweet, so fond.And then,he heard a voice!Not from his lips,But all apart!"Get up" it said."Were you hurt, Child?"t was his mother's heartramatio PoetrvPpredominant theatrical pieces since the ancient Greeks until the 19thcenturyPpresents one or more characters speaking usually to another characters, but sometimes to themselves or directly to the readerPKinds as to PresentationO1. Dramatic verseO2. Closet DramaPKinds as to TopicO1. ComedyO2. Tragedyramatio PoetrvP Dramatic VerseO play composed in poetic formO tradition can be traced back in the ancient GreeceO majority is composed as blank verseP Closet DramaO dramatic verse written for the purpose of being read than performedO trend started in England in 1800sramatio PoetrvP ComedyO intended to give pleasure or evoke laughterO depicts the incongruities in man's lifeP TragedyO intended to arouse pity and sympathy from the readersO depicts about the downfall of the hero or the main characterLlements of PoetrvP RhythmO regular or random occurrence of sound in poetryP FootO smallest repeated pattern of stressed and unstressed syllablessmallest unit of a meteriambus = unstressed followed by a stressed syllable (UA)trochee = stressed followed by unstressed syllable (AU)Llements of Poetrv anapest = two unstressed followed by a stressed syllable (UUA) dactyl = one stressed followed by two unstressed syllables (AUU) spondee = two long stressed syllablesP MeterO patterned repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry monometer = one foot in a line dimeter = two feet in a lineLlements of Poetrv trimeter = three feet in a line tetrameter = four feet in a line pentameter = five feet in a line hexameter = six feet in a line heptameter = seven feet in a line hexameter = eight feet in a lineLlements of PoetrvP RhymeO similarity or likeness of sounds existing between two words Perfect rhymeO Masculine rhyme - a rhyme in which the stress is on the final syllable of the words. (rhyme, sublime)O Feminine rhyme - a rhyme in which the stress is on the penultimate (second from last) syllable of the words. (5icky, tricky) Sight RhymeLlements of PoetrvP StanzaO division of poetry named after the number of lines it contain couplet tercet6uatrain6uintet sestet septet octaveLlements of PoetrvLet me not to the marriage of true mindsAdmit impediments. Love is not loveWhich alters when it alteration finds,Or bends with the remover to remove:O no! it is an ever-fixed markThat looks on tempests and is never shaken; $433et 116 by William $hakes5eareLlements of PoetrvOnce upon a midnight dreary, while pondered weak and weary,Over many a 6uaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,While nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.`'Tis some visitor,' muttered, `tapping at my chamber door -Only this, and nothing more.'Ah, distinctly remember it was in the bleak December,And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.Eagerly wished the morrow; - vainly had sought to borrowFrom my books surcease of sorrow - sorrow for the lost Lenore -For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore -Nameless here for evermore.%he Rave3 by Edgar Alla3 P4eLlements of PoetrvThe Assyrian came down like a wolf on the foldAnd his cohorts were gleaming in purple and goldAnd the sheen of their spears was like stars on the seaWhen the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.Like the leaves of the forest when Summer is green,That host with their banners at sunset were seen:Like the leaves of the forest when Autumn hath blown,That host on the morrow lay withered and strown. %he Destructi43 41 $e33acherib by L4rd Byr43Llements of PoetrvTHS is the forest primeval. The murmuring pines and the hemlocks,Bearded with moss, and in garments green, indistinct in the twilight,Stand like Druids of eld, with voices sad and prophetic,Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosoms.Eva3geli3e by He3ry Wadsw4rth L43g1ell4wieures of 3peeohP Alliterati43the same consonant sound is repeated noticeably at the beginning of words placed close togetherO "World Wide Web"O "Find four furry foxes"P Allusi43is a reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event.O " . . . a turn of phrase even Shakespeare would appreciate."ieures of 3peeohP A54str45hedirect address of an absent or dead person or personified thing.O "God help me!"O "Ambition, you're a cruel master!"P r43ythe use of words to mean the opposite of what is said.O $arcasm is a cutting, sneering or taunting irony. "He's handsome if you like rodents."ieures of 3peeohO HyperboIe is an exaggeration not meant to be taken literally. " waited forever for him." " destroyed that test!" "The world ended the day my father died."O &nderstatement is the representation of something as significantly less than it actually is. "That was some sprinkle." (in reference to the four inches of rain which fell an hour before)ieures of 3peeohP eta5h4ran implied and direct comparison between things, events, or actions which are fundamentally dissimilar.O Metonymy is substituting a word--which is suggested by it or which is closely associated with it--for another word. "She counted heads." "Malacaan denied the allegations."ieures of 3peeohO $ynecdoche is the use of a part for the whole or the whole for a part. "The pen is mightier than the sword"O !ersonification represents a thing, 6uality, or idea as a person. "The book just begged to be read." "The ocean screamed its fury" "Fear lived with us during the Japanese regime."ieures of 3peeohP 34mat454eia uses words to imitate the sound they representO " heard the hiss of steam down in the access tunnel."O "The clock in the living room cuckooed the hour."O "The clang of the cymbals echoed across the s6uare."P Parallelism (aka "Balance")is expressing two ideas of e6ual importance through similar phrasing.ieures of 3peeohO ntithesis is parallelism in grammatical pattern but strong contrast in meaning. "Give me liberty or give me death!" "That isn't the truth, it's a lie." "You seem so wise, yet how foolish you are."O !aradoxis a statement that seems self-contradictory. The effect of this is to jolt the reader into paying attention. "He who loses his life for My sake will save it." "One day is sometimes better than a whole year."ieures of 3peeohO xymoron is a paradoxical statement in which two contradictory terms or words are brought together. "the deafening silence" "He was clearly misunderstood." "They were alone together."O naphora is the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning or successive clauses, verses, or sentences, "He came as con6ueror. He came as ally. He came as a stranger. He came as brother."ieures of 3peeohO Iimax: The arrangement of a series of ideas or events in ascending order of importance, interest, or effectiveness. Stresses the relative importance of ideas or events.O nticIimax: the use of climax up to the end of a series of thoughts and then the insertion of some unimportant idea in the last, most important position. Useful in humorous writing.ieures of 3peeohP$imilean explic