Im man's best friend. Reverse me and Im a supernatural
ANSWER: DOG - GOD
STEP PETS EVIL LIVE TOP POT
SPAN NAPS DIAL- LAID RAIL - LIAR
I shine brightly in the night sky. Reverse me
and Im rodents.
Im uncooked. Reverse me and Im armed conflict.
ANSWER: RAW - WAR
ANSWER: STAR - RATS
Im overworked and strained. Reverse me and Im yummy dishes
to end your meal.
ANSWER: STRESSED - DESSERTS
Im a male guard. Reverse me and Im a badge used to identify
ANSWER: GATEMAN NAMETAG
TEN - NET
Im a number. Reverse me and Im an open meshed fabric used
for catching fish.
I am an attack with a knife. Reverse me
and Im small flying animals (plural) in caves.
STAB - BATS
Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980)
o Employed at the Binet Institute in the 1920s
o His job was to develop French versions
of questions on English intelligence
o Became curious on childrens mental
o First psychologist to make a systematic
study of cognitive development
His contributions include the
theory of cognitive child development
detailed observational studies of
cognition in children
a series of simple but ingenious tests
to reveal different cognitive abilities.
Psychological assumption before Piagets work: Children are
merely less competent thinkers than adults.
What Piaget showed and deduced:
Young children think in strikingly different ways compared
Children are born with a very basic mental structure
(genetically inherited and evolved) on which all subsequent
learning and knowledge is based.
There Are Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive
(building blocks of knowledge) 2. Processes that enable the
transition from one stage to another
o Equilibrium o Assimilation o Accommodation
3. Stages of Development o Sensorimotor o Preoperational o
Concrete operational o Formal operational
basic building block of intelligent behavior a way of organizing
set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use
both to understand and to respond to situations.
2. Assimilation and Accommodation
Jean Piaget viewed intellectual growth
as a process of adaptation (adjustment)
to the world. This happens through:
Using an existing schema to deal with a new object or
This happens when the existing schema (knowledge)
does not work, and needs to
be changed to deal with a
new object or situation.
This is the force, which moves development along. Piaget
that cognitive development did not
progress at a steady rate, but rather
in leaps and bounds.
3. Stages of Development
Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2
Preoperational Stage 2 to 7
Concrete Operation Stage 7 to 12
Formal Operation Stage 12 years to adulthood
Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years
According to Piaget, the stage from birth to 2
years, during which a child has little
competence in representing the environment by
using images, language, or other symbols.
Knowledge develops through sensory and
The ability to form symbols (or
mental representations) that stand
for objects or events in the world.
Babies are stuck in the HERE AND NOW
they know the world only in terms of
their own sensory input (what they see,
smell, taste, touch, and hear) and their
physical or motor actions on it (e.g.
sucking, reaching, grasping)
Object permanence The awareness that objects and people continue
to exist even if they are out of sight. (Feldman, 2011)
Before 6 months infants act as if objects removed from sight
cease to exist
Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 years
According to Piaget, the period from 2 to 7 years of age that is
characterized by language development. (Feldman, 2011)
Knowledge is represented by language, mental imagery, and
Make-believe play: use toys as props
Symbolic play: use one object to stand for another
Fantasy play: pretend to be something, or pretend activities
that are impossible Rock a-by Baby
Can you hear me now?
UP, UP, AND AWAY
(Littlefield Cook & Cook, (2005/2009)
Even though preoperational children make progressive progress in
this stage, they have some definite limitations:
Egocentrism Animism Artificialism Lack of conservation
A way of thinking in which a child views the world entirely from
his or her own perspective. (Feldman, 2011)
A three-mountain task
The girls egocentrism
prevents her from
seeing the dolls perspective.
Animismthe idea that inanimate objects have conscious life and
feelingsis typical of the preoperational stage (Piaget, 1929, 1930,
Artificialism is the notion that natural events or objects
(e.g., the sun, moon, hurricanes, droughts) are under the control
of people or of superhuman agents. (Piaget, 1929, 1930, 1951).
Principle of conservation The knowledge that quantity is
unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.
In Piagets theory, the tendency to
focus on only one aspect of a situation
at a time. ( Nevid, 2009, 2013)
The child focuses on only one thing:
the height of the column of water.
In Piagets theory, the inability to
reverse the direction of a sequence of
events to their starting point. (Nevid,
The child fails to recognize that the
process can be restored to its starting
point- that pouring the water back to its
original container would restore it to its
Operations actions performed mentally
that are reversible (Ginsburg & Opper, 1988).
preoperational thoughtit is thought that is not yet reversible,
not yet truly operational.
Concrete Operational: 7 to 12 During this time, children gain a
better understanding of mental operations.
Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but
have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical
In the Concrete Operational stage, the
child has the ability to develop logical
thought about an object, if they are able
to manipulate it.
Piaget determined that children in the concrete
operational stage were fairly good at the use of
inductive logic. Inductive logic involves going from
a specific experience to a general principle. On the
other hand, children at this age have difficulty using
deductive logic, which involves using a general
principle to determine the outcome of a specific
Formal Operational : 12 to adulthood
During this time, people develop the ability to think about
Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and
systematic planning also
emerge during this stage.
Piaget believed that deductive logic becomes important during
operational stage. Deductive logic
requires the ability to use a general
principle to determine a specific
outcome. This type of thinking involves
hypothetical situations and is often
required in science and mathematics.
There are 2 major characteristics of formal operational
When faced with a problem, adolescents
come up with a general theory of all possible
factors that might affect the outcome and
deduce from it specific hypothesis that might
occur. They then systematically treat these
hypothesis to see which ones do in fact occur in
the real world.
'Propositional' in nature.
Adolescents can focus on verbal
assertions and evaluate their logical validity
without making reference to real-world
circumstances. In contrast, concrete
operational children can evaluate the logic of
statements by considering them against
concrete evidence only.
Feldman, R. (2011). Understanding psychology (10th Ed.). New
York: Sugarman Littlefield Cook & Cook (2005). Child
development, principles & perspectives. Boston: Pearson Allyn
& Bacon McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory.
Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html Nevid,
J. (2013). Introduction to Psychology (12th Ed.).