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2/1/2013 1 ICE BREAKER PALINDROMES I‘m man's best friend. Reverse me and I‘m a supernatural being.  ANSWER: DOG - GOD STEP  PETS EVIL  LIVE TOP  POT SPAN  NAPS DIAL- LAID RAIL - LIAR I shine brightly in the night sky. Reverse me and I‘m rodents. I‘m uncooked. Reverse me and I‘m armed conflict.  ANSWER: RA W - WAR  ANSWER: ST AR - RA TS I‘m overworked and strained. Reverse me and I‘m yummy dishes to end your meal.  ANSWER: STR ESSED - DESSE RTS I‘m a male guard. Reverse me and I‘m a badge used to identify someone.  ANSWER: GA TEMAN  NAMETAG TEN - NET I‘m a number. Reverse me and I‘m an open meshed fabric used for catching fish. I am an attack with a k nife. Reverse me and Im small flying animals (plural) in caves. STAB - BATS

Piaget Cognitive Development

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Text of Piaget Cognitive Development

  • 2/1/2013

    1

    ICE

    BREAKER

    PALINDROMES

    Im man's best friend. Reverse me and Im a supernatural being.

    ANSWER: DOG - GOD

    STEP PETS EVIL LIVE TOP POT

    SPAN NAPS DIAL- LAID RAIL - LIAR

    I shine brightly in the night sky. Reverse me

    and Im rodents.

    Im uncooked. Reverse me and Im armed conflict.

    ANSWER: RAW - WAR

    ANSWER: STAR - RATS

    Im overworked and strained. Reverse me and Im yummy dishes

    to end your meal.

    ANSWER: STRESSED - DESSERTS

    Im a male guard. Reverse me and Im a badge used to identify

    someone.

    ANSWER: GATEMAN NAMETAG

    TEN - NET

    Im a number. Reverse me and Im an open meshed fabric used

    for catching fish.

    I am an attack with a knife. Reverse me

    and Im small flying animals (plural) in caves.

    STAB - BATS

  • 2/1/2013

    2

    Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980)

    o Employed at the Binet Institute in the 1920s

    o His job was to develop French versions

    of questions on English intelligence

    tests

    o Became curious on childrens mental

    capacity (cognition)

    o First psychologist to make a systematic

    study of cognitive development

    His contributions include the

    following:

    theory of cognitive child development

    detailed observational studies of

    cognition in children

    a series of simple but ingenious tests

    to reveal different cognitive abilities.

    Psychological assumption before Piagets work: Children are merely less competent thinkers than adults.

    What Piaget showed and deduced:

    Young children think in strikingly different ways compared

    to adults.

    Children are born with a very basic mental structure

    (genetically inherited and evolved) on which all subsequent

    learning and knowledge is based.

    There Are Three Basic Components To Piaget's Cognitive Theory:

    1. Schemas

    (building blocks of knowledge) 2. Processes that enable the transition from one stage to another

    o Equilibrium o Assimilation o Accommodation

    3. Stages of Development o Sensorimotor o Preoperational o Concrete operational o Formal operational

    1. Schema

    basic building block of intelligent behavior a way of organizing knowledge.

    set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations.

    2. Assimilation and Accommodation

    Jean Piaget viewed intellectual growth

    as a process of adaptation (adjustment)

    to the world. This happens through:

    Assimilation

    Using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.

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    Accommodation

    This happens when the existing schema (knowledge)

    does not work, and needs to

    be changed to deal with a

    new object or situation.

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    Equilibration

    This is the force, which moves development along. Piaget believed

    that cognitive development did not

    progress at a steady rate, but rather

    in leaps and bounds.

    3. Stages of Development

    Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2

    Preoperational Stage 2 to 7

    Concrete Operation Stage 7 to 12

    Formal Operation Stage 12 years to adulthood

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    Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years

    According to Piaget, the stage from birth to 2

    years, during which a child has little

    competence in representing the environment by

    using images, language, or other symbols.

    (Feldman, 2011)

    Knowledge develops through sensory and

    motor abilities.

    Representational Thought

    The ability to form symbols (or

    mental representations) that stand

    for objects or events in the world.

    (Littlefield, 2005)

    Babies are stuck in the HERE AND NOW

    world

    they know the world only in terms of

    their own sensory input (what they see,

    smell, taste, touch, and hear) and their

    physical or motor actions on it (e.g.

    sucking, reaching, grasping)

    Object permanence The awareness that objects and people continue to exist even if they are out of sight. (Feldman, 2011)

    Before 6 months infants act as if objects removed from sight cease to exist

    Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 years

    According to Piaget, the period from 2 to 7 years of age that is characterized by language development. (Feldman, 2011)

    Knowledge is represented by language, mental imagery, and symbolic thought.

    Make-believe play: use toys as props

    Symbolic play: use one object to stand for another

    Fantasy play: pretend to be something, or pretend activities that are impossible Rock a-by Baby

    Can you hear me now?

    UP, UP, AND AWAY

    (Littlefield Cook & Cook, (2005/2009)

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    Even though preoperational children make progressive progress in this stage, they have some definite limitations:

    Egocentrism Animism Artificialism Lack of conservation Centration Irreversibility

    Egocentric thought

    A way of thinking in which a child views the world entirely from his or her own perspective. (Feldman, 2011)

    Example:

    A three-mountain task

    The girls egocentrism

    prevents her from

    seeing the dolls perspective.

    Animismthe idea that inanimate objects have conscious life and feelingsis typical of the preoperational stage (Piaget, 1929, 1930, 1951).

    Artificialism is the notion that natural events or objects (e.g., the sun, moon, hurricanes, droughts) are under the control of people or of superhuman agents. (Piaget, 1929, 1930, 1951).

    Principle of conservation The knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects. (Feldman, 2011)

    Centration

    In Piagets theory, the tendency to

    focus on only one aspect of a situation

    at a time. ( Nevid, 2009, 2013)

    The child focuses on only one thing:

    the height of the column of water.

    Irreversibility

    In Piagets theory, the inability to

    reverse the direction of a sequence of

    events to their starting point. (Nevid,

    2009, 2013)

    The child fails to recognize that the

    process can be restored to its starting

    point- that pouring the water back to its

    original container would restore it to its

    original state.

    ytilibisreverrI

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    Operations actions performed mentally

    that are reversible (Ginsburg & Opper, 1988).

    preoperational thoughtit is thought that is not yet reversible, not yet truly operational.

    Concrete Operational: 7 to 12 During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations.

    Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.

    In the Concrete Operational stage, the

    child has the ability to develop logical

    thought about an object, if they are able

    to manipulate it.

    Piaget determined that children in the concrete

    operational stage were fairly good at the use of

    inductive logic. Inductive logic involves going from

    a specific experience to a general principle. On the

    other hand, children at this age have difficulty using

    deductive logic, which involves using a general

    principle to determine the outcome of a specific

    event.

    Formal Operational : 12 to adulthood

    During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.

    Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also

    emerge during this stage.

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    Piaget believed that deductive logic becomes important during the formal

    operational stage. Deductive logic

    requires the ability to use a general

    principle to determine a specific

    outcome. This type of thinking involves

    hypothetical situations and is often

    required in science and mathematics.

    There are 2 major characteristics of formal operational thought

    Hypothetic-deductive reasoning'.

    When faced with a problem, adolescents

    come up with a general theory of all possible

    factors that might affect the outcome and

    deduce from it specific hypothesis that might

    occur. They then systematically treat these

    hypothesis to see which ones do in fact occur in

    the real world.

    'Propositional' in nature.

    Adolescents can focus on verbal

    assertions and evaluate their logical validity

    without making reference to real-world

    circumstances. In contrast, concrete

    operational children can evaluate the logic of

    statements by considering them against

    concrete evidence only.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Feldman, R. (2011). Understanding psychology (10th Ed.). New York: Sugarman Littlefield Cook & Cook (2005). Child development, principles & perspectives. Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html Nevid, J. (2013). Introduction to Psychology (12th Ed.). www.psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/p/concreteop.html www.psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/p/formaloperation.html