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Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124

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  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    Oxygenation occurs when oxygenmolecules (O

    2) enter the tissues of

    the body. For example, blood isoxygenated in the lungs, whereoxygen molecules travel from the airand into the blood. As a result ofthis oxygenation, the color of theblood changes from dark purple to


  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    T he opposite of the process is called De-Oxygenation .

    Oxygen is most commonly deliveredto the patient via a nasal cannula ormask attached to the tubing. T he nasalcannula is usually the delivery device ofchoice since it is well tolerated anddoesn't interfere with the patient's

    ability to communicate, eat, or drink.T he concentration of oxygen inhaleddepends upon the prescribed flow rateand the ventilatory minute volume (MV).

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    The simple facemask this is the most common style of oxygenmasks. It allows 40% oxygen to be delivered to the wearer but

    the only problem of this style is that the oxygen is dilutedbecause of poor sealing.

    Th e Venture Mask this uses a mechanical vent, which increasesthe rate at which the oxygen flows into the mask. T he onlyproblem here is that it delivers only up to 28% oxygen.

    Th e Partial Rebreat h er mask this is a style that allows almost60% oxygen to be delivered to the person wearing it and it lookslike a non-breather mask, but it is not.

    Th e Non-breat h er mask this is the most effective kind of maskas it allows almost 90% oxygen to be delivered to the person andthis can only be used as per prescription and with proper medicalattention.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    Are most commonly inserted for clients whohave had general anesthetics or for those inemergency situations where mechanical

    ventilation is required.Is inserted by the primary care provider,nurse, or respiratory therapist withspecialized education.

    T he tube terminates just superior to thebifurcation of the trachea into the bronchi.Tube may be have an air-filled cuff toprevent leakage around.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    Mechanical ventilation can be noninvasive,involving various types of face masks, orinvasive, involving endotracheal intubation.

    Selection and use of appropriate techniquesrequire an understanding of respiratorymechanics.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    Oxygen TentT he tent consists of a rectangular, clear, plastic canopy with outlets thatconnect to an oxygen or compressed air source and to a humidifier thatmoisturizes the air or oxygen.

    Because the enclosed tent becomes very warm, some type of coolingmechanism such as an ice chamber or a refrigeration unit is provided tomaintain the temperature at 20 to 21 degrees Celsius.Cover the child with a gown or a cotton blanket. Some agencies providegowns with hoods, or a small towel may be wrapped around the head.The child needs protection from chilling and from the dampness and condensation in the tent.

    Flood the tent with oxygen by setting the flow meter at 15l/min forabout 5 minutes. T hen, adjust the flow meter according to orders (e.g.,10 to 15L/min). F looding the tent quickly increases the oxygen to thedesired level.

    T he tent can deliver approximately 30% oxygen.

    Oxygen HoodAn oxygen hood is a rigid plastic dome that encloses an infants head. Itprovides precise oxygen levels and high humidity.

    T he gas should not be allowed to blow directly into the infants face, andthe hood should not rub against the infants neck, chin, or shoulder.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    Types of Oxygen Th erapyT here are three different types of systems used for oxygentherapy, including compressed oxygen cylinders, oxygenconcentrators, and liquid oxygen systems. T he type ofsystem needed depends on the amount of oxygen needed.

    Oxygen is a medical treatment that necessitates aprescription from a physician, who will provide informationon the flow rate. If someone does not receive the rightamount of oxygen, it may cause the brain and heart tostarve, which may cause fatigue, memory loss, andcardiovascular changes.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    C ompressed Oxygen C ylindersOxygen is compressed into a metal cylinder and involves highpressure. Green tanks are normally large and can be delivered to

    the patient's home. Portable units are smaller and can be usedfor transportation. Portable tanks are returned to the providerwhen they are empty.

    Oxygen C oncentrators

    Some devices concentrate oxygen by removing gases andimpurities from the air. T his system is not portable and requireselectricity. Portable tanks or a generator are necessary in case ofa power failure.

    T he oxygen concentrator system is used for patients who arenormally on oxygen at night, but they can be used for longer timeperiods.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    AdvantagesIt allows the user to be mobile, promoting an activelifestyle. (User can fill own portable tank.)It can deliver oxygen at a high flow rate.It requires no electricity.It doesnt make much noise; it is relatively silent.More oxygen can be stored in a liquid form than a gaseousform.

    D isadvantagesT he large tank needs to be refilled regularly by a servicetechnician. Depending on the flow rate and the size of thetank, a liquid oxygen system might need to be refilled

    from once or twice a week to once a month.T he oxygen user must be home for scheduled tank fill-ups.T he user must also return home to refill portable tank.Contents of tanks evaporate, making it necessary to havethe tank refilled often.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    L iquid Oxygen SystemsLiquid oxygen is produced by cooling oxygen

    gas and changes it into a liquid form.Liquid oxygen systems have a main tank andportable units are included, which can beused to travel outside of the home. T hesecan be refilled from the larger tank. T heportable units normally weigh 8 to 10 poundsand have a shoulder strap, cart or othercarrying option for ease of use. T he portableunits should be filled prior to use. T hedrawback of this system is that it is often themost expensive oxygen therapy available.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    Hyperbaric Oxygen Th erapyH yperbaric Oxygen T herapy involves the use of a chamber inpatient care and can be used for numerous medical issues,including neurological issues, disease, and many other healthissues. T he patient is placed inside the chamber whereintermittent treatment is provided. T he oxygen provided isfor 100 percent oxygen above the atmospheric pressure.

    During this therapy, the patient is placed in an airtightchamber. Oxygen is circulated into the chamber starting atthe beginning of the treatment. Because the air is breatheddirectly, there is no need for a mask or cannule.

    H yperbaric treatment is thought to be similar to scubadiving, flying, or driving at a high altitude. T here is a fullnessin the patient's ears. When the door is closed, oxygencirculates and gradually increases.

    Toward the end of the oxygen treatment, a decrease inpressure called decompression occurs and the ears may pop.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


    Assess the clients respiratory status at least every 2 hours, ormore frequently if indicated. Include respiratory rate, rhythm,depth, equality of chest excursion, and the lung sounds; LOC;and skin color in your assessment.Frequently assess nasal and oral mucosa for redness andirritation. Report any abnormal findings to the primary careprovider.Unless contraindicated, place the client in a side lying or semiprone position as tolerated.Closely monitor cuff pressure, maintaining a pressure of 20 to 25mmhg (or as recommended by the tube manufacturer) tominimize the risk of tracheal tissue necrosis. If recommended,deflate the cuff periodically.Provide oral and nasal care every 2 to 4 hours. Use anoropharyngeal airway.Move oral endotracheal tubes to the opposite side of the mouthevery 8 hours or per agency protocol, taking care to maintain theposition of the tube in the trachea.If the client is on mechanical ventilation, ensure that all alarmsare enabled at all times because the client cannot call for helpshould an emergency occur.

    Communicate frequently with the client, providing a note pad orpicture board for the client to use in communicating.

  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124





  • 8/8/2019 Oxygenation 2 FINAL JUD NI 2124


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