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  • Overview

    OG_OV1

  • Oil and Gas Reservoirsz Porous rock (sedimentary)z Rocks mainly carbonate or sandstonez Unconventional gas (shale, coal bed, tight gas)z Trap is neededz A source of carbon (micro-organisms in seawater)z On- or Off-shore z Economics

    OG_OV2

  • OG_OV3

    Off-Shore Rigs and Platforms

  • How to Produce HCs?

    z Drill a well (gas or liquid)z Pressure differencez Mining (oil sands)a

    OG_OV4

    a. Oil is extracted by heat and caustic, Canada

  • How to Maintain Pressure Difference?

    z Reservoir pressurez Gas injectionz Water injection z Pumps (surface or submersible)z Gas liftz Minimize damage

    OG_OV5

  • Oil Recovery Modesz Primary z Secondary z Tertiary

    z Chemical z CO2 zSteam z In-situ combustion

    OG_OV6

  • Types of Injection Water

    z Seawater (SRB, SO4 scale)z Aquifer water (fines migration, SO4)z River water (fines migration, TSS)z Produced water (TSO, SRB, H2S)z Commingled water (scale formation)

    OG_OV7

    a. There are problems with all types of waters

  • Oil Processing z Oil gas separation plant (GOSP)z Separate dissolved gasesz Separate free and emulsified waterszWater contains salts (scale, corrosion)z Gases contain hydrogen sulfide

    OG_OV8

  • Problems with Produced Waters

    z Loss of production z Lifting, separation, disposal z Scale z Corrosionz Bacteriaz Emulsionsz Sanding

    OG_OV9

  • Chemicals Neededz Corrosion inhibitorsz Scale inhibitorsz Demulsifiersz Biocidesz Drag reducing agents

    OG_OV10

  • OG_OV11

    Types of Wells - Functionz Oil producerzWater injectionzWater disposalzWater supplyz Gas producerz Gas injectionz Observation (T, P, OWC, GOC, GWC)

  • OG_OV12

    Types of Wells Geometry z Verticalz Horizontalz Short radiusz Extended reachz Multi-lateral

  • OG_OV13

    Types of Wells Completion

    z Open holez Perforatedz Screensz Gravel packedz Smart completions

  • OG_OV14

    Lithologyz Carbonates z Sandstonesz Mixedz Shales

  • OG_OV15

    Carbonate Reservoirsz Calcite (CaCO3)z Dolomite CaMg((CO)3)2z Ankerite Ca(MgFe)((CO3)2)z Small amounts of clays, pyrite z Middle East, Brazil, USA, UK

  • OG_OV16

    Carbonate Rocks (2)

    z Dissolve in HClz Density of Calcite = 2.7 g/cc z Density of Dolomite = 2.85 g/ccz Natural fracturesz Positively chargedz Never use HF, H2SO4, H3PO3

  • OG_OV17

    Sandstone Rocks z Quartz (sand)z Feldspars and claysz Carbonatesz Sulfatesz Iron oxides (hematite)z Pyrite (iron sulfide)

  • OG_OV18

    Sandstone Rocks (2) z Density = 2.65 g/ccz Negatively chargedz Cementing material z Sand production z Fines migration z HF acid for silica/silicatesz Never use HF alone

  • OG_OV19

    Drilling Fluids (Mud)

    z Water-based z All oil z Oil-based

  • OG_OV20

    Function z Well controlz Cool-down the drilling bitz Carry drilling cuttings z Form filter cake z Left drilling cuttingsz Suspend solids if bit stops

  • OG_OV21

    Formulationz Water z XC-polymer (xanthan gum)z Starch, Poly-anionic cellulosez Weighting material z KClz KOH, Ca(OH)2z Drag reducing agents

  • OG_OV22

    Weighting Materials

    z Bentoniteaz Barite, BaSO4az Calcium carbonate, CaCO3z Hematite, Fe2O3z Manganese tetraoxide, Mn3O4a. Insoluble in HCl acid

  • OG_OV23

    Casing z Mainly low-carbon steel z Joints z Examples: J-55 and C-95z Letter stands for heat treatmentz Number is the minimum yield strength of steel

  • OG_OV24

    Cementz Placed between rock and casing z Zone isolation z Water shut-off

  • OG_OV25

    Formulation

    z Water z Class G cementz Additivesz Light weight cementz Flexible cement

  • OG_OV26

    Sand Productionz Weak rockz High drawdownz Water productionz Chemical treatments

  • OG_OV27Unconsolidated Sandstone

    Rock Integrity

  • OG_OV28

    Problemsz Accumulation in the well borez Erosion to surface valvesz Erosion to pumpsz All kinds of problems