Orientation of Subject By:- Mr.G.P SINGH Asst.Prof. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 111/10/2013

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Orientation of Subject By:- Mr.G.P SINGH Asst.Prof. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 111/10/2013 Slide 2 INTRODUCTION TO MICROPROCESSOR MCA-205 (N2) Internal Assessment: 40 External Assessment: 60 Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 211/10/2013 Slide 3 CONTENTS Section A Introduction to Microprocessor, its historical background and Microprocessor applications. INTEL 8085 : Microprocessor Architecture and its operations, 8085 MPU and its architecture, 8085 instruction cycle and timing diagram, Memory read and Memory Write operations, Instructions for 8085: Data movement, Arithmetic and logic; and branch control instructions Section B INTEL 8086 : Introduction, 8086Architecture, real and Protected mode, Memory Addressing, Memory Paging, Addressing Modes. Pin diagram of 8086, clock generator (8284A) Section C Various types of instructions: Data movement, Arithmetic and logic; and program control. Section D Interrupts: Introduction, 8257 Interrupt controller, basic DMA operation and 8237 DMA Controller, Arithmetic coprocessor, 80X87 Architecture,., RISC v/s CISC processors. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 311/10/2013 Slide 4 REFERENCES: B. Brey The Intel microprocessors 8086/8086, 80186/80188, 80286,80386, 80486 Pentium pro processor Architecture,Programming and interfacing 4th Edition. B. Ram Fundamentals of microprocessors and HI microcomputers,Dhanpat RaiPublication. Ramesh S. Gaonkar Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with 8085,4th edition, Penram International Publishing (India) Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 411/10/2013 Slide 5 Practical Hardware Lab I(Microprocessor) MCA-207 (N2) Internal Assessment 40 External Assessment 60 Using 8085 and 8086 microprocessor kits do the following programs: 8085 1. To examine and modify the contents of a register and memory location. 2. To add two hexadecimal nos. 3. To subtract two hexadecimal nos. 4. To add two hexadecimal nos. The result should not be greater than 199. 5. To add two sixteen bit nos. 6. To subtract two sixteen bit nos. 7. For addition of 8 bit no series neglecting the carry generated. 8. To separate hexadecimal number into two digits(Breaking the byte into two nibbles). 8086 1.To add two binary nos each 8 bit long. 2 To add two binary nos each 8 bit long. 3. To multiply two binary nos. 4.To find the maximum no in a given string (16 bytes long) and store it in a particular location. 5.To find the minimum no in a given string (16 bytes long) and store it in a particular location. 6.To sort a string of a no of bytes in descending order. 7.To multiply an ASCII string of eight numbers by single ASCII digit. 8.To calculate the no. of bytes in a string starting from a particular location up to an Identifier (data byte) placed in AL register. Store the actual count in a particular memory Location. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 511/10/2013 Slide 6 What well Study in This? Theory-Part 1. Microprocessors Origin. 2. Various Processors available till date. 3. Application in real world.i.e daily life examples.(Case Studies )Traffic light,etc. 4. Programming in ALP(in Practical using 8085 and 8086 Kit.) 5. Job Prospects??????????????? Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 611/10/2013 Slide 7 Practical Part 1. Programming in ALP(using 8085 and 8086 Kit.) Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 711/10/2013 Slide 8 INTRODUCTION COMPUTER GENERATIONS:- First Generation Computers(1940-1956) VACUUM TUBES.e.g.:-ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) EDVAC:-Electronic discrete Variable Automatic Computer. EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer. UNIVAC-1: Universal Accounting Computer Setup. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 811/10/2013 Slide 9 COMPUTER GENERATIONS Second Generation(1956-1963) Transistors.e.g IBM 1620,IBM 1401,CDC 3600 Programming Languages:- COBOL,FORTAN. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 911/10/2013 Slide 10 COMPUTER GENERATIONS THIRD GENERATION(1964-1971) INTEGRATED CIRCUITS:- (CHIPS),(Registers,capacitors,Transistors) IBM-360,ICL-1900,IBM-370,VAX-750. Programming Language:- BASIC Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 1011/10/2013 Slide 11 COMPUTER GENERATIONS FOURH GENERATION(1971-Present) MICROPROCESSORS. LSIC(Large Scale Integrated Circuits) built on single Chip called as MICROPROCESSORS. VLSIC(Very Large scale integrated Circuits) E.g.:- PC. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 1111/10/2013 Slide 12 COMPUTER GENERATIONS FIFTH GENERATION:-PRESENT and BEYOND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. YEAR-1990-Fifth Generation Computers Started. QUANTUM COMPUTATION,MOLECULAR,NANOTECHNOLOGY. Goal:- To develop computer that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 1211/10/2013 Slide 13 HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSORS Fairchild Semiconductors (founded in 1957) invented the first IC in 1959. In 1968, Robert Noyce, Gordan Moore, Andrew Grove resigned from Fairchild Semiconductors They founded their own company Intel (Integrated Electronics). Intel grown from 3 man start-up in 1968 to industrial giant by 1981. It had 20,000 employees and $188 million revenue. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 1311/10/2013 Slide 14 Generation of Microprocessor FIRST GENERATION MICROPROCESSOR:- Ted Hoff of INTEL Corporation developed Controlled Processor in 1969. Intel 4004:- Introduced in 1971. It was the first microprocessor by Intel It was a 4-bit MP. PMOS Technology. Device: CALCULATOR Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 1411/10/2013 Slide 15 Generation of Microprocessor Intel 4040:- Introduced in 1971. It was also 4-bit MP. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 1511/10/2013 Slide 16 Generation of Microprocessor Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali INTEL-8008 Introduced in 1972. It was first 8-bit MP. Could execute 50,000 instructions per second 1611/10/2013 Slide 17 Generation of Microprocessor First Generation Summary MICRPPROCESSORWORD SIZE INTEL 4004 & 40404-bit FAIRCHILD PPS-254-bit NATIONAL IMP-44-bit ROCKWELL PPS-44 bit MICROSYSTEM4-bit INYEL 80088-bit NATIONAL IMP-88-bit ROCKWELL PPS8-bit AMI 72008-bit MOSTEK 50658-bit Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 1711/10/2013 Slide 18 Generation of Microprocessor 2 nd Generation Started in Year-1973. Intel 8080 It was also 8-bit MP. Was 10 times faster than 8008. Could execute 5,00,000 instructions per second NMOS TECHNOLOGY. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 1811/10/2013 Slide 19 Generation of Microprocessor 2 nd Generation Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali Introduced in 1977. It was also 8-bit MP. Could execute 7,69,230 instructions per second. It could access 64 KB of memory. It had 256 instructions. Over 100 million copies were sold Intel 8085 1911/10/2013 Slide 20 Generation of Microprocessor 2 nd Generation FEATURES OF SECOND GENERATION:- LARGE CHIP SIZE(170*200) WITH 40 PINS. MORE CHIP ON DECODING CIRCUITS. ABLITY TO ADDRESS LARGE MEMORY SPACE(64KB) AND I/O PORTS (256). MORE POWERFUL INSTRUCTION SET. Dissipate less power. Better INTERUPT HANDLING FACILITIES. CYCLE TIME REDUCED TO HALF (1.3 TO 9 n.s) LESS SUPPORT CHIPS REQUIRED. USED SINGLE POWER SUPPLY. Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 2011/10/2013 Slide 21 Generation of Microprocessor 2 nd Generation Second Generation Summary MICROPROCESSORWORD SIZE INTEL 8080/80858-bit FAIRCHILD F88-bit NATIONAL CMP-48 bit MOTOROLA 68008 bit RCA COSMAC8 bit MOS TECH 65008 bit SIGNETICS 26508 bit ZILOG Z-808 bit INTERSIL 610012 bit TOSHIBA TICS-1212 bit Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 2111/10/2013 Slide 22 Generation of Microprocessor 3 rd Generation Intel 8086 Introduced in 1978. It was first 16-bit MP. Could execute 2.5 million instructions /sec. It could access 1 MB of memory. It had 22,000 instructions. It had Multiply and Divide instructions. HMOS TECHNOLOGY.(high density short channel MOS) Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 2211/10/2013 Slide 23 Generation of Microprocessor 3 rd Generation Intel 8088 Introduced in 1979. It was also 16-bit MP. Could execute 2.5 million instructions per second. It could access 1 MB of memory. It had 22,000 instructions. It had Multiply and Divide instructions Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 2311/10/2013 Slide 24 Generation of Microprocessor 3 rd Generation Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali Introduced in 1982. They were 16-bit MPs. They had additional components like: Interrupt Controller Clock Generator Local Bus Controller Counters Intel 80186 & 80188 2411/10/2013 Slide 25 Generation of Microprocessor 4 th Generation Intel 80286 Introduced in 1982. It was 16-bit MP. It could address 16 MB of memory. It could execute 4 million instructions per second. Its clock speed was 8 MHz Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 2511/10/2013 Slide 26 Generation of Microprocessor 4 th Generation Intel 80386 Introduced in 1986. It was first 32-bit MP. It could address 4 GB of memory. Different versions: 80386 SX 80386 SL / 80386 SLC 80386 EX Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali 2611/10/2013 Slide 27 Generation of Microprocessor 4 th Generation Introduced in 1989. It was also 32-bit MP. It had 1.2 million transistors. Cache memory was introduced Faculty of Computer Application,Gharaun Campus,Mohali Intel 80486 2711/10/2013 Slide 28 Generation of Microprocessor 5 th Generation(1993-onwards) Intel Pentium Introduced in March 22,1993. It was also 32-bit MP. It was originally named 80586. Could execute 110 million instructions per sec. Cache memory: 8 KB for instructions. 8 KB for data Faculty of Computer Application

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