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Organizational Culture, Climate and Change Dr. Len Elovitz Chapter 6 in Owens and Valesky 1

Organizational Culture, Climate and Change

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Organizational Culture, Climate and Change. Dr. Len Elovitz Chapter 6 in Owens and Valesky. Human Resources Development. One can act through two theoretical approaches: Classical Organizational or Traditional Bureaucratic - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Organizational Culture, Climate and ChangeDr. Len Elovitz

    Chapter 6 in Owens and Valesky*

  • *Human Resources DevelopmentOne can act through two theoretical approaches:Classical Organizational or Traditional BureaucraticHelps organize and manage the organization, but will not help motivate staff.Human Resources Development Taps the higher order motivational needs of the people in the organization.

  • Human Resources DevelopmentHRD is concerned with how leaders structure the work environment to socialize individuals to the organization. This affects how individuals develop perceptions, values, and beliefs concerning the organization and what influence these inner states have on behavior. This is the realm of organizational climate and organizational culture.

  • *Theory Z : William Ouchi - 1981Ouchi compared Japanese and U.S. management practices.He applied Japanese practices in the U.S. and, using McGregors concept of Theory X and Y, called it Theory Z.Theory Z accepts the concepts of human resources development.Assumes workers life is a wholeHumanized working conditions not only increases productivity and profits to the company but also the self-esteem of employees

  • *In Search of Excellence by Peters & Waterman

    Research showed that successful organizations, including schools, had a consistent theme: the power of values and culture in these corporations rather than procedures and control systems, provides the glue that holds them together, stimulates commitment to a common mission, and galvanizes the creativity and energy of their participants.

  • Study of 62 successful US companies had the following in common:1.A bias for action, active decision making - 'getting on with it.2.Close to the customer - learning from the people served by the business.3.Autonomy and entrepreneurship - fostering innovation and nurturing 'champions.4.Productivity through people- treating rank and file employees as a source of quality.5.Hands-on, value-driven - management philosophy that guides everyday practice - management showing its commitment.6.Stick to the knitting - stay with the business that you know.7.Simple form, lean staff - some of the best companies have minimal HQ staff.8.Simultaneous loose-tight properties - autonomy in shop-floor activities plus centralized values.

  • Organizational CultureA system of shared values and beliefs that interact with an organizations people, organizational structures, and control systems to produce behavioral norms.

  • Organizational CultureShared Values - what is importantBeliefs - What we think is trueBehavioral Norms - How we do things around here

  • Culture v. ClimateCulture refers to the behavioral norms, assumptions and beliefs of an organizationClimate refers to perceptions of persons in the organization that reflect those norms, assumptions and beliefs.

  • Toxic Culture

    Terrence Deal and Kent Peterson

    Shaping School Culture: The Heart of Leadership

    Jefferson High School

  • Characteristics of Toxic CultureFocus on Negative ValuesFragmentationDestructiveSpiritually fractured

  • Characteristics of Toxic CultureFocus on Negative ValuesAdults are more important than kidsRoutine Boring ClassesMay Focus on Elite Learners (The Shopping Mall High School)Focus on unimportant outcomes (Football)

  • Characteristics of Toxic CultureFragmentationMeaning is derived from sub-culture membership - Department, Age, Race, etc.Anti-student SentimentsLife Outside of SchoolNo shared MissionLittle Cooperation

  • Characteristics of Toxic CultureDestructiveStaff members snipe at each otherNegaholics Harass anyone Trying to Improve the situationStaff members More Interested in Protecting Themselves

  • Characteristics of Toxic CultureSpiritually fracturedLack of positive Values Lack of IntegritySense of Alienation

  • Roles in Toxic CultureSaboteursPessimistic StorytellersKeepers of the NightmareNegaholics Prima DonnasSpace CadetsMartyrsDeadwood, Driftwood and Ballast

  • Transforming the Toxic CultureAtomic Bomb?Neutron Bomb?Antidotes for Negativism?

  • Antidotes for NegativismConfront it Head on - CatharsisShield and Support Positive Cultural ElementsRecruit Positive Staff ReplacementsCelebrate the PositiveConsciously Focus on Eradicating the NegativeDevelop New Stories of Success, Renewal & AccomplishmentHelp Chronic Negaholics Find Happiness Elsewhere

  • The Roxbury Story

  • *How Organizational Culture is Created?Culture is developed over time from :An organizations history, composed of traditions and rituals that are passed to succeeding generations.Stories of heroes and heroines are important.Values and beliefs that are embodied in the traditions and rituals.Behavioral norms that result (e.g., bell schedules, 7-period day).

  • *How Organizational Culture is Created (continued)

    Subunits within an organization may have cultures of their own resulting in multiple cultures. (loose coupling)Theory X administrators believe this conflicts with their authority.Theory Y administrators accept them as natural.

  • How is Culture Assessed?Difficult to quantifyQualitative measures are generally used for researchPatterson, Purkey & Parker tried by developing the School Culture Inventory (SCI)Probably best if used to key discussion of faculty

  • *Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational EffectivenessDependant variablesPupil BehaviorPupil attendanceAchievementIndependent Variables (subsets of culture)Behavior of TeachersEmphasis on Academic PerformanceStudent rewardsOrganizational culture is a critical factor in student behavior and achievement

  • Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness (continued)A study of 12 inner-city London schools found that changes in dependent variables of behavior, attendance, and achievement were due to:the behavior of teachers at work, the emphasis placed on academic performance, the provision for students to be rewarded for succeeding, and the extent to which students were able to take responsibility.In other words, differences were due to organizational culture.

  • Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness (continued)Measuring School EffectivenessIdentifying independent and dependent variables.Studies byJoyce EpsteinRudolf MoosFindings from these type studies support the notion that many variables that can positively affect such outcomes as achievement and motivation of students are in control of leaders and teachers.

  • *Organizational Culture and Climate Compared and Contrasted

    Culture refers to the behavioral norms, assumptions, and beliefs of an organization.the way things are done around here.Climate refers to perceptions of persons in the organization that reflect those norms, assumptions, and beliefs.

  • *Defining and Describing Organizational ClimateDifferent schools have distinct personalities due to the particular social system of each school.This social system has a CLIMATE that is defined as the characteristics of the total environments in a school building.Renato Tagiuris model identifies four elements that comprise climate.

  • *Tagiuiris Model of Climate is composed of four dimensions:

    Ecology - Physical & Material FactorsMilieu - Human Social System FactorsSocial System - Organizational & Administrative Structure FactorsCulture Values, Belief Systems, Norms & Ways of Thinking

  • *How Organizational Climate is CreatedOrganizational climate is created by the dynamic interaction of:EcologyMilieuOrganizational StructureCultureWith perhaps culture being the most powerful determinant.

  • School Climate

    The characteristics of the total environment in a school building

  • OCDQ

    The Organizational Climate of Schools - 1962Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ)Halpin & Croft

  • OCDQ ClustersPerceptions of teachers as a human group

    Perceptions of teachers concerning the principal

  • Perceptions of teachers as a human groupIntimacy - Degree of social cohesivenessDisengagement Degree of involvement and commitment to the achievement of school goalsEspirit Morale of the groupHindrance Perception of rules, paperwork and administrivia as impeding work

  • Perceptions of teachers concerning the principalThrust Degree to which principal sets an example of working hardConsideration Extent to which teachers are treated with dignity and human concernAloofness Extent to which principal maintains a social distanceProduction Emphasis Extent to which principal directly supervises

  • OCDQ-RM - Wayne HoySupportive principal behavior is directed toward both the social needs and task achievement of faculty. The principal is helpful, genuinely concerned with teachers, and attempts to motivate by using constructive criticism and by setting an example through hard work.Directive principal behavior is rigid domineering behavior. The principal maintains close and constant monitoring over virtually all aspects of teacher behavior in the school.Restrictive principal behavior is behavior that hinders rather than facilitates teacher work. The principal burdens teachers with paperwork, committee requirements, and other demands that interfere with their teaching responsibilities.

  • OCDQ-RM - Wayne HoyCollegial teacher behavior supports open and professional interactions among teachers. Teachers like, respect, and help one another both professionally and personally.Committed Teacher behavior behavior is directed toward helping students to develop both socially and intellectually. Teachers work extra hard to insure student success in school.Disengaged teacher behavior signifies a lack of meaning and focus to professional activities. Teachers simply are putting in their time; in fact, they are critical and unaccepting of their colleagues.

  • Climate ContinuumOpen Supportive of Learning

    ClosedHinders Learning

  • TEACHER RESPONSEOPEN CLIMATEHighly motivatedGain satisfaction from workPride in their schoolDo not feel burdened by busyworkSolve their own problemsKeep the organization growing

    CLOSED CLIMATENot highly engagedDo not work well together Achievement as a group is minimalLittle satisfaction from workMorale is lowHigh turnover

  • PRINCIPAL AS SEEN BY TEACHERSOPEN CLIMATEWorks energeticallyShows concern even compassion for teachersIs not aloof or distantRemoves obstacles for teachers Maintains full control without close monitoring

    CLOSED CLIMATEIneffective leaderA hindrance to their workUnconcerned about their welfareAloof & impersonalEmphasizes rulesLittle personal drive

  • Four Management SystemsEach of Likerts four management systems have identifiable organizational climates:System 1: Exploitive-Authoritarian.System 2: Benevolent Authoritative.System 3: Consultative.System 4: Participative Group.Good communication requires effective use of the Linking-Pin concept.

  • Relationship Between Organizational Climate and Organizational EffectivenessRensis Likerts analysis led him to conclude that there are causal variables under a leaders control that affect climate and organization performance :Organization structure: bureaucratic or flexible.Leadership style: authoritative or democratic.Philosophy of operation: consensus decision making or not.The choices leaders makes are critical to determining the nature of the management system in the organization. That is, Likerts System 1, 2, 3, or 4.

  • Effective OrganizationsAchieve their goalMaintain themselves internallyAdapt to their environment

  • Organizational Health - Matthew Miles - 19651. Goal FocusUnderstood & AcceptedAchievable & Appropriate

    2. Communication AdequacyInternal & ExternalVertical & Horizontal

  • Organizational Health3. Optimal Power EqualizationCollaboration v. CoercionInfluence can flow up and down

    4, Human Resource AllocationEffective use of personnelPromotes self-actualization

  • Organizational Health5. CohesivenessParticipants identify with the organizationStick with it - good or bad

    6. MoraleFeelings of well being & satisfaction

  • Organizational Health7. InnovativenessTendency to grow develop & change

    8. AutonomyOrganization determines its own behavior in harmony with external demands

  • Organizational Health9. AdaptationAbility to change and correct

    10. Problem-Solving AdequacyAbility to sense & perceive problemsAbility to solve problems quickly & with minimal strain