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Ethics in Human Ethics in Human Communication Communication Part III Part III

Ethics in Human Communication Part III. Organizations Organizational Culture and Climate Organizational Culture and Climate Values, beliefs, symbols and

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  • Slide 1
  • Ethics in Human Communication Part III
  • Slide 2
  • Organizations Organizational Culture and Climate Organizational Culture and Climate Values, beliefs, symbols and customsValues, beliefs, symbols and customs Rituals, ceremonies and narrativesRituals, ceremonies and narratives Heroes, villains and foolsHeroes, villains and fools Misspeaking v. Silence Misspeaking v. Silence
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  • Groupthink Antecedent conditions Antecedent conditions Decision makers are cohesive groupDecision makers are cohesive group Structural faultsStructural faults Insulation of group Insulation of group Lack of tradition of impartial leadership Lack of tradition of impartial leadership Lack of norms for methodological procedures Lack of norms for methodological procedures Homogeneity of group Homogeneity of group Provocative contextProvocative context
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  • High stress from external threatsHigh stress from external threats Low self-esteem from recent failuresLow self-esteem from recent failures Excessive complexityExcessive complexity Moral dilemmasMoral dilemmas Etc.Etc. All lead to concurrence-seeking tendency (Groupthink) All lead to concurrence-seeking tendency (Groupthink)
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  • Symptoms of Groupthink Overestimation of group Overestimation of group Illusion of invulnerabilityIllusion of invulnerability Belief in moralityBelief in morality Closed-mindedness Closed-mindedness Collective rationalizationCollective rationalization Stereotypes of ingroupsStereotypes of ingroups Uniformity pressures Uniformity pressures Self-censorshipSelf-censorship Direct pressureDirect pressure Self-appointed mindguardsSelf-appointed mindguards
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  • Symptoms of Defective Decision Making Incomplete survey of alternatives Incomplete survey of alternatives Incomplete survey of objectives Incomplete survey of objectives Failure to examine risks of preferred choice Failure to examine risks of preferred choice Failure to reappraise rejected choices Failure to reappraise rejected choices Poor information search Poor information search Selective information bias Selective information bias Failure to contingency plan Failure to contingency plan
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  • All leads to... Low probability of successful outcome
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  • Abilene Paradox Limits of a particular situation force a group of people to act in a way that is directly the opposite of their actual preferences Limits of a particular situation force a group of people to act in a way that is directly the opposite of their actual preferences Occurs when groups continue with misguided activities which no group member desires because no member is willing to raise objections. Occurs when groups continue with misguided activities which no group member desires because no member is willing to raise objections. Observed by Jerry B. Harvey in his article The Abilene Paradox and other Meditations on Management Observed by Jerry B. Harvey in his article The Abilene Paradox and other Meditations on Management
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  • The Story On a hot afternoon visiting in Coleman, Texas, the family is comfortably playing dominoes on a porch, until the father-in-law suggests that they take a trip to Abilene [53 miles north] for dinner. The wife says, "Sounds like a great idea." The husband, despite having reservations because the drive is long and hot, thinks that his preferences must be out-of-step with the group and says, "Sounds good to me. I just hope your mother wants to go." The mother-in-law then says, "Of course I want to go. I haven't been to Abilene in a long time." The drive is hot, dusty, and long. When they arrive at the cafeteria, the food is as bad. They arrive back home four hours later, exhausted. One of them dishonestly says, "It was a great trip, wasn't it." The mother-in-law says that, actually, she would rather have stayed home, but went along since the other three were so enthusiastic. The husband says, "I wasn't delighted to be doing what we were doing. I only went to satisfy the rest of you." The wife says, "I just went along to keep you happy. I would have had to be crazy to want to go out in the heat like that." The father-in-law then says that he only suggested it because he thought the others might be bored. The group sits back, perplexed that they together decided to take a trip which none of them wanted. They each would have preferred to sit comfortably, but did not admit to it when they still had time to enjoy the afternoon.
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  • The Paradox Often used to help explain extremely poor business decisions, especially notions of the superiority of rule by committee Often used to help explain extremely poor business decisions, especially notions of the superiority of rule by committee A technique mentioned in the study and/or training of management, as well as practical guidance by consultants, is that group members, when the time comes for a group to make decisions, should ask each other, Are we going to Abilene? to determine whether their decision is legitimately desired by the group's members or merely a result of this kind of groupthink A technique mentioned in the study and/or training of management, as well as practical guidance by consultants, is that group members, when the time comes for a group to make decisions, should ask each other, Are we going to Abilene? to determine whether their decision is legitimately desired by the group's members or merely a result of this kind of groupthink
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  • Avoidance Techniques Neutrality of leader, withholding preferences, encouraging open inquiry Neutrality of leader, withholding preferences, encouraging open inquiry Encourage expression of objections and doubts... Accepting of criticism Encourage expression of objections and doubts... Accepting of criticism Assign role(s) of devils advocate Assign role(s) of devils advocate Divide group in two (or more) separate DM bodies Divide group in two (or more) separate DM bodies
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  • Survey warning signals from rivals Survey warning signals from rivals Put initial consensus on hold and reconsider later Put initial consensus on hold and reconsider later Include outside experts Include outside experts Discuss tentative decision with trusted colleagues outside group Discuss tentative decision with trusted colleagues outside group Establish several independent DM groups to work on same critical issue or policy Establish several independent DM groups to work on same critical issue or policy
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  • Formal Ethics Codes Concerns Concerns Style over substanceStyle over substance PracticalityPracticality EffectivenessEffectiveness Unintended consequencesUnintended consequences Benefits Benefits Argumentative and Character-depiction functionsArgumentative and Character-depiction functions Examples Examples
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  • Feminist Contributions Ethic of Care (Gilligan) Ethic of Care (Gilligan) Justice v. CareJustice v. Care Invitational Rhetoric (Foss and Griffin) Invitational Rhetoric (Foss and Griffin) Safety, Value and FreedomSafety, Value and Freedom Rakows ethic Rakows ethic Inclusiveness, participation and reciprocityInclusiveness, participation and reciprocity