Operant Conditioning (Types of Reinforcement) Mr. Koch Psychology Forest Lake High School

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  • Slide 1
  • Operant Conditioning (Types of Reinforcement) Mr. Koch Psychology Forest Lake High School
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  • Operant Conditioning Ways to decrease behavior Extinction Punishment Ways to increase behavior Pairing Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement
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  • Operant Conditioning
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  • Primary Reinforcers Associated with needs Not learned Ex: food, clothing, shelter Secondary Reinforcers Associated with something that satisfies a need Is learned Ex: $$$, poker chips, food stamps, grades
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  • Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement Increases the frequency of a behavior Is wanted Ex: food, praise, money, awards Negative Reinforcement Increases behavior by removing something unpleasant (discomfort, fear, social disapproval, etc) reverse reward Ex: dont have to do the dishes all week if you get an A
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  • Operant Conditioning Punishment Consequence that decreases the rate of a behavior Important: What is reinforcing to one is NOT necessarily to another Ex: Suspension after skipping school = more days off vs. fear of suspension Increases attendance for some, not for others Ex: Student forced to stay after school = punishment for some vs. now getting teachers full attention (positive)
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  • Operant Conditioning (Schedules of Reinforcement) Fixed Interval based on time Reinforced after a set time period Ex: bell ringing after class Ex: quizzes every Friday Variable Interval Based on time Reinforced randomly at different times Resistant to extinction Ex: pop quizzes
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  • Operant Conditioning (Schedules of Reinforcement) Fixed Ratio Based on responses (behaviors) After set # of correct responses Easy to extinguish behavior Ex: piecework in factories, dog treat every 3 rd time trick is performed Variable Ratio Reinforce behavior after random number of correct responses Very resistant to extinction (can be addictive) Ex: Gambling, fishing
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  • Operant Conditioning Avoidance Conditioning Eliminate undesirable behavior not yet present Subject taught to avoid stimulus Counter Conditioning Applies to already learned undesirable behaviors Seeking a new response Unlearning old behavior