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NPM Unraveling The Mystery o Unraveling The Mystery o Stepper Motor Technology Stepper Motor Technology Jeramé Chamberlain Jeramé Chamberlain Nippon Pulse America, Inc., USA Nippon Pulse America, Inc., USA

Nippon Pulse America- Unraveling the Mystery of Stepper Motor Technology

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Stepper Motor TechnologyStepper Motor Technology
 Jeramé Chamberlain Jeramé Chamberlain
 
 
NPM  What is a Open LoopWhat is a Open Loop
Stepper Motor System?Stepper Motor System?
What Are Stepper Motors?What Are Stepper Motors?
How Do Stepper Motors Work?How Do Stepper Motors Work?
Troubleshoot & Test Stepper MotorsTroubleshoot & Test Stepper Motors
 
 
 
 
NN
SS
NN
SS
PHASE APHASE A
STEP 1STEP 1
PHASE APHASE A
STEP 3STEP 3
PHASE APHASE A
PHASE APHASE A
STEP 4STEP 4
PHASE APHASE A
PHASE APHASE A
Two PhaseTwo Phase
Stepper MotorStepper Motor
Per%a"e"tMa'"et (PM)Per%a"e"tMa'"et (PM)
* PM rotor & ele$tro%a'"et+$ $o+lPM rotor & ele$tro%a'"et+$ $o+l
,ar+able -elu$ta"$e (,-),ar+able -elu$ta"$e (,-)
* No PM. "o res+/ual tor#ueNo PM. "o res+/ual tor#ue
H0br+/ NEMA S+2+"'H0br+/ NEMA S+2+"'
 
 
NPM  Cross Section of A TwoCross Section of A Two
Phase y!ri" Motor Phase y!ri" Motor 
 
 
 
 
urre"t low a"/ ele$tro%a'"et+$urre"t low a"/ ele$tro%a'"et+$
polar+t0 +s re5erses +" the w+"/+"'spolar+t0 +s re5erses +" the w+"/+"'s
Ea$h phaseEa$h phase
w+"/+"'w+"/+"'
NPM  Unipolar Coil Win"ingUnipolar Coil Win"ing
urre"t low a"/ ele$tro%a'"et+$ polar+t0 +surre"t low a"/ ele$tro%a'"et+$ polar+t0 +s
N!T re5erse/ +" the w+"/+"'s6 Polar+t0N!T re5erse/ +" the w+"/+"'s6 Polar+t0
$o%es ro% alter"atel0 e"er'+2e/ w+"/+"'s$o%es ro% alter"atel0 e"er'+2e/ w+"/+"'s
So%et+%esSo%et+%es
$alle/$alle/
Steppers %Steppers % Not So MuchNot So Much 
Stalle/ %otors bur" upStalle/ %otors bur" up * Steppers operate in stall conditionSteppers operate in stall condition
Most brushes 'o ba/Most brushes 'o ba/ * Steppers are brushlessSteppers are brushless
All bear+"'s 'o ba/All bear+"'s 'o ba/ * Quality Stepper bearings are ratedQuality Stepper bearings are rated
rom !"#$""% hoursrom !"#$""% hours
 
 
B+polarB+polar
the sa%e +"the sa%e +"
both w+"/+"'sboth w+"/+"'s
a"/ botha"/ both
/+re$t+o"s/+re$t+o"s
So%e 7 lea/ %otors $a" be $o""e$te/So%e 7 lea/ %otors $a" be $o""e$te/
as b+polaras b+polar
 
 
8"+polar8"+polar
-es+sta"$e ro%-es+sta"$e ro%
ea$h phase toea$h phase to
o%%o" +s theo%%o" +s the
sa%e +" bothsa%e +" both
/+re$t+o"s/+re$t+o"s
; 9 lea/s. two $o%%o"s $o""e$te/; 9 lea/s. two $o%%o"s $o""e$te/
 
 
 
 
 
 
NPM  Stepper Motor &lectronic SystemStepper Motor &lectronic System 
P8. o"troller. Se#ue"$er. Dr+5erP8. o"troller. Se#ue"$er. Dr+5er
!"e or %ore parts $a" be $o%b+"e/.!"e or %ore parts $a" be $o%b+"e/.
 
 
A /e/+$ate/ $o"troller 'e"eratesA /e/+$ate/ $o"troller 'e"erates
%ot+o" pro+les that pro/u$e s%oother%ot+o" pro+les that pro/u$e s%oother
 
 
NPM  Controller Manages # (nterpolatesController Manages # (nterpolates
So%e $o"trollers pro5+/e +"terpolat+o"So%e $o"trollers pro5+/e +"terpolat+o"
betwee" %otors to pro/u$e s%oothbetwee" %otors to pro/u$e s%ooth
 
 
NPM  Two O)tp)ts Types to Se*)encer Two O)tp)ts Types to Se*)encer 
Pulse & D+re$t+o" Spee/ & -otat+o"Pulse & D+re$t+o" Spee/ & -otat+o"
 
 
NPM  One Controller % Two O)tp)t TypesOne Controller % Two O)tp)t Types
Pulse & D+re$t+o" Pulse & D+re$t+o"
Spee/ & -otat+o"Spee/ & -otat+o"
WW Spee/ &WW Spee/ &
-otat+o"-otat+o"
 
 
NPM  Stepper Motor Se*)encersStepper Motor Se*)encers
Se#ue"$ers rea/ spee/ a"/ /+re$t+o"Se#ue"$ers rea/ spee/ a"/ /+re$t+o"
ro% $o"troller a"/ /el+5er e<$+tat+o"ro% $o"troller a"/ /el+5er e<$+tat+o"
 
 
Whe" 1a a"/Whe" 1a a"/
4a ('ree")4a ('ree")
lows +" o"elows +" o"e
/+re$t+o"/+re$t+o"
3a (re/) are3a (re/) are
tur"e/ o".tur"e/ o".
re5erse/re5erse/
Hal the /r+5eHal the /r+5e
ele$tro"+$s oele$tro"+$s o
less tor#ueless tor#ue
Howe5er.Howe5er.
pulse rate tha"pulse rate tha"
b+polar. beoreb+polar. beore
be$o%+"'be$o%+"'
 
 
NPM  C)rrent Lags -oltage in an (n")ctor C)rrent Lags -oltage in an (n")ctor 
Tor#ue ro% stepperTor#ue ro% stepper
%otors +s 'e"erate/ b0%otors +s 'e"erate/ b0
$urre"t. "ot 5olta'e$urre"t. "ot 5olta'e
PWM or hopper /r+5ePWM or hopper /r+5e
%a"a'es $urre"t%a"a'es $urre"t
appl+e/ at h+'herappl+e/ at h+'her
5olta'es to +"/u$e %ore5olta'es to +"/u$e %ore
w+"/+"' $urre"tw+"/+"' $urre"t
hopper /el+5ers %orehopper /el+5ers %ore
 
 
NPM  alf Stepping A Stepper Motor alf Stepping A Stepper Motor 
Eas+est wa0 to a$$o%pl+sh hal stepp+"'Eas+est wa0 to a$$o%pl+sh hal stepp+"'
+s b0 us+"' 1 phase e<$+tat+o"+s b0 us+"' 1 phase e<$+tat+o"
D+5+/es a stepperFs ull step a"'le b0D+5+/es a stepperFs ull step a"'le b0
two G69two G69..  369  369.. per hal stepper hal step
3C loss o tor#ue /epe"/+"' o" step3C loss o tor#ue /epe"/+"' o" step
rate whe" $o%pare/ to ull steprate whe" $o%pare/ to ull step
W+"/+"' +s "ot e"er'+2e/ /ur+"' ea$hW+"/+"' +s "ot e"er'+2e/ /ur+"' ea$h
alter"at+"' hal stepalter"at+"' hal step
 
 
PHASE APHASE A
STEP 1STEP 1
PHASE APHASE A
PHASE APHASE A
STEP 4STEP 4
PHASE APHASE A
PHASE APHASE A
STEP 3STEP 3
NPM  Microstepping A Stepper Motor Microstepping A Stepper Motor 
Iull step $a" be broke" +"to as %a"0 asIull step $a" be broke" +"to as %a"0 as
91 parts91 parts
urre"t +s l+%+te/ throu'h ea$h w+"/+"'6urre"t +s l+%+te/ throu'h ea$h w+"/+"'6
8"e#ual pull o" the %a'"et %ea"s +t8"e#ual pull o" the %a'"et %ea"s +t
%o5es towar/ the weaker w+"/+"'%o5es towar/ the weaker w+"/+"'
Tor#ue alls rap+/l0 as spee/ +"$reasesTor#ue alls rap+/l0 as spee/ +"$reases
Steps are "ot $o"sta"t or pos+t+o"+"'Steps are "ot $o"sta"t or pos+t+o"+"'
M+$rostepp+"' shoul/ o"l0 be use/ orM+$rostepp+"' shoul/ o"l0 be use/ or
s%ooth %o5e%e"t6s%ooth %o5e%e"t6