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  • Municipal Wastewater Denitrification EvaluationCity of Windom, Minnesota

    July 29, 2016 Revised November 4, 2016

    Bolton & Menk, Inc. Project No. T22.109023

    Submitted by:Bolton & Menk, Inc.12224 Nicollet BlvdBurnsvillle, MN 55337P: 952-890-0509F: 952-890-8065

    Prepared by:

    wq-wwtp5-91

  • MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER DENITRIFICATION EVALUATION

    CITY OF WINDOM, MINNESOTA

    JULY 2016

    BMI Project No. T22.109023

    I hereby certify that this plan, specification or report was prepared by me or under my direct supervision, and that I am a duly Licensed Professional Engineer under the laws of the State of Minnesota.

    Signature: Typed or Printed Name: Lana Tullis, P.E.

    Date: July 29, 2016 Lic. No. 41450

    I hereby certify that this plan, specification or report was prepared by me or under my direct supervision, and that I am a duly Licensed Professional Engineer under the laws of the State of Minnesota.

    Signature: Typed or Printed Name: Herman Dharmarajah, Ph.D., P.E.

    Date: July 29, 2016 Lic. No. 18256

    I hereby certify that this plan, specification or report was prepared by me or under my direct supervision, and that I am a duly Licensed Professional Engineer under the laws of the State of Minnesota.

    BOLTON & MENK, INC. CONSULTING ENGINEERS AND LAND SURVEYORS

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  • Windom, MN T22.109023 Page TOC-iii Municipal Wastewater Denitrification Evaluation Prepared by Bolton & Menk, Inc.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 1-1

    A. Project Background ........................................................................................ 1-1

    B. Nitrate Standards and Effluent Limits ........................................................... 1-2

    C. Purpose ........................................................................................................... 1-2

    D. Report Organization ....................................................................................... 1-3

    SECTION 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................... 2-1

    A. Nitrogen Forms and Reactions....................................................................... 2-1

    B. Biological Nitrogen Removal ........................................................................ 2-4

    C. Toxicity ........................................................................................................ 2-11

    D. References .................................................................................................... 2-12

    SECTION 3 WINDOM WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITY ................................... 3-1 A. Windom Effluent Limits and Monitoring ...................................................... 3-1

    B. Influent Flow and Load .................................................................................. 3-5

    C. Effluent Nitrogen and Whole Effluent Toxicity ............................................ 3-8

    SECTION 4 PILOT SCALE PLAN AND PROCEDURES .................................................... 4-1

    A. Denitrification Filter System.......................................................................... 4-1

    B. 2-Stage Activated Sludge ............................................................................... 4-3

    C. Supplemental Chemical Addition .................................................................. 4-6 1. Carbon ...................................................................................................... 4-6 2. Alkalinity ................................................................................................. 4-6 3. Nitrogen ................................................................................................... 4-7

    SECTION 5 PILOT SCALE RESULTS .................................................................................. 5-1 A. Denitrification Filter Pilot Scale Performance ............................................... 5-1

    B. 2-Stage Denitrification Pilot Scale Performance ........................................... 5-3

    SECTION 6 FULL SCALE PROJECTIONS ........................................................................... 6-1

    A. General ........................................................................................................... 6-1

    B. Full-Scale Recommendations ........................................................................ 6-1 1. Denitrification Filter ................................................................................ 6-1 2. 2-Stage Denitrification ............................................................................. 6-2

    C. Full-Scale Capital and Operational Cost Opinions ........................................ 6-3

    D. Summary ........................................................................................................ 6-8

  • Windom, MN T22.109023 Page TOC-iv Municipal Wastewater Denitrification Evaluation Prepared by Bolton & Menk, Inc.

    LIST OF APPENDICES A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)/State Disposal System

    (SDS) Permit MN0022217 City of Windom Windom Wastewater Treatment Facility

    B Particle Size Distribution Report, Typical Sieve Analysis C MicroC 2000 Material Safety Data Sheets D Fremont RLT 4710 Material Safety Data Sheets E Leopold Elimi-Nite Denitrification System Proposal F Leopold Ultrascreen Disk Filter System Proposal G Response to MPCAs Comments on the Draft Report Presented on July 29, 2016

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure Number

    Page/ Follows

    Page 2.1 Conventional Nitrification-Denitrification Pathway 2-5 3.1 Windom WWTF Aerial Overview 3-3 3.2 Windom WWTF Process Flow Diagram 3-4 3.3 Windom WWTF and PM Beef Monthly Average Flow (MGD) 3-6 3.4 Windom WWTF and PM Beef Monthly Average CBOD5 (lb/day) 3-6 3.5 Windom WWTF and PM Beef Monthly Average Nitrogen (lb/day) 3-7 3.6 Windom WWTF and PM Beef Monthly Average Phosphorus (lb/day) 3-7 3.7 Influent TKN, Effluent TKN and NO3+NO2 and C. dubia IC25 3-9 4.1 Denitrification Filter System Process Flow Diagram 4-1 4.2 Pilot Scale Denitrification Filter System Construction 4-2 4.3 2 Stage Activated Sludge System Process Flow Diagram 4-3 4.4 Pilot Scale 2-Stage Activated Sludge Construction (pre anoxic and aeration

    basins) 4-4

    4.5 Pilot Scale 2-Stage Activated Sludge Construction (post anoxic and clarifier)

    4-5

    5.1 Denitrification Filter System Performance 5-2 5.2 Denitrification Filter System On-Line Process Monitoring 5-3 5.3 2-Stage Activated Sludge Nitrogen Removal Performance 5-4 6.1 Biological Nutrient Removal 2 Stage Activated Sludge System 6-6

  • Windom, MN T22.109023 Page TOC-v Municipal Wastewater Denitrification Evaluation Prepared by Bolton & Menk, Inc.

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table Number

    Page

    2.1 Comparison of Denitrification Filter Manufacturers and Equipment 2-7 2.2 Summary of Design Guidance for Denitrification Filters 2-8 3.1 Windom Calendar Month Average Effluent Limits 3-2 6.1 General Cost Analysis of Adding Denitrification System 6-3 6.2 General Cost Analysis of Adding Disk Filters 6-4 6.3 General Cost Analysis of Carbon Addition 6-4 6.4 Opinion on Capital Cost for Denitrification Filters 6-5 6.5 New Tank Volume for Two Stage Activated Sludge System for Total

    Nitrogen Removal 6-5

    6.6 Cost Opinion for Two Stage Activated Sludge System for Total Nitrogen Removal

    6-7

    6.7 Cost Opinion for Two-Stage Activated Sludge System with Tertiary Filters 6-8

  • Windom, MN T22.109023 Page TOC-vi Municipal Wastewater Denitrification Evaluation Prepared by Bolton & Menk, Inc.

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  • Windom, MN T22.109023 Page 1-1 Municipal Wastewater Denitrification Evaluation Prepared by Bolton & Menk, Inc.

    SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

    A. PROJECT BACKGROUND In 2014, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) announced an Emerging

    Contaminants Wastewater Initiative with a Request for Proposals for Wastewater

    Treatment Plant (WWTP) Pilot Projects. The pilot project program was designed to

    generate practical, transferrable strategies for implementing water quality standards

    and/or reducing emerging contaminants in wastewater effluent. The pilot project

    program was developed to target chloride, phosphorous, nitrogen, sulfate, endocrine

    active compounds, parameters associated with pharmaceuticals or personal care products,

    and other unregulated chemical of emerging concern. The following report evaluates

    alternate methods for total nitrogen removal, or denitrification, at the City of Windom

    Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTF).

    The City of Windom has an extended aeration activated sludge treatment system with

    tertiary filtration. Historically, the influent TKN ranges from 40 mg/L to 100 mg/L. The

    treatment plant is able to completely nitrify the influent ammonia yielding low effluent

    ammonia concentrations. However, the effluent nitrate concentrations are high and range

    from 25 mg/L to 95 mg/L. The high effluent nitrogen concentrations could exceed future

    potential Total Nitrogen limit of less than 10 mg/L. This would require evaluation of

    removal strategies designed at reducing the Total Nitrogen level in the wastewater

    effluent.

    Through pilot scale operations, alternate treatment technologies can be evaluated relative

    to current or proposed water qua

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