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MTE3133: Penyelidikan Tindakan Prosedur Penyelidikan Pendidikan Dr. Ng Kok Fu, Jabatan Matematik, IPG-KSAH

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  • MTE3133: Penyelidikan Tindakan

    Prosedur Penyelidikan Pendidikan

    Dr. Ng Kok Fu, Jabatan Matematik, IPG-KSAH

  • Rujukan

    Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. (2009). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Merrill Prentice Hall

    Pusat Sumber: 370.72 GAY 2009

  • Hasil-hasil Pembelajaran

    Mengenal pasti prosedur penyelidikan pendidikan

    Menerangkan prosedur penyelidikan pendidikan

    Mensintesis maklumat daripada pelbagai sumber untuk memperoleh pemahaman dalam melaksanakan penyelidikan pendidikan

  • Langkah Konseptual Penyelidikan

    Memilih dan Mentakrif Masalah

    Melaksana Prosedur Penyelidikan

    Menganalisis dan Mentafsir Data

    Membuat dan Menyatakan Kesimpulan

  • Prosedur Penyelidikan Pendidikan1. Menyatakan masalah kajian

    2. Menetapkan objektif kajian

    3. Membentuk soalan kajian

    4. Membentuk hipotesis kajian

    5. Melakukan tinjauan literatur

    6. Merancang reka bentuk kajian

    7. Menentukan prosedur persampelan

    8. Membina instrumen kajian

    9. Menyatakan kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan instrumen kajian

    10. Menentukan prosedur pengumpulan data

    11. Mengumpul data

    12. Menganalisis dan menghurai data

    13. Membincang dan melapor hasil kajian

  • 1-3. Memilih masalah/objektif/soalan kajian

    "Some graduate students spend many anxiety-ridden days and sleepless nights worrying about where they are going to find a problem to address in their theses or dissertations." (Gay, Mills & Airasian, 2009, p. 66)

  • 1-3. Memilih masalah/objektif/soalan kajian

    The first step

    identify a general subject that is related to your area of expertise and is of particular interest to you.

    Five main sources of research topics are


    personal experiences

    previous studies that can be replicated

    electronic mailing lists

    library searches

  • 1-3. Memilih masalah/objektif/soalan kajian

    Characteristics of Good Topics

    Is interesting

    interest you throughout entire research process

    Is researchable

    can collect & analyse data to investigate problem

    Has theoretical or practical significance

    leads to understanding of educational process

    Is ethical

    does not harm or embarrass participants

    Is manageable

    can be adequately investigated given your current level of research skills, available resources, time and other restrictions

  • Investigating Area and Volume Instruction forProspective Teachers: A Lesson ExperimentMChamberlin, M. & Candelaria, M.S. (2014). athematics Education, 2014, 9(2), 113-134

    The objective of this study is to investigate how instruction impacts the mathematical understandings of prospective elementary teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course. We chose to examine prospective teachers mathematical understandings of area and volume and how those understandings were impacted by an associated lesson. Specifically, the research questions are:

    1. What are prospective elementary teachers mathematical understandings of area and volume before, during, and after an associated lesson?

    2. How does the lesson impact the prospective teachers understandings of area and volume?

    3. How might the lesson be enhanced within the class and for future class offerings?

  • 4. Membentuk hipotesis kajian

    A hypothesis is a researcher's prediction of the research findings

    Researchers do not prove a hypothesis but rather collect data that either support or do not support it

    A hypothesis in a quantitative study is formulated based on theory or on knowledge gained while reviewing the related literature

  • 4. Membentuk hipotesis kajian

    Characteristic of a good hypothesis is based on a sound rationale

    should derive from previous research or theory, not a wild guess

    provides a reasonable explanation for the predicted outcome

    states clearly and concisely the expected relations or differences between variables

    is testable well formulated and stated

  • 4. Membentuk hipotesis kajianTypes of Hypotheses

    Inductive hypothesis is a generalization made from a number of observations

    Deductive hypothesis is derived from theory and is aimed at providing evidence that supports, expands, or contradicts aspects of a given theory nondirectional hypothesis predicts only that a relation/difference exists

    Pencapaian pelajar matematik tahun 5 yang diajar menggunakan multimedia interaktif adalah berbeza secara signifikan daripada pencapaian mereka yang menerima pengajaran biasa sahaja

    directional hypothesis indicates the direction of the difference as well.

    null hypothesis predicts that there is no significant relation/difference between variables

  • 4. Membentuk hipotesis kajian

    A general model for stating hypothesis for experimental studies:

    P who get X do better on Y than P who do not get X (or get some other X)

    P refers to participants

    X refers to the treatment or independent variable (IV)

    Y refers to the outcome or dependent variable (DV)

    Pencapaian pelajar matematiktahun 5 yang diajarmenggunakan multimedia interaktif adalah berbeza secarasignifikan daripada pencapaianmereka yang menerimapengajaran biasa sahaja

  • 4. Membentuk hipotesis kajian

    Hypotheses in Qualitative Studies

    Typically, qualitative researchers do not state formal hypotheses prior to the study

    However, a qualitative researcher may develop guidinghypotheses for the proposed research

    Having identified a guiding hypothesis, the qualitative researcher may operationalize the hypothesis through the development of research questions that provide a focus for data collection

    Qualitative researchers are likely to generate new hypotheses as a result of their studies

  • 5. Melakukan tinjauan literatur

    Literature Review

    systematically identifying, locating, and analyzing documents pertaining to the research topic

    The major purpose is to identify information that already exists about the topic

    Another purpose is to discover research strategies, procedures, and instruments that have and have not been found to be productive in investigating similar topics

  • 5. Melakukan tinjauan literatur

    Identifying Your Sources

    A good way to start literature review is with a narrow search of pertinent educational encyclopedias, handbooks, and annual reviews found in libraries.These resources provide broad overviews of issues in various subject areas.

    2 types of sources Primary source - article or report written by the person who

    conducted the study

    Secondary source - brief description of a study written by someone other than the original researcher

    Primary sources are preferred in literature review

  • 5. Melakukan tinjauan literatur

    Evaluating Your Sources

    It is important to evaluate all literature sources by asking

    What was the problem statement of the study?

    Who was studied?

    Where was the source published?

    When was the study conducted?

    How is the study conducted?

  • 5. Melakukan tinjauan literaturAbstracting Abstracting involves creating summaries by locating,

    reviewing, summarizing, and classifying your references

    For each source work, list the complete bibliographic record, including author's

    name, date of publication, title, journal name or book title, volume number, issue number, page numbers, and library call number.

    briefly list main ideas keep all references in the format required for research

    reports or dissertations

    Helpful way to keep track of the literature is to use a matrix

  • 5. Melakukan tinjauan literatur

    Analyzing, Organizing, and Reporting the Literature

    Describing and reporting research requires a specialized style of writing - technical writing documenting facts and substantiating opinions,

    clarifying definitions and using them consistently,

    using an accepted style manual,

    starting sections with an introduction and ending them with a brief summary

  • 5. Melakukan tinjauan literatur

    Analyzing, Organizing, and Reporting the Literature

    When organizing a review, make an outline

    sort references by topic

    analyze the similarities and differences between references in a given subheading

    give a meaningful overview in which you discuss references least related to the problem first

    conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications

  • 6. Merancang reka bentuk kajian

    Research design refers to the structure of an enquiry: it is a logical matter rather than a logistical one.

    It has been argued that the central role of research design is to

    minimize the chance of drawing incorrect causal inferences from data.

  • 6. Merancang reka bentuk kajian

    Reka bentuk kajian memberi gambaran tentang kerangka,

    perancangan atau strategi yang menentukan prosedur kajian

    Aspek-aspek reka bentuk merangkumi:

    pendekatan kajian

    kaedah persampelan

    cara pengumpulan data

    teknik memproses dan menganalisis data

  • Reka Bentuk & Kutipan Data

  • 7. Prosedur Persampelan

    Persampelan dijalankan kerana biasanya penyelidikan tidak mengumpul data daripada seluruh populasi

  • Persampelan Kebarangkalian

    Probability samples are the only type of samples where the results can be generalized from the sample to the population

    Jenis persampelan kebarangkalian

    Persampelan rawak mudah

    Persampelan rawak berstrata

    Persampelan cluster

    Persampelan sistematik

  • Pers. Bukan Kebarangkalian

    If the researcher has no intention of generalizing beyond the sample, one of the non-probability sampling methodologies can be used

    Persampelan bukan kebarangkalian

    Persampelan convenience

    Persampelan kuota

    Persampelan bertujuan

    Persampelan snowball

  • 8. Instrumen Kajian

    Instrumen kajian perlu dikenal pasti dengan tepat dan disediakan mengikut kesesuaian fokus kajian

    A research instrument is a survey, questionnaire, test, scale, rating, or tool designed to measure the variable(s), characteristic(s), or information of interest, often a behavioral or psychological characteristics










  • Taxonomy of Action Research Qualitative Data Collection Techniques


    (The 3 Es)


    (Through observation & field notes)


    (When the researcher asks)


    (Using and making records)

    Participant observation (Active participant)

    Privileged, active observer

    Passive observer

    Informal interview

    Structured formal interview


    Attitude scales

    Standardized tests

    Archival documents



    (Mills, 2003, p. 71)

  • 9. Prosedur Pengumpulan Data

    Prosedur yang digunakan untuk mengumpul setiap jenis data perlu dijelaskan dengan baik

  • Contoh: Pemerhatian

    Observations involve more than just hanging out. Planful and self-aware observers use observation systematically ( DeWalt & DeWalt, 2001).

    At the proposal stage, the researcher should describe the purpose of the observing, the phase of the study in which it is likely to be most fruitful, and the use of field notes to respond to the research questions.

  • 9. Prosedur Pengumpulan Data

    Field notes are not scribbles. The proposal writer should have explicit note-organizing and note-management strategies

  • 10. Analisis & Huraian Data

  • 10. Analisis Data Kualitatif

  • 10. Analisis Data Kuantitatif

  • Pelaporan Hasil Kajian

    Pelaporan hasil kajian dilakukan bagi tujuan berkongsi dapatan kajian dengan komuniti profesional