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goes on more rapidly in cold weather, andthat this is wisely preordained, the same re-mirk applies to respiration, in which theimaginative poet and the cold philosopheralike recognise the resemblance. The heat
generated will partly depend on the rapidityof the union of the impurities of the blood,and the consequent liberation of caloric.- 141 But it will partly depend on the quan-tity of carbon and hydrogen contained aud- taken in with the food. On this groundalone I expect the patience of my readers; forit will follow, if this be admitted, that suchprovisions should be selected for such
(northern) expeditions as may have beenfound to contain these elements in the largestpossible excess, loosely combined, and in themost favourable state for elimination. Weall know that articles of an opposite chemicalconstitution lower the temperature, such asnitre, acids, mineral and vegetable; and Ihence the failure of lime-juice as an antisep-tic, unless aided by nutritious food. On re-
:-ference to the food destined by nature forthe support of the Esquimaux, we find italmost exclusively hydrocarbonaceous, oil,blubher, fish, and flesh ; the two latter ofwhich cannot be too fat for them. Here wesee a strong analogy between the process ofnutrition and that of combustion ; nearly thesame materials, the same play of affinities, thesame results, the same change of latent intosensible caloric. That persons of a weaklydigestion have no great conservative power,with regard to temperature, is a matter be-
yond doubt; and the converse seems equallymanifest. It is here we have to regard thefelicity of an Esquimaux constitution ; forwhatsoever improvement European appetitesundergo among them, their inherent diges-
tive powers exceed ours out of all reasonableproportion.
" If I am rightly understood, my readersmust see that I contend that the gross dietof northern tribes is not a matter of chance,but in harmony with the slow but constantchanges which are continually going onaround them, and intended to enable them toresist cold and vigorously to generate heat.Thus, as was witnessed in this expedition,the Esquimaux mother was enabled safely toexpose her naked infant, but a few daysborn, to an atmosphere of 75 degrees belowour freezing point, for several minutes ; theheat being rapidly generated by the one and
_ as tenaciously retained by the other, for thechild during this time was feeding at thebreast." Thus wrote Dr. Collier in 1834.
_ When this paper was sent in to Sir JohnRoss for publication, Mr. Rymer Jones, who,
tvas employed by Sir John to superintend partof the -work, doubted the orthodoxy of thethird mode of explanation of the source of
-caloric, and would have expunged it. Itwas my ill luck first to have the paper in-serted by Sir J. Ross without a notice of the_ .editor of it, and now to see reviewers talking
of the originality of Liebig’s theory of intra-combustion by the process of innutrition
eight years afterwards ! May I hope Dr.Justus Liebig will see this, and do me jus-tice, since it is the basis of his entire workon Animal Chemistry, aye, and the pillars ofthe architecture. I remain yours, &c.
G. F. COLLIER.Spring-gardens, Aug. 12, 1842.
G. F. COLLIER.
TREATMENT OF CHOLERA.
To the Editor of THE LANCET.SIR,-I beg to state that in a number of
cases of English cholera, some of them sosevere as to resemble the Asiatic, I havelately found that rubbing laudanum freelyover the stomach and bowels, and administer-ing small repeated doses of sal volatile inwater, have effectually checked them. WhatI have witnessed has so astonished others aswell as myself, that I beg you will lose notime in inserting this, as I am sure that theabove plan being generally adopted willsave many lives. I am, Sir, very respect-fully, your obedient servant,
PATRICK GILLESPIE.Lisson-grove North, Aug. 11, 1842.
MORBID PRODUCTION WITHINTHE SKULL.
COMMUNICATIONS OF MESSRS. SEMPLE AND
To the Editor of THE LANCET.
SIR,-In THE LANCET of July 9th, Mr. R.H. Semple, of Islington, related a case ofcerebral disease, which led him to conclude,
1. That most extensive disease could goon within the skull (yet not interfering withthe functions of the important organ which itcontains), without producing any symptoms.
2. That this chronic disease could prove acause of sudden death without any addi-tional lesion.The description of the morbid parts by
Mr. Semple led me at once to conclude thatwhat he had observed was not the result of amorbid growth, a chronic disease, but simplyan apoplectic effusion in which a physicalchange had taken place.A desire to prevent Mr. Semple’s conclu-
sions, in my opinion so ill-founded, frombeing circulated, without at least beingquestioned, led me to address a few lines toyou, stating the grounds of the opinion whichI had formed. For affording them space inyour esteemed Journal, I feel deeply in-
debted ; and that I was not altogether wrongin my conclusions, is evidenced by a notefrom Mr. Langstaff (on whose high authoritythe original statement was chiefly made),
which appears in the last number of THE E
LANCET. That gentleman commences bysaying that he sends « a statement whichdeviates materially from that made by Mr.Semple." Truth being my only object, I donot wish to criticise the propriety of a differ-ence of statement in reference to a recent
pathological fact: solely with a view, there-fore, of arriving at correct conclusions, withyour permission I will put the statements ofboth gentlemen in apposition.
Mr. Semple says—" Both the underand upper surfaces
[of the diseased por-tion ] were perfectlysmooth and polished ;one corresponding tothe internal surfaceof the dura mater,the other to the ex-ternal layer [?] of thearachnoid membrane.
" The arachnoidmembrane was thick-ened, and insepara-bly united to the piamater, which was
every where easilydetached from theconvolutions."
Mr. Langstaffsays On first lookingat the specimen itresembled a thick-ened state of thearachnoid membrane,or a vascular adven-titious production.
"By careful in-
spection I detectedthat the diseasedpart was composedof two dense layers,with blood in a fluidstate between them,which led me to sup-pose they were por-tions of the arachnoid
coat, and that theefl’usion of bloodcaused the suddendeath of the patient."
From a review of the whole case, and ofthe foregoing statements, I am irresistiblyled to the following conclusions :-
1. That Mr. Langstaffis altonether wrongin supposing this to be either an adventitiousgrowth or a thickened state of the arachnoidmembrane. Independently of the impossi-bility of such a growth taking place withoutproducing any symptoms, the proposition Iaim at establishing, we cannot suppose it totake place without blood-vessels entering it,Mr. Langstaff does not in the results of hisclose examination state such to be the case.Indeed, it is inconsistent with the smoothsurfaces described by Mr. Semple. Theidea of its being thickened arachnoid, will atonce appear unfounded to any one perusingMr. Semple’s statement.
2. That Mr. Semple has no just groundsfor his conclusions.
3. As I stated in my note addressed to youthat this is a case of sudden death from apo-plexy : the eflusion of blood taking placebetween the layers of the arachnoid, in which,on coagulating, the usual separation of lymphand colouring matter has taken place.
4. That it is exceedingly injurious to theadvancement of our professional knowledge ;to circulate, or to allow to circulate without contradiction, inaccurate views or unfounded
conclusions; and this is the only apologywhich I can offer for this prolonged commu-uication, and which, as controversy is notmy object, I promise shall be the last from,most obediently yours,
August 14, 1S42. W. K. N.
POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONOF THE
DUKE OF ORLEANS.
IN the Gazette des Hôpitaux., of July 19th,we find the following account of the post-mortem examination of the late PrinceRoyal:-
The examination was performed fortyhours after decease ; the body presented in-cipient decomposition in the abdominal re-gion and posterior part of the trunk ; limbsrigid ; traces of a bruise upon the rightcheek, and on the right eyebrow and side ofthe forehead ; ecchymosed swelling on the,posterior part and right side of the head;traces of bruise on the knees, on the lefthand, and on the left hip ; marks of nume-rous leech-bites behind the ears ; punctureof the median cephalic vein for blood-letting;marks of the cupping scarincator in varioussituations upon the trunk and limbs; marksof mustard plasters.Sanguineous infiltration of the soft parts
covering the superior, posterior, and lateralregions of the head-most considerable onthe right side and posteriorly.Disunion of the lambdoidal suture, of the
left squamous and additamentum snturse
squamosæ, the sphenoidal, and the two
spheno-petrosal sutures. -
Numerous fractures, which may be ar-ranged in three series :
1. Right Side of the Cranium.-One ofthese commences at the right crus of the
lambdoidal suture, passes a little above thepostero-inferior angle of the parietal bone,across the squamous portion of the temporal,into the temporal fossa, and terminates on thegreat wing of the sphenoid.
2. Left Side of the Cranium.-A secondproceeding from the left crus of the lamb-doidal suture, crosses the middle of theparietal bone, and separates the squamousportion from the rest of the temporal bone;the temporal bone being at the same timedisplaced at its suture, is retained in itsplace only by the soft parts.
3. A third fracture traverses the sphe-noid transversely across the sella turcica.The complement of the fractures and
disunions here described divides the skullinto two halves, one anterior and superior,comprehending the upper part of the twoparietal bones, the squamous portions of thetemporals, the frontal, ethmoid, and nearlythe entire of the sphenoid ; the other, poste-rior and inferior, comprising the occipital,