MICROALGAE BIOFUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES IN MICROALGAE BIOFUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES IN AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS

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  • MICROALGAE BIOFUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES IN

    AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS

    A Dissertation submitted by

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    B.Sc., M.Sc.

    For the award of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    2014

    http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=usq new logo&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=262T4omP4igi6M&tbnid=G-zoIHZ7xp5CKM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=https://www.usq.edu.au/sciences/events/scichallenge/sponsors&ei=4f6nUf7IPM2CkgWcooEw&psig=AFQjCNF3Heod42sljTNI59WSgUtw-aoDpQ&ust=1370050629656629

  • i

    Abstract

    Diesel engines are the key components of several sectors in modern life. The

    dramatic growth of the world’s population, economy and industry has increased the

    demand for petroleum diesel (PD) fuel. The increased use of depleting PD in recent

    years has highlighted the problems of high fuel prices and emissions. The emissions

    from combusting PD have been proven to affect human health and to contribute to

    the high carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that have led to global warming.

    Alternative fuels have become essential for eliminating the PD problems. Biodiesel

    has attracted much attention as a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative

    fuel. The main drawback of using biodiesel as a fuel alternative to PD is the limited

    resources available, which cannot satisfy the demand for PD. Using vegetable oil for

    biodiesel purposes could create a food crisis. Potentially, microalgae are a promising

    alternative because of their high biomass and lipid productivity, and because they can

    contribute to reducing CO2 pollution through the photosynthesis process. Microalgae

    have the ability to grow in a variety of difficult conditions such as in seawater,

    wastewater or deserts, thus avoiding influence on the agriculture sector.

    In this work, fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV) was grown for

    biodiesel production and to study the effect of enhancing the lipid content using iron

    as stress treatment on the biodiesel properties. Different growing conditions were

    found to give different fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) components, which led to

    different biodiesel properties. However, this biodiesel was found to have acceptable

    properties for running diesel engines.

  • ii

    Single-cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were evaluated

    using microalgae Chlorella protothecoides MCP-B100, MCP-B50, MCP-B20 and

    PD. The overall results indicated that MCP-B100 and its blends have fuel properties,

    engine performance and enhanced emissions comparable to those of PD. Statistical

    analyses showed that the effect of the fuel type on the studied parameters was

    statistically significant except for the fuel consumption (FC) rate, thermal efficiency

    and CO2. MCP-B100 produced a reduction by 7%, 4.9%, 28% and 7.4% in the brake

    power, torque, CO and NOx, respectively, and an increase by 10.2% and 15.8% in the

    brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and oxygen (O2), respectively.

    A second test was performed to study the effect of adding FWM-CV cells to enhance

    the energy content of emulsified water fuels on the performance and exhaust gas

    emissions of a single-cylinder diesel engine. The test was conducted using

    cottonseed biodiesel (CS-B100), emulsified water fuel in cottonseed biodiesel (CS-

    E20) and emulsified water fuel containing FWM-CV cells (CS-MB100). The general

    findings were that the CS-MB100 presented higher results of gross input power,

    brake power, torque, CO2 and nitrogen oxide (NOx) than CS-B100 and lower results

    than CS-B100. These findings indicate that the addition of FWM-CV cells to

    emulsified water fuel has a positive effect on fuel properties and engine performance.

    An agricultural tractor power take-off (PTO) test was conducted using MCP-B20 to

    examine the performance and exhaust gas emissions under different operating

    conditions. The results indicated an insignificant difference in engine performance

    when MCP-B20 was used compared with PD. However, the analysis of variance

    (ANOVA) summary at rated PTO speed showed a significant reduction in the values

    of torque, power, carbon monoxide (CO), CO2 and nitrogen monoxide (NO), and a

    significant increase in the O2 lambda for MCP-B20 compared with those of PD.

  • iii

    Certification of Dissertation

    I certify that the ideas, experimental work, results, analyses and conclusions reported

    in this dissertation are entirely my own effort, except where otherwise

    acknowledged. I also certify that the work is original and has not been previously

    submitted for any award, except where otherwise acknowledged.

    ……………………………………. / /2013

    Signature of Candidature

    Saddam Hussen Maree Al-lwayzy

    ENDORSEMENT

    ……………………………………. / /2013

    Signature of Principal Supervisor

    ……………………………………. / /2013

    Signature of Supervisor/s

    ……………………………………. / /2013

    Signature of Supervisor/s

  • iv

  • v

    Acknowledgments

    This thesis would not have been possible without the many institutes and people who

    helped me complete my PhD project. First, thanks to God, the Iraqi government and

    the University of Southern Queensland for giving me this opportunity.

    I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my principal supervisor, Associate

    Professor Talal Yusaf, for his guidance, remarks and engagement throughout the

    process of my learning in the field of internal combustion engines and biofuels.

    Thanks for their valuable, useful solutions to the great number of challenges during

    the period of study. I am highly grateful to my associate supervisor Dr Paul Baker for

    his great time and effort in setting up and running the engine and for his valuable

    comments and experience in engine and combustion theory. Thanks are also due to

    my associate supervisor Dr Troy Jensen, who helped me to perform the tractor test to

    fulfil the requirements of my sponsor, the Iraqi government, and provided

    constructive comments. Further, I would like to express my thanks to Dr Bernadette

    McCabe, Dr Vasanthadevi Aravinthan, Dr Pam Pittaway, Mr Peter Harris, Mrs Adele

    Jones and Mrs Morwenna Boddington for their assistance in the biological part of my

    thesis. The author would like to extend his thanks to professor; Frank Bullen for his

    continues support for this project. I also would like to convey many thanks to Mr

    Kim Larson for his valuable assistance and advice in the chemical analysis of the

    fuels. Thanks to Chris Galligan, Dean Beliveau and Brian Aston for their help in

    building the experimental apparatus. My colleagues Dr Belal Yousif, Ahmed Naji,

    Raed Ahmed and Ahmed Younis Al-Sabawy deserve thanks for their valuable

    guidance and assistance. Thanks to the Soley Institute for providing the project with

    microalgae oil and useful information and thanks to Queensland University of

    Technology (QUT) for providing us Cottonseed biodiesel. I wish to express my

  • vi

    special thanks to my beloved families back home, especially my mum and dad for all

    that they sacrificed for us and for their endless encouragement and support through

    the study time. Thanks also to my lovely brothers and sisters for their support along

    the way. Massive thanks to my wife and lovely sons for all their love and support

    and, to you, this thesis is dedicated.

  • vii

    List of Associated Publications

    Journal papers

    Al-lwayzy, S & Yusaf, T 2013, ‘Chlorella protothecoides microalgae as an

    alternative fuel for tractor diesel engines’, Energies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 766–83.

    Al-lwayzy, Saddam H. and Yusaf, Talal and Jensen, Troy 2012 ‘Evaluating tractor

    performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil’, IOP

    Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 36 (1). pp. 442-452. ISSN

    1757-899.

    Conferences

    Allwayzy, S, Yusaf, T, McCabe, BK, Pittaway, P & Aravinthan, V 2010,

    ‘Microalgae as alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) Engines’, paper

    presented at Southern Region Engineering Conference, Toowoomba, 11–12

    November.

  • viii

    Contents

    1 CHAPTER ONE Introduction ................................................................ 1

    1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1

    1.2 Objectives ........................................................................................................... 4

    1.3 Thesis Layout ..................................................................................................... 5

    2 CHAPTER TWO Literature Review ........................................................ 8

    2.1 Introduction ...........................................................