Mechatronics Unit1

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mechatronics

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ME 1024 ELEMENTS OF MECHATRONICS 1 UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION 2ThewordmechatronicswasoriginatedfromJapan(YasakawaElectric Company)inthelate1960sspreadthro!ghE!ropeandisnow commonly !sed ro!nd the glo"e#$The word mechatronics is composed of %mecha& from mechanism and the %tronics& from electronics#'echatronicssol(estechnologicalpro"lems!singinterdisciplinary knowledgeconsistingofmechanicalengineeringelectronicsand comp!ter technology#)n1996*arashimaTomi+!kaand,!k!dade-nedmechatronicsas "eing$thesynergisticintegrationofmechanicalengineeringwith electronicsandintelligentcomp!tercontrolinthedesignand man!fact!ring of ind!strial prod!cts and processes#./oltonpresentedyetanotherde-nition"ysaying$Theterm mechatronicsis!sedforthisintegrationofmicroprocessorcontrol system electrical system and mechanical system#.'echatronics is the -eld of st!dy concerned with the design selection analysis and control of systems that com"ine mechanical elements with electronic components incl!ding comp!ters and0or microcontrollers#Introduction to Mechtronic! S"!te#!$'echatronicsisthesynergisticintegrationofsensorsact!atorssignal conditioningpowerelectronicsdecisionandcontrolalgorithmsand comp!ter hardware and software to manage comple1ity !ncertainty and comm!nication in engineered systems#2orking de-nition3raphical 4epresentation of 'echatronics4%E&o'ution o( Mechtronic!Technologicalad(ancesindesignman!fact!ringandoperationof engineered prod!cts0de(ices0processes can "e traced thro!gh5 Indu!tri' re&o'ution Se#iconductor re&o'ution In(or#tion re&o'utionIndu!tri' Re&o'ution6 7llowed design of prod!cts and processes for energy con(ersion and transmission th!s allowing the !se of energy to do !sef!l work#6 Engineering designs of this era were largely mechanical 8e#g#operationsofmotiontransmissionsensingact!ationand comp!tationwereperformed!singmechanicalcomponentss!chas cams gears le(ers and linkages)#6 9!rely mechanical systems s!:er from8 9ower ampli-cation ina"ility#8 Energy losses d!e to tolerances inertia and friction#)*Se#iconductor Re&o'ution6 ;ed to the creation of integrated circ!it ()C) technology#6E:ecti(eminiat!ri+edpowerelectronicsco!ldamplifyanddeli(er needed amo!nt of power to act!ators#6 ?> dri(es 7T' etc6 'edical5 implant=de(ices assisted s!rgery haptic etc#6 >efense5 !nmanned air gro!nd and !nderwater (ehicles smart weapons Cet engines etc#6 'an!fact!ring5 @C D C@C machine tools 4apid 9rototyping ro"otics etc#6 7!tomoti(e5 climate control antilock "rake acti(e s!spension cr!ise control air "ags engine management safety etc#6 @etwork=centric distri"!ted systems5 distri"!ted ro"otics telero"otics intelligent highways etc#11121$141%1)Ad&nt1e! o( Mechtronic!Cost e:ecti(e and good E!ality prod!cts*igh degree of Ae1i"ility to modify or redesign?ery good performance characteristics2ide are of application3reater prod!cti(ity in case of man!fact!ring organi+ation3reater e1tend of machine !tili+ationDi!d&nt1e! o( Mechtronic!*igh )nitial cost'!lti=disciplinary engineering "ackgro!nd reE!ired to design and implementation@eed of highly trained workersComple1ity in identi-cation an correction of pro"lems in the systemE'e#ent! o( Mechtronic! S"!te# 1+Actutor! 2 Sen!or!Sen!or! nd ctutor! co#e under #echnic' !"!te#!Actutor! Sen!or!Thectutor! 0roduce#otionor cu!e !o#e ctionThe!en!or!detect the!tteo(the !"!te#0r#eter!3 in0ut! nd out0ut!4riou!ctutor!. -neu#ticn h"dru'icctutor!3 E'ectroMechnic' ctutor!3 -ie5oe'ectric3 E'ectric'Motor!3i6e6 D6C3A6C3Ste00er3 Ser&o #otor!64riou!Sen!or!. Linerndrotion' !en!or!3cce'ertion !en!or!3(orce3 tor7ue30re!!ure !en!or3te#0erture3 0ro8i#it"nd'i1ht !en!or!61,>i:erence "etween Fpen loop and Closed loop systemSI.No. Open loop system Closed loop system1 Not using feedback Feedback using2 Less accurate More accurate Simple in constructionComplicated in construction ! Optimisation in control is not possible Optimisation in control is possible" #asy maintenance $ cost is less %ifficult to maintain $ cost is more& #g. C% deck' %igital t(ermometer #g. )utomatic *ater le+el' *as(ing mac(ineFpen ;oop systemClosed loop system/asic Elements of a closed loop system1#Comparison elementG#Control elementH#Correction elementI#9rocess elementsJ#'eas!rement elements?ario!s elements for controlling the room temperat!re#Controlled +ariable,t(e room temperature-eference +alue ,t(e re.uired room temperatureComparison element ,t(e person comparing t(e measured +alue *it re.uired temp.#rror signal ,difference bet*een measured and re.uired temperaturesControl unit ,t(e personCorrection unit ,t(e s*itc( on t(e fire/rocess unit ,t(e (eating by t(e fireMeasuring de+ice ,a t(ermometer