MASTERING Digital Dental Photography

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<ul><li><p>MASTERING digital dental photography Wolfgang Bengel </p><p>Quintessence Publishing Co, Ltd London, Berlin, Chicago, Tokyo, Barcelona, Beijing, Istanbul, Milan, </p><p>Moscow, Mumbai, Paris, Prague, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Warsaw </p></li><li><p>British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Bengel, Wolfgang Mastering digital dental photography 1. Dental photography - Technique 2. Photography - Digital techniques I. Title 617.6'0028 ISBN-10: 1850971528 </p><p> 2006 Quintessence Publishing Co, Ltd Quintessence Publishing Co, Ltd Grafton Road, New Maiden, Surrey United Kingdom www.quintpub.co.uk </p><p>All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher. </p><p>Editor: Kathleen Splieth, Wampen Layout and Production: Bernd Burkart, Berlin Printing and Binding: Bosch-Druck GmbH, Landshut </p><p>Printed in Germany </p><p>ISBN 1-85097-152-8 </p></li><li><p>Dedication </p><p>To Helmi, Christiane, and Renate </p><p>who accompanied our way for many years with patience, commitment and unlimited loyalty. </p><p>V </p></li><li><p>Foreword </p><p>Photography can be found virtually everywhere in daily life, and it seems that im-ages are being produced everywhere in both personal and professional applications. Bioinformatics, a new field, is speeding ahead, and new applications are being ex-plored at exponential rates as computers and digital tools become mainstream. The actual photomechanical process has become so easy that it might actually be diffi-cult to achieve the quality results one might expect. Practitioners have become a bit spoiled and rarely think about the role and goal of the pictures and are more enam-ored with the technology and how cool it is. </p><p>Photography has experienced an incredible transformation in the last 10 years as digital methods have taken over photographic applications. Originally invented in the late 1830's with silver halide materials, photography's evolution to the 1990's was a long steady continuum of improvements with few, if any, significant departures from methods and materials. Small improvements occurred frequently and were most ev-ident in color photography, but fundamentally used silver halide materials and most-ly film. These fundamental principles were grounded in physical and chemical processes. </p><p>In specific applications, photography can remember what the mind struggles to and photography can more easily describe what words cannot. Photography, when practiced correctly, can make the invisible visible. Science, and in particular medicine, quickly adopted photography as a tool for the documentation of procedures, disease and treatments. With careful and precise approaches, photography could reproduce reality with a precision that drawing or other illustrative methods could not. It was a powerful way to share conditions and cases that otherwise words struggled to achieve. </p><p>As the mid 1990's arrived, digital photography and more specifically digital cam-eras started to arrive in the marketplace. Although their resolution was low, they cre-ated a small buzz and purists argued about their poor picture quality, while innova-tors were delighted with what might be possible. In the 10 or so years since the Ap-ple Quicktake first appeared in photography stores, digital photography has com-</p><p>vii </p></li><li><p>pletely displaced film photography in science and medicine. Digital has achieved in 10 years what took silver halide materials more than 150 years to achieve. </p><p>The future is indeed exciting. With CCD and CMOS chips being able to resolve more things than ever using chips that are often 8+ million pixels, applications are being explored daily for imaging situations that otherwise were not possible with film. Display devices, printers, software and a slew of other inventions create a myriad of choices, provide methods, and provide new usages or others that have yet to be con-sidered. Often it is overwhelming and challenging at best to know where to go, how to purchase tools and what are the standards. </p><p>The advantages of this new technology do however come with a cost. New tech-nology is very dynamic and standards are being proposed daily for approaches and practices, but are not widely accepted in all industries. It can be frustrating when con-sidering purchasing products for specific applications as the prices are constantly de-creasing and improvements are continually made. New software allows things to be measured, changed, shared, and integrated into new communication tools with the click of a mouse. Images now are being animated, used in reports and put onto web sites at exponential rates. These applications are unparalleled in film technologies. </p><p>This richly illustrated book by Dr Wolfgang Bengel builds on his initial book in-vestigating Dental Photography published in 1984. Excellent practical solutions are shared in very logical manner. Attention to detail is evident upon a quick review of the table of contents. As a practicing dentist and having a long history of using pho-tography, he has produced an excellent book that should serve as a cornerstone of any practitioner of digital photography in a clinical setting. </p><p>Professor Michael Peres Rochester Institute of Technology </p><p>viii Foreword </p></li><li><p>pletely displaced film photography in science and medicine. Digital has achieved in 10 years what took silver halide materials more than 150 years to achieve. </p><p>The future is indeed exciting. With CCD and CMOS chips being able to resolve more things than ever using chips that are often 8+ million pixels, applications are being explored daily for imaging situations that otherwise were not possible with film. Display devices, printers, software and a slew of other inventions create a myriad of choices, provide methods, and provide new usages or others that have yet to be con-sidered. Often it is overwhelming and challenging at best to know where to go, how to purchase tools and what are the standards. </p><p>The advantages of this new technology do however come with a cost. New tech-nology is very dynamic and standards are being proposed daily for approaches and practices, but are not widely accepted in all industries. It can be frustrating when con-sidering purchasing products for specific applications as the prices are constantly de-creasing and improvements are continually made. New software allows things to be measured, changed, shared, and integrated into new communication tools with the click of a mouse. Images now are being animated, used in reports and put onto web sites at exponential rates. These applications are unparalleled in film technologies. </p><p>This richly illustrated book by Dr Wolfgang Bengel builds on his initial book in-vestigating Dental Photography published in 1984. Excellent practical solutions are shared in very logical manner. Attention to detail is evident upon a quick review of the table of contents. As a practicing dentist and having a long history of using pho-tography, he has produced an excellent book that should serve as a cornerstone of any practitioner of digital photography in a clinical setting. </p><p>Professor Michael Peres Rochester Institute of Technology </p><p>viii Foreword </p></li><li><p>Preface and acknowledgements </p><p>My last book on dental photography was published in 2002. It dealt with conven-tional and digital techniques. </p><p>When I was asked by the publisher to prepare a 2nd edition, I realized that pho-tography had changed completely. </p><p>In the professional world, the transition from conventional silver-halide photog-raphy to digital photography was not only underway but nearly completed. I thus decided to write a completely new book concentrating only on digital photography. Of course, the principles of photography have not changed. But in many cases, dig-ital photography has changed the approach to photography. </p><p>In my hands-on photography courses, I learned a great deal about problems col-leagues have when starting with digital photography and stumbling into the pitfalls of soft- and hardware. Therefore, I have tried to compile a book which is practically oriented. Although the user has to deal with things like image editing programs, archiving programs, and some software problems, digital photography is much eas-ier than the old silver-halide technique. The learning curve in the digital world is much steeper, as there is the great opportunity of immediate image checking. After users have overcome their initial inhibitions about the new technique, they have the chance to explore new worlds of creativity and fascinating possibilities. </p><p>I have never yet met a user who returned to conventional photography after he or she had stepped into the digital world. </p><p>Writing such a book relies on the help of others. I would like to thank Mrs. Bahr of Olympus, Mr. Scheffer of Nikon, Mr. Hermanns of Canon, and Mr. Bauer of Sigma, as well as Mr. Dieter Baumann and other people not mentioned here. Mr. Hubschen of Kaiser and Mr. Hiesinger of Novoflex supported me with advice on many occa-sions. </p><p>My appreciation goes to my practice staff for their help and patience over many years. </p><p>I thank my friend Dr. Steve Chu, New York, for our discussions. </p><p>ix </p></li><li><p>x Preface and Acknowledgements </p><p>Again, I would like to extend my gratitude to Mr. Haase of Quintessence Publishing for the opportunity of publishing another book. Mr. Burkart was responsible for the production of this work. I would like to thank him especially for his attention to de-tail and his patience. </p><p>At last I have to thank my wife and the whole family for their patience. </p><p>Wolfgang Bengel Bensheim </p></li><li><p>Contents </p><p>Man - Image - Medicine 1 </p><p>Section A Technical background 7 Chapter 1 Demands on the dental photograph 9 </p><p>1.1 Technical demands 10 1.2 Image composition 10 </p><p>Chapter 2 Basic components of photography 13 2.1 Camera body 13 2.2 The lens 18 2.3 Light and electronic flash 33 </p><p>Chapter 3 Digital technique 47 3.1 Image capture 47 3.2 New developments in sensor technology 52 3.3 Current trends and developments </p><p>to improve image quality 60 3.4 Signal processing and in-camera storage 64 3.5 Image data file formats 66 3.6 PC connection - Transferring the images 70 3.7 Camera set-up 71 </p><p>Chapter 4 Camera systems suitable for dental photography 75 </p><p>4.1 Semiprofessional cameras 75 4.2 Professional digital cameras 79 </p></li><li><p>xii Contents </p><p>Section Practical procedures 89 Chapter 5 Perioral and intraoral photography 91 </p><p>5.1 Accessories for intraoral photography 91 5.2 Visualization 96 5.3 Standard views 99 5.4 Supplemental segmental views 107 5.5 Reproducible conditions -</p><p>Making a series of photographs 110 5.6 Extraoral close-ups of the mouth 112 5.7 Tips for photographing skin and oral mucosa 113 5.8 Photography of surgical procedures 114 5.9 Applying photography in the dental practice 115 </p><p>Chapter 6 Portrait and profile photography 117 6.1 Technical prerequisites 117 6.2 Standard views 121 6.3 Additional photographs 124 6.4 Additional accessories 126 </p><p>Chapter 7 Photographing small objects for dentistry and dental laboratory 129 </p><p>7.1 Camera equipment 130 7.2 Placement of the object 130 7.3 Selecting and arranging suitable backgrounds 133 7.4 Adequate lighting for objects 144 </p><p>Chapter 8 Photography of dental casts 165 8.1 Technical considerations 166 8.2 Standard images - Model status 170 8.3 Special equipment for photographing casts 172 </p><p>Chapter 9 Copy work 175 9.1 Technical considerations 175 9.2 Practical considerations 177 9.3 Tips for problematical originals 179 </p><p>Chapter 10 Copying radiographs 181 10.1 Camera stabilization 181 10.2 Accessories for transmitted light 182 10.3 Arrangement for copying 183 10.4 Step-by-step procedure 184 </p></li><li><p>Contents xiii </p><p>Chapter 11 From slides to digital images 185 11.1 Kodak Picture CD 185 11.2 Photographing slides and negatives 186 11.3 Slide scanners 188 11.4 Flatbed scanners/drum scanners 190 </p><p>Section The digital workflow 193 Chapter 12 Workflow I: </p><p>Image transfer 195 12.1 Transferring the images 197 12.2 RAW-file transfer and conversion 198 12.3 Which file format? 201 12.4 Deleting files 201 </p><p>Chapter 13 Workflow II: Image editing - basic adjustments 203 </p><p>13.1 Importing images into Photoshop 203 13.2 Aligning and cropping images 204 13.3 Brightness and contrast 208 13.4 Color correction 208 13.5 Removing dust spots 208 13.6 Sharpening 208 </p><p>Chapter 14 Workflow III: Image archiving 211 </p><p>14.1 Digital asset management applications 212 14.2 Renaming the files 213 14.3 Adding information 213 14.4 Storage medium and file format 217 14.5 Digital longevity 221 </p><p>Chapter 15 Workflow IV: Data output 223 </p><p>15.1 Displaying photos on-screen 223 15.2 Printing images 229 15.3 Presenting images in </p><p>PowerPoint presentations 232 15.4 Presenting images in individually printed </p><p>photo books 233 </p></li><li><p>xiv Contents </p><p>Chapter 16 Special problems in digital photography . . 235 16.1 Neutral color rendition/using a gray card 235 16.2 White balance setting 241 16.3 Assessment of tooth color/brightness 244 16.4 Cleaning the camera sensor 254 16.5 Integrity of digital images 256 </p><p>Chapter 17 Image edi t ing-useful Photoshop procedures 257 </p><p>17.1 Image editing programs 257 17.2 Some preparations 258 17.3 Image editing procedures to enhance images 262 17.4 Image editing procedures to change </p><p>image content 273 17.5 Dental imaging 291 17.6 Advanced procedures 300 </p><p>Chapter 18 Slide presentations with PowerPoint . . . . 353 18.1 Preparing the presentation 337 18.2 PowerPoint basics 342 18.3 Animating objects 360 18.4 Slide transitions 362 18.5 Videos and sounds 363 18.6 Storing the presentation 365 18.7 Printing handouts 367 18.8 Helpful tricks and special effects 368 </p><p>Internet addresses 387 </p><p>Bibliography 389 </p><p>Index 391 </p></li><li><p>1 </p><p>Man - Image - Medicine </p><p>Man is a visual animal. When our ancestors first attempted to walk erect and our eyes moved from the sides to the front of our skulls, we began to see in three dimensions - not necessarily a disadvantage for a species which swung rapidly from branch to branch through the treetops. At the very latest, when we began to walk on two legs and left the forests to conquer the steppes and the rest of the world, vision became our primary sense. This is still the case today. </p><p>Today, now well advanced into the visual age, the image is beginning to replace the word. Images need only to be recognized, but words must be understood. An image always lends authenticity, whereas even the strongest proof cannot wipe off the weaknesses of mere assertions. </p><p>Images can inform, and also engender emotions. Images, many of which have since become icons, played a large role in ending the Vietnam War. The image of the Earth taken from space has bolstered the perception of our world as a unified and vulnerable system more than many a politician's speech has been able to do. Lennart Nilsson's images of life in the womb showed us that human beings must be regard-ed as such from the very beginning, and had a greater impact on the debate about abortions than pronouncements by the Church. </p><p>Images create the...</p></li></ul>