Mastering Digital Photography 3rd Edition Sample

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Mastering Digital Photography 3rd Editi

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<ul><li><p>Mastering Digital Photography </p><p>$14.95 incl GST lrd Edition </p><p>EPSON EXCEED YOUR VISION </p></li><li><p>CHAPTER 1 Equipment Choices How to select the right camera and accessories for your requirements. </p><p>CHAPTER 2 l enses and Focusing How to ensure the right partS of the subject will be sharp in your pictures. </p><p>CHAPTER 3: Controlling Subject Brightness Understanding and uSing exposure controls. </p><p>CHAPTER 4 Getting Colour Right How to ensure your photos have natural-looking colours. </p><p>CHAPTER 5 Equipment for Photo Editing Discover what hardware and software you need to ed~ your photos. </p><p>CHAPTER 6 Editing Basics Basic editing tools and how to use them. </p><p>CHAPTER 7 Scanning and Archiving HOW to copy preciOus analogue photos p lus practical strategies for storing digital images. </p><p>CHAPTER 8 Choosing a Printer Factors you should consider v.1len buying a digital printer. </p><p>CHAPTER 9 Inks and Papers Choosing the best papers and inkS for long-lasting. greatlooking prints. </p><p>CHAPTER 10 Image Sharing, Display and Preservation A survey of the latest and most effective ways to share your dig~aI photos. </p><p>I </p><p>/ </p></li><li><p>, </p><p>~ ! t ! </p><p>, </p><p>INTRODUCTION: </p><p>Get More Out of Your Digital Camera Corrm..ricatng with pictures is al essential pM of CU ~ life so ~'s ~ to have at least a basic LRJerstMdng of how to take, ad;Jst and share digital photos. Today's cameras and pri'lta-s can deliver great resutts 'Nhen thai' capabilities we hAy utiSed.!\rd, regardless of ...methl:w' yoa pictl.l'eS ate holiday ~ts, ccreUy (;(l(rfXlSEId creative mages, goup shots of farriy rnerrtJers MCilO" friends 0" a gsat shot of yoa pet; all these subjectS make engagng vieYkg, </p><p>'Mlen they're yoo- 0'M'l shots they have al 9'TlOIiOnaI CO'YleCt01 because they're of places and people you know and ate I'lvoo'ved with. It's nati.ffl 10 Walt to shcwe yoa besl iTIages - and ~'s never been easiEw' to do so. </p><p>Pmtng yoo- photos is the best way to ~ they ate preserved fO" the tutl6e - and one of the best ~ 10 shcwe them. But ~'s roN iJSI as easy to sI'I</p></li><li><p>It's now easier than ever to improve your photography and e~plore new ways to share the joy of photography. </p><p>you need i1 a wert thaI is etaSf 10 LJXIefsI(W"lCL H's a handy general.p!..fJXl66 guide to assist all ph)togapher$, from flrS\-tine C</p></li><li><p>, </p><p>~ ! t ! </p><p>, </p><p>CHAPTER 1 </p><p>Equipment Choices Today's camera buyefs have plenty of options to choose from and H should be possible to find the right type and model for just about anyone, as long as you clearly identify your requirements. The following factors are usually listed as having the greatest W1fluence on buying decisiOns: percetved image quality, zoom range, desirable camera functions and price and value for money. </p><p>Different tx.yers win have different priorities, although most wil want a camera that delivers the best mage quality for ~s priCe and comes at a size and wHh as many as possible of the functions they would like. This chapter will cover the different types 01 camera you can choose from and outline some of the useful accessories </p><p>What Kind of Photographer AreYou? The best w</p></li><li><p>A typical DSLR camera fined with a medium-range zoom lens. This type of camera will best suit photo enthusiasts. (Source: Pentax.) </p><p>ThiS category ranges from sophistiCated profeSSional cameras to models designed for photo enthus~sts and snapshooters who want to develop their picturetaking SkillS. DSLRs offer the fastest autofocusJng because they use phase d ifference detectiOn. </p><p>The main downside of these cameras is their larger, heavier OOdles and lenses. In acld itiOn, the viewfinders in entrylevel DSLRs are often small and not partiCutarty bright. Both are significant d isadvantages in dim lighting. Camera OOdies tend to be more expenSive than other camera types and this is one category in whiCh you need to invest in more than one lens to take advantage of the camera's capabilities. </p><p>A typical mirrorless camera with a standard 3x zoom kit lens, This model, like others In Olympus's PENE series, lacks a viewfinder, and requires users to frame shots with the LCD monitor or attach an optional EVF. (Source: Olympus,) </p><p>2. Mirrorless cameras are relativety new. In these cameras the rellex mirror systems used in OSLRs are replaced with electrOlliC viewfinders (or sometimes the LCD monitor m.JSt be used for composing shots). These cameras provicle many of the advartages of DSLRs but in smaller and lighter came-a OOdles. Most models come with interchangeable lenses, although there are a few in whiCh the lens is fixed. </p><p>The main advantage of the cameras in this category is their larger sensors, whiCh ensure high image qual~y in most types of lighting. The main downside is that some models are supplied without viewfinders and, where viewfinders are provided, most tend to be electroniC ra:her than optiCal (see comparison later th is chepter). Autofocusing is also usually slower than 'N~h DSLRs because these cameras use the same contrast based systems as digiCams 3. Small-sensor d igicams are the most commonlyfound cameras today and prOVide the widest variety of features. Most ilClucle automated contrds to make it easy to take correctlyexposed shots. This category is easiest to understard ~ broken into subcategories. </p><p>The Ricoh CX5 is typical of many polnt-and-press digicams, boasting a slim, pocketabte body plus automated functions to make It easy lor users to obtain cOfTeCtlyexposed photos. (Source: Rlcon.) </p></li><li><p>, </p><p>~ ! t ! </p><p>6 </p><p>A viewfinder allows photographers to see the image the camera will record, isolatilg it from distracting eIemeIlts outside the scene. OpHcal viewfinders are like reversed telescopes mounted in the camera bocty. Most include small suppiemeotary displays (usual~ along the lower or right edge of the screen) showing shootmg informatiOn such as aperture and shutter speed seUings. Focusng targets are commonly overIaki on the field of view, partiCularly in more sophistiCated cameras. </p><p>ElectroniC v~rxlefs consist of small LCD screens that reptay the same image as the camera's mannor displays. They can also be used to browse the camera's fTle(IUS or replay shots from the camera's memory. The table below compares the main advantageS and disadvantages of both typeS. </p><p>-, ---</p><p>... </p><p>....., ....... </p><p>-~ ... </p><p>Fujifilm's Innovative Xl00 has a new Hybrid Viewfinder that combines the besllealures of optical and electronic viewing systems. Photographers can choose which system louse with the flip of a leve,. (Source: Fujifilm.) </p><p>ResolutiOn is a critiCal iSsue lor both ~nder typeS afthough it is less of an issue with optiCal view1ir.clers. Low resolutiOn makes manual focusng diffiCuH and thiS is one area where optiCal viewfinders are preferable to electroniC ,.-.,. </p><p>""""" </p><p>""" ...... DeperdII oo....ww Ii_ </p><p>Ilo!perds 00 Image prtO'!SSIl\I </p><p>,-"""'" onen si(1ltly leSS 1rIaO_ -.-...... low", rM'Ij enuv_ ........ , In ~ V.n.tJle -bo.I~_ </p><p>~ </p><p>--</p><p>....... -..... </p><p>l</p></li><li><p>a) Sl im, pocketa.tlle models weighng less than 200 grams. Popular w~h snapshooters, these cameras are highly automated and usually lack viewfinders. b) Advanced digiCams w~h a range of manual controls, inCluding Jetls aperture and shutter speed adjustments. </p><p>Nikon's Coolpix PSOO combines a wide range of manual controlS with a 36x optical :loom lens. (Source: Nikon.) </p><p>c) Super-zoom cameras with very long (grealer lhan lOx) zoom lenses. d) Walerproof cameras that can be used underwater to depths of 5 metres or more. Most models have limHed room ranges and high levels Of automation. e) Dedicated 3D cameras. </p><p>Fujifilm is the only manufacturer currently producing dedicated 3D cameras with the W3 model (shoWfl above) the most recently released. (Source: Fujifilm,) </p><p>4. Camera-phones and camcorders are often used for spcntaneous picture-taking but, even though many recent models prOVide quHe high resolution, they can't matcl1 dedicated cameras in three key respects: 1. Image Quality, 2. Lens performance. 3. Adjustabilty. </p><p>Photographers looking for high Quality and functiOnality for shooting movies wUt be better off wrth a camcorder than a digital still camera. Although camcorder sensors may be smal l. they are adequate for recording highdefinitiOn video. Camcorders are also designed for superior functiOnality and ease of use when shooting </p><p>"'"'"". </p><p>FEATURES TO LOOK FOR Although th&amp;,t may differ in size, weight, shape and functiQrelity, all cameras share some corMlOrl features. In this section we'll lQok al the most important of these. 1. The lens is the camera's 'eye' and its role is as important as the set1sor's in determining mage Quality. The price of a camera often reflects the Quality of ~slens because high-Qual ity optiCs don't come cheap. More information on lens characteristiCs can be found in Chapter 2. 2. The image processor converts the information collected by the sensor into the pixels (piCture elements) that make up the mage. Each camera manufacturer develops ilS own processor system and different processors account for different camera capabil~ies and differences in appearance between photographs from differerr. camera brandS. </p><p>The processor also determines whether lhe camera can record video and the maximl.rn </p></li><li><p>, </p><p>~ ! t ! </p><p>, </p><p>The size of the Iight-capturhg elements (known as 'photosites1 on the canera's sensor is the best guide to arry camera's potential mage qualfty. Larger photOSites </p><p>coI~ more IigI1t, givng the camera's mage processor more 'nformatiOn to wor'K with, </p><p>Larger photos~es can capture a wider range Of tones (from dark to light) and produce more accurate colours and less granularity with high ISO settings. Photos~e Size has very I~tle to do with a camera's rnegapixel count and, in fact, most snapshootefS would ooten better piCtures </p><p>~ they used cameras w~h fewer megapixels but larger photos~es. </p><p>The largest sensors are found in professiOnal DSLR cameras and account for the superior image quality these ~s produce, partiCularly in low light situatiOns. Cor'lsumf-JeveI DSLRs and mirrorless cameras have slightly smaller sensors but thefe's a signifiCant drop in sensor Size when yw look at digital compact cameras. </p><p>You can estimate the Size 01 the photosites in any sensor by COI'I'IJ)a'ing the Size 01 the sensor with the I'II.rnbEw" 01 pixels in the mage ~ produces at maxm.rn resolutiOn. 5nlp/y dMcie the k:ngth of the longest Side of the sensor in rTU!inelres by the longest dimenSion of the pixel array. The </p><p>The re:ationships between the sizes of typical Image sensors: I. 1I4.flch type (3.6 1 2.7 mn) sensor used in carnc:o-ders and camera-...... </p><p>2. 1I2J-i1ch type (6.16 x 4.62 rrm) used in many dlgicams 3. Flll.lr Thirds System sensor (18 x 13.5 mm) used in many ffillTorteSS </p><p>~, </p><p>4. 'APS-e sized' (23.5 x 15.8 mm) sensor used In some DSLRs and mirrorless cameras. 5. 35mm film frame (36 x 24 mm). Sensors Ittis sire are used in professional </p><p>'"" </p><p>table beiow compares the 1110$1 popular sensor Sizes i1 today"s digital cameras and gives the a-ea of the pholOSiles for ead1 for a 12megapixel -..a. </p><p>Video camcorders and camera-phones often have 1I4-inch or 1I6-nch sensors in whiCh the photootes are smaller than one SQuare miCron in siZe. While thiS won't produce problems with resojutiOn for video ClipS. still shots often suffer from bIov;n-out highlighls and blackedout shadows and shots taken in normal room lighting may appear 'grainy" due 10 image noise. </p><p>Sensor "Type" Imaging Area Dimensions Photosit e area at 12MP Width (mm) Height (mm) In microns squared </p><p>t!3inch " </p><p>36 '2 112.s-inch 5.76 ,,. 1.44 112.3-inch 6.17 '.55 </p><p>'" 1/1.7inch 7.6 57 " 213irlch ,., 6.6 2.2 </p><p>4!3-inch 160 13.5 '5 'APS-C' (Canon) 22.3 14.9 5.2 APS--C (others) 23.6 15.6 5.56 35mm ("F\AI Frame') 360 24.0 8.24 </p></li><li><p>resolutiOn and recordlng times for video clips. Most recently-released cameras can record HD video ClipS: some with Full HD (1920 x 1080 pixels or 1080p), the remaincler at a reduced '72Op' (1280 x 720 pixels) resolutiOn the Quality of whiCh is more than acceptable on most widescreeo TV setS. </p><p>Another functiOn controlled by the processor is the maximum speed at whiCh the camera can record a continuous burst of shots. The camera's buffer memory limits the number of shots that can be recorded in a burst. 3. Shooting m odes are a good way to gauge a camera's capability - and the extent to whiCh you can control camera settings for creative effects. POint-and-shoot cameras restriCt the range of user-adjustable controls to a selectiOn of Scene modes that match stanclard reQuirements for the selected type Of scene.More sophisticated </p><p>The mode dials on consumer OSLRs usually inClude several pre-set scene modes. (Source: Nikon.) </p><p>Professional cameras usually provide only four shooting modes. (Source: Sigma.) </p><p>digicams - and all DSLR and mirrOrless cameras - provide a fJU range of contrOls for adjusting aperture and shutter speed settings as well as sens~ivity. white balance and many other parameters. Serious enthuSiasts and anyone who wants to learn more alXlut photography should faVOl.J" these camera typeS. </p><p>USEFUL ACCESSORIES Some accessories are mandatory, while others are optiOnal- and some are supplied w~h the camera, while others must be purchased separately. All digital cameras are supplied with battene, and most interchangeablelens cameras come with at least one lens (although you can often buy the body on its own). </p><p>Memory cards are seldom, if ever, provided, although many 6giCarns come with nternal memories. I-bwever. these are usuaty too smaI to CCNer anything more than a brief shooti1g session. </p><p>Memory is relatively cheap so purchase at least one hi!;;h-capacity (4G8. 8G8 or 18GB) memory card with your dig~aI camera. Get at least 8G8 if '/00 plan to shoot movies as video consumes rremory very QuiCkly, partiCularly at high resolutiOn. Buy extra cards if you're travelling - or consider a portable storage device - so you can store photos as they're taken. </p><p>The follov&gt;ing camera accessories can enhance yOU" shooti1g experiences: </p><p>9 </p></li><li><p>, </p><p>~ ! t ! </p><p>1. Le nses range from the uHra-wide fish-eyes with their characteristiC distortion to the ultra-long telephoto lenses favoured by sports and wildlife photographers. In between are.zoom and prime (sngle focal length) lenses w ith local lengths to suit most subject types. </p><p>ZOom lenses ccrrt&gt;ne versatility with affordability ald are Cfi excellent choice 'Nhen you need to keep yQlI" kit compact and lXJrtabie. Pmle lenses provide the best mage QUaity and the widest maxrn.m aper\ll"eS &gt;Mlen you want total control ~ the rkne of sharpness n yQlI" shots. 2. Flash guns enable you to light up dark areas. If your camera has a buiH-in flash you may only need an accessory flash when you require much more light, for example when pIlotograp/1ing large groups Of people or large n terior spaces. </p><p>'Nhen using flash, n'S important to understand that light output decreases with the square of the distance. A subject four metres from the camera (the limn for many digiCams) receives one quarter of the light that falls on a subjeCt two metres from the camera. Consequently, Ws pointless to...</p></li></ul>

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