Mastering Digital Photography Pocket Guide 2nd Edition

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Mastering Digital Photography Pocket Guide 2nd Edition

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    #APTUREANDSHARESUPERBDIGITALPHOTOS

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  • the ordinary becomes

    special

    Epson StylusPhoto R290

    Epson StylusPhoto RX610

    Epson StylusPhoto 1410

    Epson StylusPhoto R1900

    Captured something unique?Ensure you make it a special photographic print by using an Epson printer. 86% of professional photographers do*. All you need is in the range - 4800dpi scanner, Claria individual ink cartridges, Epson PhotoEnhance, memory card slots, 7.8" touch sensor operating panel, 3.5" LCD viewer, 4"x6" photos in 10 secs, Italian styling.The Epson Stylus Photo range - All Special.

    *Taverner Research (Aust) August 2007

    For further information please call 1300 361 054 or visit www.epson.com.au

    Buy Genuine

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    Epson Stylus Photo TX700W

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    Intermediate level photographers require the reassurance of point-and-shoot simplicity but would like to be able to use some more complex controls. Photographers in this

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    Photo enthusiasts usually have a good understanding of how cameras work and prefer to take full control over all camera functions. This group is more likely to be aracted to DSLR models if they want the best image quality. They will also be aracted to Advanced digicams when looking for a compact walk-around camera for everyday photography.

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    ALGORITHMSUSEDFORTHEANALYSISCOULDONLYDETECTFACESLOOKINGDIRECTLYATTHECAMERA%ARLYSYSTEMSALSOHADDIFlCULTYDETECTINGFACESTHATWEREUPSIDE

    DOWN4HELATESTALGORITHMSAREMULTIDIRECTIONALANDCANDETECTFACESINFULLORSEMIPROlLE4ODAYSMORESOPHISTICATEDPROCESSINGALGORITHMSCANALSODETECTMOREFACESINASCENEWITHSOMECAMERASCAPABLEOFIDENTIFYINGTENORMOREFACES)NMOSTCASESTHEFACEDETECTIONSYSTEMWILL

    CONlRMDETECTIONBYOVERLAYINGARECTANGLEONEACHFACEINTHESCENEDISPLAYEDONTHECAMERAS,#$3OMESYSTEMSUSEADIFFERENTCOLOURTOIDENTIFYTHEFACETHATWILLBEUSEDASTHEFOCUSING

    TARGET!LLSYSTEMSANALYSETHEBRIGHTNESSLEVELSOFTHEFACESDETECTEDANDSETTHEEXPOSURELEVELFORTHESHOTONTHEBASISOFTHISINFORMATIONFAVOURINGTHEFACEUSEDASTHEFOCUSINGTARGET-ANYSYSTEMSLINKWITHTHEmASHEXPOSURE

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    EXPOSUREWHENTHECAMERASSHUTTERBUTTONISHALFPRESSED#AMERASWITHFACEDETECTIONMAKE

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    INFORMATIONFROMTHECAMERASSENSORSANDCOMPARINGTHERESULTINGPATTERNSWITHPATTERNSSTOREDWITHINTHECAMERATHATCHARACTERISECERTAINSUBJECTTYPES-OSTCAMERASWITHSCENERECOGNITION

    TECHNOLOGYCANAUTOMATICALLYIDENTIFYWHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGCATEGORIESASUBJECTFALLSINTOLANDSCAPEPORTRAITBACKLITPORTRAITTWILIGHTNIGHTPORTRAITANDCLOSEUP/NCETHESUBJECTTYPEHASBEENIDENTIlEDTHECAMERASAPERTUREANDSHUTTERSPEEDWILLBESETTHEFOCUSINGEXPOSUREANDSENSITIVITYRANGESMAYBECONSTRAINEDANDCOLOURADJUSTMENTSMAYBEMADETODELIVERENHANCEDRESULTSFORTHESPECIlCSUBJECTTYPE3MILE3HUTTERAND"LINK$ETECTIONTECHNOLOGIES

    AREOTHERRECENTTECHNOLOGIESFORPROVIDINGSNAPSHOOTERSWITHMOREPRINTABLEPHOTOGRAPHS4HEFORMERINVOLVESCONTINUOUSLYSCANNINGTHESUBJECTANDONLYTRIGGERINGTHESHUTTERWHENASMILINGSUBJECTISDETECTED7ITHSOMESYSTEMSABROADGRINISREQUIRED"LINKDETECTIONCAUSESTHECAMERATOTAKESEVERALSHOTSOFTHESUBJECTINABURST%ACHSHOTISANALYSEDANDTHECAMERASAVESTHEONEINWHICHMOSTPEOPLESEYESAREOPEN3MILE3HUTTERCANBEFRUSTRATINGTOUSE

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    34?C7>5584;3#ONTROLLINGTHEWIDTHOFTHEZONEOFSHARPFOCUSINAPICTUREISONEOFTHEMARKSOFACOMPETENTPHOTOGRAPHER%XPERIENCEDPHOTOGRAPHERSREFERTOTHISZONEASITSDEPTHOFlELD4HEYUSEDIFFERENTCAMERASETTINGSTODETERMINEWHETHERTHEZONEISWIDEFORLANDSCAPEPICTURESORNARROWFORPORTRAITSANDCLOSEUPSWHERETHEYWANTTOISOLATETHESUBJECTFROMAPOTENTIALLYDISTRACTINGBACKGROUND

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    OFlELDTHANTELEPHOTOLENSESBECAUSETHEYINCLUDEMOREOFTHEAREASURROUNDINGTHESUBJECT(OWEVERWHENTHESIZEOFTHESUBJECTINTHEFRAMEISIDENTICALANDTHEOTHERKEYPARAMETERSLENSAPERTUREANDSENSORSIZEARETHESAMELENSFOCALLENGTHONITSOWNHASNOEFFECTONACTUALDEPTHOFlELD$3,2USERSCANUSETHE!PERTUREPRIORITY!

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    Photographers often use the Japanese term, bokeh to describe the quality of the out-of-focus areas in an image produced by a camera lens using a shallow depth of eld. Though its dicult to quantify, some lenses produce more aractive bokeh than others.

    Bokeh is most important for lenses that are used for portraiture and close-up or macro photography. Its also relevant for long telephoto lenses that are used for photographing wildlife because they are often used at wide lens apertures.

    The shape of the lens iris (which controls the aperture) will inuence the subjective quality of

    bokeh and also some of its objective parameters. Irises that close to a circle will produce more pleasing bokeh than the polygonal irises found on cheaper lenses. Mirror lenses, which lack irises, typically produce donut-shaped highlights because part of the optical system consists of a ring of reecting material that bends the light path, thereby enabling shorter lenses to be manufactured for very long focal lengths.

    !NEXAMPLEOFATTRACTIVEBOKEH/UTOFFOCUSAREASAPPEARSOFTANDNATURALLOOKINGANDDONTDISTRACTTHEVIEWERFROMTHEMAINSUBJECT

    !TYPICALMIRRORLENSSHOTSHOWINGTHEDONUTSHAPEDRINGSAROUNDBRIGHTHIGHLIGHTS

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    SYSTEMSFORMEASURINGTHEINTENSITYOFLIGHTREmECTEDFROMTHESUBJECT-OSTPROVIDEATLEASTTWOMETERINGPATTERNSTHATTAKEMEASUREMENTSOVERDIFFERENTPARTSOFTHECAMERASlELDOFVIEW5NDERSTANDINGHOWMETERINGPATTERNSWORKWILLHELPYOUTODECIDEWHICHONETOUSEINDIFFERENTSITUATIONS-ULTIPATTERNEVALUATIVEORMATRIX

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    1A02:4C8=6Many cameras oer one or more bracketing functions. The most common is auto exposure bracketing (AEB), which involves taking a series of pictures of the subject while changing the exposure level. The normal practice is to take three shots, one under-exposing by 1/3EV, the second at the metered exposure and the third over-exposing by 1/3EV. This basic strategy is a kind of insurance policy for obtaining a correct exposure (theres a good chance at least one of the three shots will be correctly exposed).

    It doesnt maer which order you take the shots in; nor does it maer whether you take three or ve or even more exposures. Cameras with AEB can often be set to take the series of shots automatically. The amount of over- and under-exposure can often be specied in the setup menu and you can normally bracket shots across the same range of exposure levels as the cameras exposure

    compensation range.Other functions that can be bracketed

    include white balance, ash exposure and focus. White balance bracketing is used to obtain beer colour accuracy in mixed lighting. It seldom requires multiple exposures; instead using in-camera processing to change colour balance. Flash bracketing is like exposure bracketing for ash but adjusts the ash output without changing the cameras exposure seings.

    Focus bracketing involves making small changes to the focus position. Its most useful for macro photography where depth of eld is very restricted and provides a reliable way to ensure key parts of the subject appear sharp. Some point-and-shoot cameras include a version of this function that takes up to 10 shots and automatically chooses the sharpest in the series, discarding the rest.

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    7>F;0A64.The pictures below simulate the eects of common lighting types that can be corrected with the white balance pre-sets in most digital cameras.

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    9?46ebA0F58;4BAll digital cameras record images in JPEG format and JPEG is the only le format that can be viewed in all viewing devices and edited by all image editors. For this reason, JPEG is known as the universal le format.

    When an image is captured in JPEG format, the image processor in the camera converts the raw image data into Red, Green and Blue (RGB) pixel values (a process known as demosaicing). It then applies white balance, saturation, sharpening and other adjustments according to pre-determined formulae. These seings are eectively locked into the image le.

    The cameras microprocessor then compresses the image to reduce the amount of storage space it occupies. And this is the main downside of the JPEG format: image data is lost during this process. The more the image is compressed (by adjusting the Quality seing), the more information is discarded. This lost data can never be recovered.

    The actual size of a JPEG le depends on the complexity of the subject that has been photographed. Shots containing large areas of blue sky can tolerate a higher degree of compression so they can be two to three times smaller than pictures of detailed subjects even though they might have originally been the same size as uncompressed les.

    One of the advantages of the JPEG format is that the degree of compression is easily adjustable. Almost all digital cameras provide at least two compression levels in the image Quality seing; typically designated Fine and Normal. The image Size seing has nothing to do with the JPEG format. It simply determines the size of the pixel array that makes up the image. It, too, is adjustable in most cameras.

    All digital SLR cameras and some Advanced digicams provide photographers with the ability to shoot raw les. (These les are often presented as RAW although these les are simply the raw image data that comes from the cameras sensor.) The dierence between JPEGs and raw les is that JPEGs are processed in the camera whereas raw les have to be processed on your computer.

    Having to convert your images from raw

    to an editable format (JPEG or TIFF) adds an extra step to your workow. If this is irksome to you, youre probably beer o shooting JPEGs especially if you dont print your shots any larger than A4 size. However, if you want to get the most from your digital camera, shooting raw les is the best option.

    When you shoot raw les, all of the information recorded by each photosite is used by the cameras image processor to create the digital image. Nothing is discarded, even when the image processor compresses the raw le to make it smaller. The compression is lossless which means all of the image data is retained and usable by the photographer for subsequent editing.

    Unfortunately, raw les are usually proprietary. Not only is Canons format dierent from Nikons, Olympuss and Sonys and everyone elses, but raw formats may also vary from model to model within a manufacturers range. Before you can edit raw les they must be converted into an editable format normally JPEG or TIFF (Tagged Image File Format). This requires special software, which is normally supplied with the camera.

    The capabilities of this software vary widely between dierent manufacturers. Some manufacturers provide a wider range of adjustments than others and some have more intuitive user interfaces. Some include basic editing software, while others dont.

    A good raw le converter will allow you to correct errors in exposure, adjust brightness levels to ensure both highlights and shadows contain detail, remove colour casts and, generally, make your digital photograph look as much like the original scene you photographed without losing any of the ne tonal nuances that make the dierence between an excellent digital picture and a poor one.

    Shooting raw les allows you to take control of the white balance, saturation, sharpening and contrast adjustments during the conversion process. And, because it is done on your own computer, you have much more processing power at your ngertips than the camera can possibly provide.

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    A2742:;8BCBefore purchasing a monitor for image editing, make sure it has the following features:1. Brightness, contrast and red, green and blue channel colour adjustments. Some monitors are sold with one or more of these controls locked and this prevents accurate proling. Adjustable colour controls are vital because they allow you to set the colour balance of the display and ensure the monitor screen displays colours uniformly from edge to edge. Screens that are brighter towards the centre and darker at the edges and those that display colour spots are unsuitable for image editing. Avoid monitors with built in anti-glare and anti-reection lters. They may not reproduce the full tonal range in the picture.2. Adequate Resolution. Resolution refers to the maximum number of pixels (picture elements) that the monitor can display and, therefore, to the amount of detail you can discern in displayed images. The ideal resolution for a standard 4:3 aspect ratio display for image editing is between 1280 x 1024 pixels and 1920 x 1200 pixels. Widescreen

    displays typically range between 1280 x 800 pixels and 1440 x 900 pixels.3. Pixel Pitch. The pixel pitch of an LCD is the distance between adjacent sets of the pixels that are displayed on the monitor screen, measured in mm. The lower the number, the sharper the picture the screen can display. A pixel pitch of 0.294 0.294 mm is seen as very good for a 19-inch monitor with a native resolution of 1280 x 1024 pixels.4. Gamma Correction. The gamma of a monitor screen refers to the luminance (or brightness) of the red, green and blue signals in the display. A monitor with 10-bit (or higher) gamma processing will display a smoother gamma curve and greater hue and tonal accuracy than an 8-bit monitor. Expect to pay a premium price for a monitor with high-bit gamma processing. 5. Adjustability. The height and tilt of the monitor should be adjustable. Some photographers also prefer monitors that can be rotated through 90 degrees to allow vertical pictures to be viewed at full screen size.

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    58;4BICC proles contain information that characterises a colour input or output device in accordance with standards set up by the International Colour Consortium (ICC). Each ICC prole describes the colour aributes of a particular device by dening the most saturated colours the device can produce in a standard colour space. By having a standardised reference, colour reproduction can be controlled throughout an entire imaging chain or workow.

    An ICC prole can be created for every device or medium that captures or displays

    colour. However, for digital photography, the most important devices to prole are the monitor and the printer because if they cant communicate colours and tones correctly, what you see on the monitor will not look like the image when it is printed.

    To prole a device you must map the way it reacts to a standard colour input. Once this information is known, the device can interact with other proled devices to ensure the result of the interaction is as close a match to the known standard as possible. This means consistent colour reproduction across the entire imaging chain.

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    If your digital camera can record raw les, you can take advantage of higher bit depths when you edit your images. Bit depth refers to the number of colours that can be displayed by a digital device. The higher the bit depth, the more colours used in the image and, consequently, the larger the le size.

    JPEG images are always recorded with 8-bit depth. This means the les can record 256 (28) levels of red, green and blue. Cameras that support raw le capture oer higher bit depths, usually ranging from 12 to16 bits. A 12-bit image le can record 4096 levels of each of the

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    The main reason bit depth is important to digital photographers is that images with higher bit depth give you so much more data to work with when the image is edited than 8-bit JPEGs. Consequently, you can make a wider range of adjustments without compromising picture quality. If you dont plan to edit your digital photos and print them to poster size, the ability to work with high-bit images is irrelevant; you might just as well stick with JPEG les.

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    F70CC>;>>:5>A8=0=8=:94C?A8=C4ARegardless of what type of printer you want, when choosing an inkjet printer, consider the following additional factors:

    1. The Look of the Prints. How do prints look in colour or black-and-white on glossy, semigloss or mae papers? Check for highlight and shadow detail and avoid printers that block up tones at either end of the range. Examine the surface of the print for discontinuities in smoothness. These are created when dierent densities of ink are applied and give the print an obvious inkjet look. Watch for colour changes when you look across the surface of the print.

    2. Colour Accuracy. Does the printer reproduce the hues in the image accurately? Do those hues look right in all types of lighting? Take particular care with black-and-white prints as some printers impart subtle colour casts, due to incorrect ink distribution. If black-and-white printing is important, a printer with at least three black inks and sophisticated tonal range control is required.

    3. Running Costs. When calculating the cost of making prints, take account of potential for wasting inks and paper through misfeeds, over-inking and user errors such as incorrect driver seings, poor colour control and unsatisfactory working conditions (dust, power surges, etc).

    4. Speed. Some printers are fast; some are slow. If you need prints in a hurry, a fast printer can deliver the goods. But check the way the ink is laid down, looking for signs of banding and blotchiness as these may be sacriced at the expense of speed. Fast printers may also produce less colour-stable prints. Overall, the odds of obtaining a high-quality print are higher with a relatively slow printer.

    5. Workow. How well does the printer t into the way you work? Are its physical dimensions appropriate for your working area? Is it easy to connect to other devices (camera, computer or scanner) Can you extend your capabilities and learn more by using this printer?

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    ?A8=C;>=64E8CHHow long will the prints of your digital photos last? This issue is vital if you want prints for display or to hand on to future generations because many paper manufacturers make claims about the longevity of prints on their media. Unfortunately, while most inkjet prints made with genuine media are much more durable than colour photo prints, some ink/paper combinations are even more prone to discolouration than traditional photo prints.

    In the past, the action of light on the chemical dyes that made up a photographic print was the main factor that caused them to fade. Today, the most common cause of colour changes in inkjet prints is a change in the dye chemistry due to oxidation. This is rare in prints made with pigment printers but worthy of consideration for prints made with dye inks.

    Certain paper/ink combinations are highly sensitive to ozone, which is common at low-levels in urban environments and reaches high concentrations around devices like refrigerators and air conditioners. This is why you should never display unprotected inkjet prints on the fridge door.

    Light can cause dierential fading, particularly with magenta dyes. Cyan dyes, on the other hand, are most susceptible to chemical contaminants and, as they fade, prints turn orange. To complicate maers, prints made on some papers can take several days to nally stabilise. This can lead to uncertainty about what the nal print colour balance will be.

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    >?C8=38C8>=BInkjet prints will last longest when they are protected from direct sunlight, heat, humidity and airborne chemicals. Storing them in archival albums provides the very best protection but, with todays long-lasting inks and papers theres no reason not to put prints out on display as long as you consider the following issues:1. Strong, direct sunlight can cause both traditional photos and inkjet prints to fade over time. Magenta dyes are the most susceptible to fading in dye-based inkjet prints and this will cause a colour shift in the picture that is often quite unaractive.2. Ozone is the main chemical that can cause inkjet prints to change colour. Again, prints made with dye inks are the most susceptible with cyan dyes being the fastest to fade.3. Fading is faster in polluted urban environments than in clean, rural areas unless the prints are displayed in rooms frequented by smokers. Cigaree smoke contains many chemicals that can aack dye inks and seling smoke will disperse a ne layer of ash over the surface of prints, subduing their vivid colours and reducing overall contrast.4. Humid tropical cities like Darwin and Cairns place prints at risk of fungal aack, whereas fungus-aected prints are rare in dry cities like Alice Springs and Adelaide. A relative humidity of 40% and temperature of between 15 and 22

    degrees Celsius is recommended as the ideal conditions for long-term print storage.

    Always wear coon gloves when handling valuable prints to prevent damage to the prints surface. If you have to remove a print from a frame and nd it has stuck to the glass, seek the advice of a professional conservator.

    If you print with dye inks, always allow at least half an hour for the colours to stabilise before judging colour accuracy. For all inkjet prints we recommend covering each print with a sheet of plain paper as it comes o the printer and leaving the prints covered for at least 24 hours before framing or mounting them. Encapsulating prints in plastic (laminating) is a useful way to protect prints from airborne chemicals if you want to display them without having to frame them.

    Keep at least two archived copies of each image you print in digital form, preferably in dierent locations. Computer hard disks may crash unpredictably so having additional copies ensures your valuable images remain accessible and reprintable. Save images at a minimum of 300 dpi resolution in JPEG and TIFF format. JPEG images can be viewed in most applications and are easily compressed so they download and email quickly. TIFF les are ideal for archiving and printing and oer the maximum amount of detail, colour and exibility.

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  • Epson Stylus Photo TX800FW

    The Epson Stylus Office printer range is a design innovation for the small office. It has everything the latest light touch-screen LCD display, up to 40ppm, (the fastest inkjet printer in its class*), auto-document feeder, fax, WiFi, LAN and optional auto-duplexing. Productivity is increasedwith a choice of high capacity ink cartridges, and you only replace the cartridge you use. Whats more, you can choose an office model with DURABrite Ultra for durability or Claria for high definition prints. These small, stylish, heavyweight performers will carry all your office needs!

    For further information please call 1300 361 054. *See www.epson.com.au for details.

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