LPI 101 Ch03 Hardware

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    SAIGONLAB 83 Nguyn Th Nh, P9, Q.Tn Bnh, Tp. HCM LPI 102 1

    Chapter 3

    Hardware

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    Objectives

    Describe a system boot procedure

    Describe the POST procedure

    Describe the BIOS/CMOS

    Identify the different drive types (ATAPISCSI, )

    Define and identify hot swapable hardware

    Identify the different types of address

    Identify the different types of ports

    Identify the different types of channelcategories

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    Hardware

    While Linux supports hardware and most

    device manufacturers provide Linux drivers,

    some hardwares does not work with Linux

    (e.g Winmodems). When youre going to

    install Linux, or add devices to Linux machine,

    check a hardware compatibility list ( HCL ) at :

    http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO/index.html

    If you device isnt listed on HCL, then check

    the manufacturers website to see if Linux

    drivers are available.

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    System Boot Procedure

    1. First, the internal power supply turns on. It

    takes a bit of time to generate enough power

    for the rest system

    2.W

    hen there is sufficient power, the processoris ready to execute and it looks to the BIOS

    ROM for instructions

    3. Next, the BIOS performs the Power-On Self-

    Test, or POST. If there are no problems foundduring, then computer beeps once and

    continues with the boot process

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    System Boot Procedure

    4. After POST, the BIOS looks for and executesthe video card's BIOS program, and initializes

    the video card

    5. When the video card is initialized, the BIOS

    looks for any other device ROMs that have

    BIOSes, such as ITE/ATA hard drives

    6. Now the BIOS displays the startup screen

    7. BIOS continues toperform more tests, suchas the memory count-up test. Any errors

    encountered at this point in the process will

    usually generate an error message on the

    screen

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    System Boot Procedure

    8. Next, the BIOS takes more inventory of the hardware

    on the system. It is at this stage that modern BIOSes

    initiate automatic settings

    9. If the Plug and Play (PnP) standard is supported hy the

    BIOS, then PnP devices are configuredat this stage10.Now the BIOS begins tosearch for a drive to boot.The

    order depends on the boot sequence BIOS setting

    11.When the target boot drive is identified, the BIOS looks

    for the boot information to start the OS. Once it finds ,

    the BIOSstarts the process of booting the OS, using

    the information in the boot sector

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    POST ( Power-On Self Test )

    Before the BIOS initiates the actual boot

    sequence, a built-in diagnostic program

    called POST checks the hardware and verifies

    that essential components are present and

    functioning. After verifying the components,

    it performs a memory test as the actual boot

    process begins

    If everything checks out correctly, BIOSemits a beep, otherwise BIOS will emit a

    series of beeps

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    BIOS and CMOS

    Thesettings for the BIOS arestoredin theComplementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor,

    or CMOS. The information includes : time,

    type and speed of the CPU, hard drive

    parameters, and the amount of RAM in the

    computer,

    A small batteryin the computer powers the

    CMOS memory setting. so the settings are

    retained when the computer is shut down. In

    the event of a battery failure the settings are

    usually lost, even password for CMOS

    protection

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    Floppy Drives

    The controller for floppy drives have 34 wires

    and 3 connectors :one connect to

    motherboard, other two are reserved for

    floppy drives fd0, fd1

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    IDE Drives

    Most hard drives and CD drives are IDE (

    Integrated Drive Electronics) and conform to

    AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI). IDE

    devices use a 40-pin ribbon to connect to

    ATAPI controllers

    Most PCs have 2 ATAPI controllers: aprimary

    and asecondary. Each controller can connect

    to two different IDE drives with one drivedesignated as the master drive and the other

    as the slave drive

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    IDE Drives

    To optimize your hardware set up with IDE

    devices, it is best to have only one hard drive

    and one CD drive set up in the primary and

    secondary master positions: the hard drive

    as hda and the CD as hdc

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    SCSI (Small Computer SystemInterface)

    Designed to be a high-level, expandable, high-

    performance interface, SCSI is usually found in

    servers and other high-end computers

    Since SCSI's creation in 1979, multiple forms of SCSI

    standards have been developed : SCSI-1.SCSI-2, andSCSI-3. They all have two things in common:

    All SCSI devices are controlled by a host adapter

    All SCSI devices are connected in series, with the

    last device using a terminator indicating that it is

    the final device in the chain

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    Types of SCSI and Characteristics

    SCSI-1 8-bit 50 5MBps

    SCSI-2 (Fast SCSI) 8-bit 50 10MBps

    SCSI-2 (Wide SCSI) 16-bit 68 20MBps

    SCSI-3 (Ultra Wide SCSI) 16-bit 68 40MBps

    SCSI-3 (Ultra2 Wide SCSI) 16-bit 68 80MBps

    SCSI Type Bus Wires Data Transfer

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    SCSI BIOS

    Like the BIOS, there is usually a key

    configuration to enter the SCSI BIOS menu at

    boot time. In this menu you can configure

    boot sequences, controller SCSI addresses,

    SCSI bus speed, onboard termination, and

    more.

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    PERIPHERAL DEVICES: AGP, ISA AND PCI

    Three slots for installation peripherals :

    AGP : Accelerated Graphics Port, is a common option

    for video cards. AGP video cards uses computers

    RAM memory to boost performance, runs at 66Mhz

    or higher ISA : Industry Standard Architecture, is the oldest

    standard for peripheral cards, runs at 8.33MHz

    PCI : Peripheral Component Interconnect, hardware

    does not communicate directly with the CPU. Using

    DMA (direct memory access) channels instead, PCI

    hardware communicates directly with other

    components in the computer. The PCI bus runs at

    33MHz.

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    HOT SWAPPABLE HARDWARE

    Hot swappable devices are peripherals that

    can be added or removed from a computer

    without having to reboot the machine.

    Three types of hot swapable devices: USB - Universal Serial Bus

    IEEE 1394 Institute for Electrical and

    Electronics Engineers 1394

    PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card

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    USB

    USB was developed in 1996 but was not

    incorporated into Linux kernel until the

    realease of 2.4 kernel

    USB data transfer : 1.5MBps ( USB1.x ),

    60MBps (USB 2.0)

    Support for USB 2.0 is planed for the 2.6

    Linux kernel

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    Other Peripherals

    On the back of standard PCs there are ports

    for specific peripherals:

    PS/2 : Used for mice and keyboards

    COM : COM is short for serialcommunications port. Older mice and

    modems use this port

    LPT : The LPT ports are used by printers

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    Channels

    When configuring a PC, the most common

    cause of devices not working are channel

    conflicts. Its important to assign only one

    device to a channel

    Channel can be categorized :

    Interrupt Requests (IRQ)

    Input/output (I/O) addresses

    Direct memory access (DMA)

    Communication (COM) ports

    Printer ports (LPT)

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