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  • 7/29/2019 Lj 3120772081


    Ahmed Hakem, Youcef Bouafia / International Journal of Engineering Research and

    Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

    Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.2077-2081

    2077 | P a g e

    Elasticity of the 42 000 hypoeutectic alloy in longitudinal

    vibration mode

    Ahmed Hakem*, Youcef Bouafia*

    *Laboratory LaMoMS, Mouloud MAMMERI university of Tizi-Ouzou, 15000 Algeria.

    ABSTRACTThe Technical Impulse Excitation (IET)

    is one of the recent nondestructive techniques

    which makes it possible to identify the frequencies

    of resonance principal or fundamental on the one

    hand and the frequencies of damping or internalfriction on the other hand of a specimen of

    standardized and well defined form. These

    frequencies of resonance or damping are closely

    related to the chemical composition, the form,

    dimensions and the density of the test specimenmachined from one of metals selected and which

    governs our study. The fundamental

    characteristics of the test specimen for this

    purpose are the uniformity of their form and

    their dimensions, the precision of their

    measurements thus of that of their density andmainly metal studied must be isotropic. Once the

    principal frequencies are determined, the

    software Resonency Frequency Dumping Analys

    (RFDA: Resonance Frequency Damping

    Analyzes) calculates the Youngs Modulus, the

    shear Modulus and the Poisson's ratio

    The Technical Impulse Excitation allowsmeasurements which can be taken with the

    ambient temperature or high temperature. The

    standardized test piece can be of form

    rectangular, cylindrical full or hollow and of a

    disc full or pierced with a hole in the center. Liketechnique IET has a great advantage of being

    nondestructive, the test piece can be thus used in

    several experiments and on real parts

    with ambient temperature or low or high

    temperature (cryogenic temperature). [3, 4, 5]

    Keywords - IET, elastic characteristics,

    principal frequencies, vibration, longitudinal.

    I. INTRODUCTIONThe study of the elastic properties of solid

    materials is of a great importance from the scientificpoint of view as well as industrial and practical. .

    Indeed, in industrial applications, it is required ofthe builder and the engineer to know in advance andwith precision, the elastic characteristics ofmaterials used to ensure proper operation of their

    realizations. This importance is not one of less fromthe scientific point of view, since these properties

    also inform us about the nature of the the atomic

    bonding, i.e. of the atomic bonding strengths. Thus,we can estimate the energies of atomic interactions.

    In order to answer this requirement so much desirednot only by the scientists but also by the

    manufacturers, the method of investigationTechnical Excitation, who belongs to the besttechniques used until now, allows to determine in a

    simple way and specifies the elastic characteristicsof various solid materials. Moreover, knowing thatthis method is nondestructive, it is very interesting

    to follow the evolution of these characteristics

    during different heat treatments as well asmechanical operations on the same test piece. [1,


    II. PRINCIPE OF THE METHODThe Technical Impulse Excitation (IET), is

    one of the recent nondestructive dynamictechniques, which makes it possible to determine theelastic characteristics of various solid materials

    to room temperature.The elastic properties are intimately linked

    to particular frequencies of resonance, called

    primary or fundamental frequency, mechanical

    vibration of a specimen. They depend greatly on thechemical composition (intrinsic elastic properties),the mass and geometry of the test specimen. Thus,

    the elastic properties of a material can be calculatedif and only if the geometric shape (rectangular,cylindrical ... etc..), The mass and the resonantfrequencies of vibration of a given sample areknown. Using this technique, one can determine thedynamic Young's modulus E and the dynamic shear

    modulus G (stiffness modulus) respectively bymeasuring the resonant frequency of vibration in thelongitudinal mode. Then the formula connecting E

    and G is used to evaluate the Poisson's ratio.

    The Technical Pulse Excitation is of greatimportance because it can also follow the evolution

    of the elastic properties of solid materials during thetemperature variation: cryogenic and raisedtemperatures, on condition that making

    modifications appropriate to the equipment ofmeasuring equipment in order to compensate for theheating effect. Using this method, to calculate thevalues of the elastic characteristics, one determines

    initially the principal frequencies of resonance of thetest piece of a given geometry.

    The IET is particularly suitable to

    determine the elastic modules of the homogeneous,

    isotropic materials and which do not presentexternal defects the such surface cracks, shrinkage

  • 7/29/2019 Lj 3120772081


    Ahmed Hakem, Youcef Bouafia / International Journal of Engineering Research and

    Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

    Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.2077-2081

    2078 | P a g e

    pipes and other deformations. Simple method, it hasmany advantages: This dynamic method as well hasseveral advantages by report with the static

    techniques of loading as to those of resonance whichrequire a continuous excitation.a- It is nondestructive and can be used for test piece

    intended for other tests.b- Unlike other techniques, one uses a tool of impactand very simple supports to excite by impulse thetest piece.

    c- This technique is very useful in quality control ofthe various parts. [3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 13]




    RFDA system 21 is used for measurement

    of pulse excitation at room temperature. Thesamples are mechanically struck by hand with ahammer small flexible screen. The system RFDA 21is used to measure the resonant frequency and theinternal friction or damping samples al shapes anddetermine the Young's modulus, shear modulus,

    Poisson's ratio of rectangular bars, discs, bars ,hollow tubes and disks with a hole in the center.


    SUPPORT PARTThe test piece is fixed on the support part by means

    of special springs.

    Window showing the waveform of the longitudinal

    vibration (a), the peak of the main frequency (b), the

    values of the principal resonance frequency and theattenuation capacity (c), the values of E and E( d).

    IV. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE4.1 Investigated material

    The material used is donated by SNVI .This is the aluminum-based alloy containing 7%silicon in weight percent, an amount of less than 1%magnesium, and some trace impurities. Afteranalysis, the samples sand cast metal shell and

    gravitation have the following chemicalcomposition:

    Chemical elements Si Mg Fe

    % Depending analysis 6,85 0,35 0,15

    Results of chemical analysis of controlsamples after casting sand and shell

    4.2 Development of the alloy studied

    4.2.1. CastingThe melting of the metal takes place in a

    gas oven production is tiltable front to rear,

    comprising a graphite crucible capacity 350Kg

    whose load is made approximately 40% of ingotsin new AlSi7Mg standard dimensions, compositionand specified characteristics., supplied by theFrench company Pechiney and a mixture of casting

    jets 60% return (appendices supply, evacuation,regulation, defective parts and scrap ).

    4.2.2 MoldingThis alloy is prepared by two different

    methods: sand casting and die casting considering

    for three states; crude of casting noted: F,soaked designated: T, aging noted: T46

    4.3 Form of the test specimenTo determine the Young's modulus, weused the longitudinal vibration mode.

    a b



  • 7/29/2019 Lj 3120772081


    Ahmed Hakem, Youcef Bouafia / International Journal of Engineering Research and

    Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

    Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.2077-2081

    2079 | P a g e

    The measurements were performed on rectangularspecimens (Fig. 1) for the previous mode at roomtemperature. For obtaining reliable and accurate

    results and to carry out our measurements, virtuallyall precautions have been taken into account.Among them we can mention the most important

    - The measuring accuracy of the coasts of the testpiece is largely higher than 0.1 mm.- The value of the dimension thickness must beuniform along the length and of the width of the test

    piece.Before placing the test piece on the door

    sample, we carried out the following operations:

    - Calculation of the median values of its dimensionsby taking a certain number of measurements (inpreference to less 05) in various places of thesample (it is recommended that the step of

    measurement either identical and the taking away orcarried out along dimension considered).

    - To carry out the weighing of the sample (at least03 measurements) to determine its average mass. [3,4]

    4.4 Measurements in longitudinal mode

    Fig. 1 - Form of the specimen for testing Impulse

    Excitation Technique dynamic

    Fig. 2 -Installation diagram of the fastening deviceof the test piece (1) and excitation of a mechanicalor acoustic vibration mode longitudinal.1 - sample,

    2 - Drive, 3 - sensor signal, 4 - system son andspecial springs for fixing the specimen (samplehol