Lesson 01: Chemical Elements
All physical objects in the universe are composed of matter, all matter is composed
of elements, and all elements are composed of atoms.
The Universe is Composed of Matter
02 Atoms and Elements
Atoms are made up of three types of particles…
electrons: negatively charged particles which orbit the nucleus
protons: positively charged particles which are located in the nucleus
neutrons: particles with no charge located in the nucleus
An Atom of the Element Carbon
The atomic number, which indicates the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
determines the species of element.
Atoms with different atomic numbers are referred to as elements.
The way in which all elements are displayed is via the periodic table of elements…
The periodic table displays elements using symbols which usually involve the first
and second letter of the element or are historical in nature
The periodic table is constructed in such a way that displays numerous patterns that
exist between the elements (discussed in unit 07).
03 Combinations of Atoms
Atoms of a one element may combine to form molecules…
2 2 8H , N , S ...
Or, atoms of several different elements may combine to form multi-atomic
2 2 2H O, N O ...
Of the two types of substances that arise from the combination of elements…
elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances
compounds can be broken down into simpler substances
04 Origin of the Elements
Nucleosynthesis and the Big Bang
The process of creating new elements by building up a nucleus with more protons
and neutrons is called nucleosynthesis. This process only takes place under extreme
conditions of pressure and temperature.
The first period of nucleosynthesis occurred in the early moments of the universe
following the big bang, creating…
The Big Bang
Nucleosynthesis and Supernovas
When the first stars formed, another type of nucleosynthesis began in the cores of
helium from hydrogen, and
elements up to iron
The stage at which iron is being formed usually results in core collapse, and a…
Supernovas can create even heavier elements, up to…
Supernova (Crab Nebula)
Other processes can transforming one element into another…
radioactive decay can break a heavy element forming lighter elements
cosmic rays can break a heavy element forming lighter elements
Only tiny amounts of elements heavier than uranium, neptunium, and plutonium are
known to exist in nature. All other elements have been made artificially in
05 Classification of the Elements
Chemical elements are broadly classified as…
Main Classification Scheme
When the elements are arranged in the order of their atomic numbers, elements of
similar physical and chemical properties occur at specific intervals.
These groups of elements with similar physical and chemical properties are called
The main families are…
Lesson 02: Naming Inorganic Compounds
Naming Chemical Compounds
With over 10 million known chemicals, and potentially dangerous results if chemicals
are combined in an incorrect manner, imagine the problem if you are in the lab and
say "mix 10 grams of that stuff in with this stuff". We need to be very clear on
identification of chemicals.
First, two categories of chemical compounds…
Organic compounds: These contain the element carbon. Life on earth is carbon
based. Organic compounds were originally associated with living organisms,
however, a large number of organic compounds have been synthesized which
do not occur in nature so this distinction is no longer valid.
Inorganic compounds: All other compounds.
Ions: An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more
electrons, giving it a positive or negative electrical charge.
Anions: A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron
shells than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion.
Cations: Conversely, a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than
protons, is known as a cation.
Monatomic Ions: An ion consisting of a single atom is called a monatomic ion,
Polyatomic Ions: If an ion consists of two or more atoms, it is a polyatomic ion.
Oxyanions: Polyatomic ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and
sulphate, are called oxyanions.
Notation: Ions are denoted in the same way as electrically neutral atoms and
molecules except for the presence of a superscript indicating the sign of the net
electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one.
Common Monatomic and Polyatomic Ion Charges
Naming Inorganic Ionic Compounds
The cation is always named first and the anion second.
A cation takes its name from the name of the element.
IF the cation can assume more than one charge, the charge is
specified using Roman numerals in parentheses.
An anion is named by taking the first part of the element name and
adding the suffix “ide”.
The first element in the formula is named first and the full element
name is used.
The second element is named as though it were an anion.
Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms present.
The prefix “mono” is never used for the first element.
The cation is always named first.
The polyatomic ion is named second
If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix
“hydro” and the suffix “ic” attached to the root name for the element.
When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name is formed from the
root name of the central element of the anion or the anion name, with
the suffix “ic” or “ous”. When the anion name ends in “ate”, the suffix
“ic” is used. When the anion name ends in “ite” the suffix “ous” is used.
Metal Non Metal Binary Compounds
Formula Possible Charges Charge on Metal Name
copper (I) chloride
iron (III) oxide
lead (IV) chloride
Non Metal Non Metal Binary Compounds
Subscript Prefix Subscript Prefix
1 mono 6 hexa
2 di 7 hepta
3 tri 8 ocata
4 tetra 9 nona
5 penta 10 deca
3BF boron trifluoride
NO nitrogen monoxide
2NO nitrogen dioxide
32ON dinitrogen trioxide
52ON dinitrogen pentaoxide
4CCl carbon tetrachloride
5IF iodine pentafluoride
64OP tetraphosphorous hexaoxide
6XeF xenon hexafluoride
Flow Chart for Naming Binary Compounds
Formula Charge on Metal Name
42SONa sodium sulphate
NOFe +3 iron (III) nitrate
2OHMn +2 manganese (II) hydroxide
32SONa sodium sulphite
34ClONH ammonium chlorate
7224 OCrNH ammonium dichromate
ClOCo +2 cobalt (II) perchlorate
3KClO potassium chlorate
NOCu +2 copper (II) nitrite
4CuSO +2 copper (II) sulphate
4KMnO potassium permanganate
OCrCr +3 chromium (III) dichromate
HF hydrofluoric acid
HCl hydrochloric acid
HBr hydrobromic acid
HI hydroiodic acid
HCN hydrocyanic acid
SH2 hydrosulphuric acid
Oxygen Containing Acids
3HNO nitrate nitri