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Lesson 01: Introduction - · PDF file Lesson 01: Chemical Elements 01 Elements All physical objects in the universe are composed of matter, all matter is composed of elements, and

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    Lesson 01: Chemical Elements

    01 Elements

    All physical objects in the universe are composed of matter, all matter is composed of elements, and all elements are composed of atoms.

    The Universe is Composed of Matter

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    02 Atoms and Elements Atoms are made up of three types of particles…

     electrons: negatively charged particles which orbit the nucleus

     protons: positively charged particles which are located in the nucleus

     neutrons: particles with no charge located in the nucleus

    An Atom of the Element Carbon

    The atomic number, which indicates the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines the species of element.

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    Atoms with different atomic numbers are referred to as elements. The way in which all elements are displayed is via the periodic table of elements…

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    The periodic table displays elements using symbols which usually involve the first and second letter of the element or are historical in nature The periodic table is constructed in such a way that displays numerous patterns that exist between the elements (discussed in unit 07).

    03 Combinations of Atoms Atoms of a one element may combine to form molecules…

    2 2 8H , N , S ... Or, atoms of several different elements may combine to form multi-atomic molecules...

    2 2 2H O, N O ...

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    Of the two types of substances that arise from the combination of elements…

     elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances

     compounds can be broken down into simpler substances

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    04 Origin of the Elements

    Nucleosynthesis and the Big Bang The process of creating new elements by building up a nucleus with more protons and neutrons is called nucleosynthesis. This process only takes place under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. The first period of nucleosynthesis occurred in the early moments of the universe following the big bang, creating…

     hydrogen

     helium

    The Big Bang

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    Nucleosynthesis and Supernovas

    When the first stars formed, another type of nucleosynthesis began in the cores of stars forming…

     helium from hydrogen, and

     elements up to iron

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    The stage at which iron is being formed usually results in core collapse, and a…

     supernova Supernovas can create even heavier elements, up to…

     uranium

    Supernova (Crab Nebula)

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    Other processes can transforming one element into another…

     radioactive decay can break a heavy element forming lighter elements

     cosmic rays can break a heavy element forming lighter elements Only tiny amounts of elements heavier than uranium, neptunium, and plutonium are known to exist in nature. All other elements have been made artificially in laboratories.

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    05 Classification of the Elements Chemical elements are broadly classified as…

     metals

     nonmetals

     metalloids

    Main Classification Scheme

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    When the elements are arranged in the order of their atomic numbers, elements of similar physical and chemical properties occur at specific intervals. These groups of elements with similar physical and chemical properties are called families. The main families are…

    Elemental Families

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    Lesson 02: Naming Inorganic Compounds

    Naming Chemical Compounds

    With over 10 million known chemicals, and potentially dangerous results if chemicals are combined in an incorrect manner, imagine the problem if you are in the lab and say "mix 10 grams of that stuff in with this stuff". We need to be very clear on identification of chemicals. First, two categories of chemical compounds…

     Organic compounds: These contain the element carbon. Life on earth is carbon

    based. Organic compounds were originally associated with living organisms, however, a large number of organic compounds have been synthesized which do not occur in nature so this distinction is no longer valid.

     Inorganic compounds: All other compounds.

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    Terminology

     Ions: An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more

    electrons, giving it a positive or negative electrical charge.

     Anions: A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons in its electron

    shells than it has protons in its nuclei, is known as an anion.

     Cations: Conversely, a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than

    protons, is known as a cation.

     Monatomic Ions: An ion consisting of a single atom is called a monatomic ion,

     Polyatomic Ions: If an ion consists of two or more atoms, it is a polyatomic ion.

     Oxyanions: Polyatomic ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and

    sulphate, are called oxyanions.

     Notation: Ions are denoted in the same way as electrically neutral atoms and molecules except for the presence of a superscript indicating the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one.

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    Common Monatomic and Polyatomic Ion Charges

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    Naming Inorganic Ionic Compounds

    Compound Rules

    Metal Non Metal

    Binary Compound

    The cation is always named first and the anion second.

    A cation takes its name from the name of the element.

    IF the cation can assume more than one charge, the charge is specified using Roman numerals in parentheses.

    An anion is named by taking the first part of the element name and adding the suffix “ide”.

    Non Metal Non Metal

    Binary Compound

    The first element in the formula is named first and the full element name is used.

    The second element is named as though it were an anion.

    Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms present.

    The prefix “mono” is never used for the first element.

    Polyatomic Compound

    The cation is always named first.

    The polyatomic ion is named second

    Acids

    If the anion does not contain oxygen, the acid is named with the prefix “hydro” and the suffix “ic” attached to the root name for the element.

    When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name is formed from the root name of the central element of the anion or the anion name, with the suffix “ic” or “ous”. When the anion name ends in “ate”, the suffix “ic” is used. When the anion name ends in “ite” the suffix “ous” is used.

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    Metal Non Metal Binary Compounds

    Formula Possible Charges Charge on Metal Name

    CsF 1

    1x

    01-x

    0FCs 1x

     

    cesium fluoride

    3AlCl 1

    3x

    03-x

    03ClAl 1x

     

    aluminum chloride

    CuCl 2

    1x

    01-x

    0CICu 1x

     

    copper (I) chloride

    32OFe 2

    3x

    06-2x

    03O2Fe 2x

     

    iron (III) oxide

    4PbCl 2

    4x

    04x

    04ClPb 1x

    

     

    lead (IV) chloride

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    Non Metal Non Metal Binary Compounds

    Important Prefixes

    Subscript Prefix Subscript Prefix

    1 mono 6 hexa

    2 di 7 hepta

    3 tri 8 ocata

    4 tetra 9 nona

    5 penta 10 deca

    Formula Name

    3BF boron trifluoride

    NO nitrogen monoxide

    2NO nitrogen dioxide

    32ON dinitrogen trioxide

    52ON dinitrogen pentaoxide

    4CCl carbon tetrachloride

    5IF iodine pentafluoride

    64OP tetraphosphorous hexaoxide

    6XeF xenon hexafluoride

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    Flow Chart for Naming Binary Compounds

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    Polyatomic Compounds

    Formula Charge on Metal Name

    42SONa sodium sulphate

    42POKH potassium dihydrogen

    phosphate

      33

    NOFe +3 iron (III) nitrate

     2OHMn +2 manganese (II) hydroxide

    32SONa sodium sulphite

    34ClONH ammonium chlorate

      7224 OCrNH ammonium dichromate  

    24 ClOCo +2 cobalt (II) perchlorate

    3KClO potassium chlorate

      22

    NOCu +2 copper (II) nitrite

    4CuSO +2 copper (II) sulphate

    4KMnO potassium permanganate

      3722

    OCrCr +3 chromium (III) dichromate

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    Acids

    Formula Name

    HF hydrofluoric acid

    HCl hydrochloric acid

    HBr hydrobromic acid

    HI hydroiodic acid

    HCN hydrocyanic acid

    SH2 hydrosulphuric acid

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    Oxygen Containing Acids

    Formula Name

    3HNO nitrate  nitri

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