Lecture 12- Campy and Salmonella

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    Leading Causes of Foodborne Infections

    Norovirus Campylobacter

    Salmonella

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    Campylobacter

    Genus Campylobacter 16 species and 6 subspecies

    C. jejuni and C. coli are most common cause of humandiarrheal disease worldwide

    First recognized in 1979

    Gram-negative, motile, nonsporulating, spiral rod-shapedbacterium

    Microaerophilic

    Fragile cells

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    Microaerophilic environment of ~ 5% oxygen, 8% CO 2,and 87% N 2 for growth

    Mesophilic - growth temp: 32 - 45C, with optimum~42C

    Prefer amino acids to carbohydrates for nutrient source

    Grow slowly and are poor competitors

    Campylobacter growth requirements

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    Campylobacter Growth Requirements

    Sensitive to: Oxygen NaCl low pH temperature Drying

    Survive well during refrigeration and for months in the

    frozen state Difficult to culture in the laboratory

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    Enteric M/O

    Skin/feathers Presence of Campy: 10 5 cfu/carcass rinse Effectiveness of santizer or hot-water dips:

    Natural Habitat of Campylobacter

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    Presence of Campylobacter in food

    Raw meats (beef, lamb, pork, chicken, and turkey),milk, eggs, vegetables, mushrooms, and clams

    In heat-processed food, their presence in heat-processed food is due to post-processing

    contamination or improper heat treatment

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    Campylobacteriosis Onset: 2-5 days after consumption of contaminated food

    Duration: 2-3 days

    Infective dose: Very low 500 cells Target population: Everyone

    Primary symptoms: Abdominal cramps, profuse diarrhea,

    nausea, vomiting and fever occasional bloody diarrhea Secondary symptoms: fever, headache, and chills

    Rarely fatal

    Disease caused by Campylobacter

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    Campylobacter Mechanism of Pathogenesis

    Flagella

    CDTtoxins

    Inflammation,Cell damage,

    Diarrhea

    Campylobacter

    Chemotaxisand

    motility

    Invasion andentrapmentinside the

    vacuole

    Loss ofabsorptivemicrovilli

    Fig 25.5, Ray and Bhunia 10

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    Complications Resulting fromCampylobacteriosis

    Guillian-Barre Syndrome Antibody production against Campylobacter

    antigen Impaired nerve function and ascending paralysis

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    Complications Resulting fromCampylobacteriosis

    Reiters Syndrome Arthritis

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    Diagnosis of Campylobacteriosis

    Rarely diagnosed in the past We just recently became aware that this is the leading

    cause of bacterial foodborne illness

    Difficult to grow in the lab Easier to detect with DNA-based methods

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    Treatment for Campylobacteriosis

    Usually self-limiting Palliative therapy: hydration, rest

    Antibiotics can shorten duration of infection

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    Prevention of Campylobacteriosis

    On farm: Reducing animal carriage of Campylobacter

    Difficult Sanitation Prevention of carcass/egg contamination

    At home: Avoid cross contamination Thoroughly cook poultry products AVOID CROSS CONTAMINATION

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    Foodborne Infections caused bySalmonella

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    Salmonella

    Gram-negative

    Motile rods

    Facultative anaerobes Nonsporulating

    Mesophilic Temp range of 546C, with optimum of

    35-37C

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    Salmonella - Nomenclature Genus - Salmonella Species - enterica and bongori

    Subspecies of S. enterica Enterica, Salamae, Arizonae, Diarizonae,Houtenae, Bongori

    Serovar (aka serotype) Typhimurium, Enteriditis, etc. Serovar based on antigen types Antigen: molecule that stimulates an immune response in the

    host O Antigen somatic antigen H Antigen- flagellar antigen K Antigen capsular antigen

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    Salmonella - Nomenclature

    Example: Salmonella enterica subsp. entericaTyphimurium

    Over 2000 serotypes belong to the subspeciesenterica, and all of them are pathogenic to humans.

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    Salmonella species, subspecies, serotypes, and their usual habitats

    Salmonella species andsubspecies

    No. of serotypeswithin subspecies

    Usual habitat

    S. enterica subsp. enterica 1,454 Warm-blooded animals

    S. enterica subsp. salamae 489 Cold-blooded animals and theenvironment b

    S. enterica subsp. arizonae 94 Cold-blooded animals and theenvironment

    S. enterica subsp. diarizonae 324 Cold-blooded animals and theenvironment

    S. enterica subsp. houtenae 70 Cold-blooded animals and theenvironment

    S. enterica subsp. bongori 32 Cold-blooded animals and theenvironment

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    aW > 0.94 required for growth

    pH > 4.5 required for growth

    Sensitive to heat destroyed by cooking,pasteurization and greater thermal treatments

    Dont cause spoilage Can grow in foods without changing quality

    Salmonella growth requirements andsensitivities

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    All Salmonella enterica Intestines of mammals, especially poultry

    Food association Poultry, beef, pork, lamb, raw milk and dairy products, eggs, produce

    Presence in meat/poultry products and produce fecal contamination Presence in eggs usually a different story

    Most common culprits

    S. Typhimurium poultry/meat, some produce S. Enteriditis eggs Others S. Tennesee, S. Dublin, etc.. New outbreaks with produce

    and some meat/poultry

    Natural Habitat and Presence of Salmonella in Food

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    Contamination of Eggs with S. Enteritidis

    S. Enteriditis translocates from intestine of laying hen to theovary and oviduct

    Natural internal contamination of eggs

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    Salmonellosis Onset: 8-24h after consumption of contaminated food Duration of illness: 2-3 days

    Infective dose > 10 5 cells Target population: Everyone, but higher in YOPIs Primary symptoms: Gastroenteritis

    Nausea , Vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea (sometimesbloody), fever

    Secondary symptoms: chills, aches Mortality rate:

    Disease caused by Salmonella

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    Salmonella Mechanism of Pathogenesis inIntestinal Epithelium

    Fig 25.1, Ray and Bhunia

    Step 1 Salmonella binds to intestinal

    epithelial cell, induces membraneruffling, and then invades

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    Salmonella Mechanism of Pathogenesis inIntestinal Epithelium

    Step 2 Salmonella multiplies inside hostvacuole

    Step 3 Salmonella secretes pathogenic

    factors into host cytoplasm using a TypeThree Secretion System

    Results:

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    Salmonella can enter macrophages Via passage from epithelial cells or via entering M-cells

    Bacterium survives inside of macrophages and can travelto other areas of the body

    Salmonella Evasion of Host Immune System

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    Salmonella - Pathogenesis Overview

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