For more infowww.cetis.ac.uk/statis/standards.htmlwww.imsglobal.org
There are many standards in life: electricity plugs, table hight, door sizes, pipe-diameters, size of beer bottles, beer ingredients, etc.
Standards have to do sth. with norms.
In society:How to behave in traffic: formalised into traffic rules and even lawsExample of how social standards are linked to technology standards: the side of the steering wheel in a car
Learning standards: official curriculum; system of ECTS; national education laws
This presentation focuses on Learning Technologies
Learning technologies standards have to do with e-learning facilities.BUT: strong interrelation with learning standards and technology standards!
Many of the questions about standards is due to confusing these different levels.
Here we will reserve learning technologies for the use of computers and internet in education; so not radio, video tapes, etc.
Technology generations: mainframe applications in the late seventies; PC-based applications in native programming languages; bulletin boards; the rise of the web; and fully integrated Virtual Learning Environments like Bb. Processes (in coding languages), data (in database systems), and physical data carriers (tapes, disks, etc.) have all changed rapidly. Result: capital destruction.
Young field: - anyone now can produce electronic materials that are potentially accessible to anyone (compare to print!) - few rules on how to store, make accessible, guarantee quality etc.
Differences: difficult to exchange materials and e.g. student data between systems and institutions. 1. Describing data: for identification and retrieval, but also for exchange between systems (e.g. definition of student)
2. Exchanging data: - data format: import/export - packaging: send over a set of data and a definition of what they represent, how to be interpreted by the receiving system - sequencing: esp. on presentation of the learning materials, supporting the work flow
3. Service Oriented Architectures reference architectures
Integration: fits well with the Open Source motives
ICT infrastructure: out of scope
Data: here LT standards started and most widely used metadata
Applications integration: at the moment many suppliers are working on this data exchange, packaging, sequencing
Services: interface between applications and personalised user interface this is where most RTD takes place at the moment: Prof. Koper later this afternoon
LT standards are defined at the intersection of user requirements (students, teachers, materials developers) and ICT professionals: these are very different worlds!!
All of these apply to the level of learning objects and application integration.Just as technology may support teaching and learning, LT specifications may support e-learning, however ..
1. Inferior learning materials: indeed only increases by using ICT
2. Substandard teaching: indeed may be increased by using ICT by people who have never been trained to do so
3. Sloppy records keeping:
4. Ineffective organizational procedures: indeed ICT may be used as a scapegoat or as a means to shield own department
5. Islands/kingdoms/ivory towers: at the level of the classroom, the department, the institution
6. Cost reductions: depend on very specific business models and experience.
CETIS = Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability StandardsAICC = Aviation Industry . CommitteeIEEE = Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersISO = International Standards Organization
ADL-SCORM is an application profile
Curriculum, standard pedagogical approachHE law, quality standardsE-Bologna: EU BaMa structure, ECTS-system
Additional dimension: data level, application level, services level