LATIN AMERICAIntroductionSOL WG.4
Where is Latin America?Find Mexico on a World Map...
and move southward
Latin AmericaWHY is it called Latin America?Latin is a languageThe two widely spoken languages are Latin-based
Portuguese is spoken in BrazilAnd Spanish just about everywhere else!!!www.skokienet.org/ festival/cultures.html What physical characteristics do we need to know?In Central America and northern South America, it is TROPICAL
In northern Mexico and southern South America, it is TEMPERATE CLIMATE
Along with climate,In the Southern Hemisphere:
Remember that SEASONS are REVERSED:desrever
When it is winter in the USA...it is summer in South America (and southern Africa & Australia & Antarctica)
Physical FeaturesMountains in Latin America: Sierra Madres split along Mexicos coasts Andes along west coast of South AmericaJust like the west coast of the USA, the Andes mountains are VOLCANIC
Sierra MadresANDES MOUNTAINS: The longest chain and 2nd highest mountains in the world!!Mountains in Latin America can be split into agricultural zones as you move higher up the mountain. This is called vertical zonationTierra Caliente crops that like hot temperatures Tierra Templada crops that like temperate landTierra Fria no crops, just grazing
Another look at Vertical Zonation in the Andes Mts.Along with volcanoes, western South America and parts of Central America experience EARTHQUAKES due to the constant motion of the Earths tectonic plates- Just like in California!!
But California can handle the earthquakes MUCH better because of building codes and earthquake-proof structures that are built in the states. Unfortunately, Chile, Peru, and other countries in Latin America dont follow any type of building codes and whole villages can be wiped out in an earthquake!!!More Physical Features: There are MANY islands in Latin AmericaThe Caribbean Islands are called the West Indies or the Greater and Lesser AntillesThe Caribbean Islands are well known for their agriculture and tourism
Greater (Bigger) AntillesLesser (Smaller) AntillesThe Galapagos Islands (off the west coast of Ecuador) are known for their Tortoises and other scientific studies of plants and animals.
Ga-LAP-ah-goes IslandsThe Falkland Islands are controlled by the United KingdomThe British defeated the Argentines in the Falkland Island War of 1982These islands have a HUGE military advantage because of the location to the Strait of Magellan......esp. if the Panama Canal is blocked during wartime
Falkland Islands (Isla Malvinas) Administered by the UK (claimed by Argentina)14Other Physical Chars.Grasslands: huge, flat plains in Latin America- known for agriculture The Llanos are in Venezuela; the Gran Chaco are in Paraguay;and the most famous are the Pampas in Argentina
Latin American Cowboys are called Gauchos
Were usually found in grassland rancheslike the Llanos in VenezuelaOr the Pampas of Argentina.where the best beef cattle in the world is raised!!LlanosPampas
Rainforests: Costa Rica and Brazil~ Amazonia (in Brazil) is the largest in the world!
AmazoniaUnfortunately, were being cut down and set aflame to make room for interior farmland and construction!!!!OUCH!!! This is called Slash and Burn AgricultureRainforestsRainforests cover much of Latin America.Rain forests are near the equator.Amazon rainforest covers almost 2 million acres.Water fall in the forest
Coastal Deserts: West Coast of South America ATACAMA DESERT in Chile One of the hottest and driest places on Earth. 1/16/yr
This clip art is actually wrong to use for the Atacamathere are cacti shown!! THIS is more like it!!!But why can places be so dry???The rain shadow effect is part of the reason
RAIN SHADOW EFFECTThe Andes Mountains create rain shadows on leeward slopes and cause moisture to be blocked. Thats how we see such dry areas in Latin America. The Andes are so high that they block moisture from the ocean and create grasslands and deserts on the other side of the mountains. http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~amitp/simblob/rain-shadow.pngPacific OceanANDESWindward side of the mountainsLeeward Side or protected side of the mountains
Rio GrandeRivers in Latin AmericaThe AMAZON!!The largest river in the world!!Parana RiverOrinoco RiverI'm the Rio de la Plata.Im actually not a river, but an estuary the large water feature where fresh water from a river meets the salt water of the sea.IMPACTS of Physical Features?:Location of urbanization?People settle along coastsHigh population growth rate?YES! Arable land means more foodLarge cities are called: MEGACITIESSao Paulo Rio Mexico City
And the MOST important factor from Latin America???Of course!!!!Didnt YOU think coffee too?Economic Characteristicsdiverse economiessubsistence farmingplantation agricultureslash and burn agriculturecash crops and food cropshaciendascattle ranches and gauchosdeforestationdestruction of the rainforestsoil resources--Ecuador, Venezuela, MexicoHeavy smog and pollution--Mexico Citydisparity of income distributionNAFTA memberdiverse mineral resourcescopper in Chileiron ore in Venezuela and Brazil
Cultural CharacteristicsIndian civilizations--Aztec, IncaAfrican traditions--slavesinfluences of European colonization--Spanishpredominance of the Roman Catholic religionrigid social structureno movementMestizos-European and Nativelocation of settlements--coastal in South AmericaMegacities with large squatter settlementsrapid population growthout-migrationCultural heritagemusic--African influences, steel drum bands, reggaetraditional dancesSpanish and Portuguese languagesCultural landscapepyramids and cathedralshaciendas and ejidos (communal land)ruins at Machu Picchuruins at TikalLatin America in Pictures
SquatterCity in Brazil
Native American heritage
Steel Drum Band
Cathedral in Mexico
Cathedral in Mexico
Macchu Picchuin PeruMacchu Picchu is an ancient city that the Inca claimed was the center of the earth.
Tikal in Guatemalaancient Mayan city
ceremonial and civic center Tikal is the "New York City" of the Maya, its skyscraper-like pyramids soaring up out of the jungle canopy.
Gauchos in Argentina
Peaks in the ANDES
Inca city of Machu Pichu
Amazon flowing through the rainforest.
Cattle on the Pampas
Shade trees on the llanos
A small pond on the llanos
Bahamas from space
Warm Blue Water