Khoisan' kinship classifications: Geographical ... 'Khoisan' kinship classifications: Geographical

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Text of Khoisan' kinship classifications: Geographical ... 'Khoisan' kinship classifications: Geographical

  • 'Khoisan' kinship classifications: Geographical distribution and

    historical interpretation

    Gertrud Boden Kalahari Basin Area CRP, IP 5

    University of Edinburgh

    With support from Alan Barnard, Falko Berthold, Martina Ernszt,

    Linda Gerlach, Tom Gldemann, Blesswell Kure, Bill McGregor, Christfried Naumann, Lee James Pratchett.

  • Kinship classifications: - 'Kinship classifications' refers to the way how people group

    their relatives terminologically into kin classes (e.g. English kin class aunt comprises mothers sisters, fathers sisters, uncles wives, etc.).

    - The way how relatives are grouped into kin classes differs across cultures and languages (e.g. mothers sisters can be in the same class as mother instead of being in the same class as fathers sister).

    Features analyzed in this talk: - Sibling classifications - Cousin classifications - Classifications of parents siblings - Classifications of grandparents and grandchildren

  • Lineages and branches Language(s) or dialects (DC = Dialect Cluster, = extinct) KHOE-KWADI Kwadi Khoe Khoekhoe North South Kalahari Khoe East Shua Tshwa West Khwe G||ana Naro

    single language

    Eini, Nama, Damara, Akhoe-Hai||om !Ora, Cape varieties

    Deti, Cara, |Xaise, Danisi, Ts'ixa, etc. Shua, Kua, Cua, Tsua, etc.

    Khwe, ||Ani, Buga, G|anda, etc. G||ana, G|ui, Haba, etc. Naro, etc.

    KX'A Eastern Hoan Ju (DC) Northwest Southeast

    single language

    !Xun (Angola), !Xun (Ekoka) Ju|'hoan, Kx'au||'en

    TUU Taa-Lower Nossob Taa (DC) West East Lower Nossob (DC?) !Ui

    N|u||'en, West !Xoon N|amani, Kakia, 'N|oha, East !Xoon, Tshasi, Huan, etc. |'Auni, |Haasi ||Xegwi; |Xam (DC); Ungkue; N||ng (DC)

    Internal classification of 'Khoisan' (adapted from Gldemann 2008:98)

  • Language sample

    Khoe Kx'a Tuu

    ||Xegwi

    !Ora

    |Xam

    N||ng

    Eastern Hoan

    Ju|'hoan

    Nama

    !Xun Khwe

    Shua

    Damara Naro

    E-!Xoon G|ui

    Kx'au||ein

    Akhoe- Hai||om

    !Xun

    W-!Xoon 'N|oha Tshasi

    Huan

  • Angola !Xun Kx'a Hunter/Gatherers Bleek 1929, Fieldwork Boden (West Caprivi) 2012

    Ekoka !Xun Kx'a Hunter/Gatherers Takada 2008

    Ju|'hoan Kx'a Hunter/Gatherers Marshall 1957, Lee 1984, 1993, Dickens 1994

    Kx'au-||ein Kx'a Hunter/Gatherers Bleek 1929, Fieldwork Boden/Pratchett 2011

    Hoan Kx'a Hunter/Gatherers Gruber 1973, Fieldwork Barnard/Berthold/Boden/Gerlach/ Kure 2011

    Akhoe-Hai||om Khoe Hunter/Gatherers Widlok 1999, Haacke & Eiseb 2002

    Damara Khoe Hunter/Gatherers/Pastoralists Lebzelter 1934, Barnard 1992, Haacke & Eiseb 2002

    Khwe Khoe Hunter/Gatherers Khler 1966, Kilian-Hatz 2003, Boden 2005, Fieldwork Boden 2012

    Shua Khoe Hunter/Gatherers McGregor, IP1, KBA, Manuscript 2012

    G|ui Khoe Hunter/Gatherers Ono 1996, 1997

    Naro Khoe Hunter/Gatherers Barnard 1976

    Nama Khoe Pastoralists Hoernl 1985 [1925], Haacke & Eiseb 2002

    !Ora Khoe Pastoralists Engelbrecht 1936

    Taa-West !Xoon Tuu Hunter/Gatherers Fieldwork Boden 2004-2011

    Taa-'N|oha Tuu Hunter/Gatherers Fieldwork Boden 2004-2011

    Taa-East !Xoon Tuu Hunter/Gatherers Heinz 1994 [1966], Traill 1994, Fieldwork Boden 2010

    Taa-Tshasi Tuu Hunter/Gatherers Fieldwork Boden 2010

    Taa-Huan Tuu Hunter/Gatherers Fieldwork Boden 2010

    N||ng Tuu Hunter/Gatherers Bleek Notebooks, Bleek 1929, Fieldwork Boden/Ernszt/ Gldemann 2010

    ||Xegwi Tuu Hunter/Gatherers Potgieter 1955

    |Xam Tuu Hunter/Gatherers Bleek 1924

  • Type Number of terms

    Social Dimensions

    Referents

    1 2 Sex of referent sister (Z) brother (B)

    2 2 Relative Age younger sibling (yG) elder sibling (eG)

    3 3 Relative age Sex of referent

    younger sibling (yG) elder sister (eZ) elder brother (eB)

    4 4 Relative age Sex of referent

    younger sister (yZ) elder sister (eZ) younger brother (yB) elder brother (eB)

    5 3 Relative gender Relative age

    opposite-sex sibling (osG) younger same-sex sibling (yssG) elder same-sex sibling (essG)

    Feature 1: Sibling classifications

  • Sibling classification

    1 = Z/B 2 = yG/eG 3 = yG/eZ/eB 4 = yZ/eZ/ yB/eB 5 = yssG/essG/ osG

    Khoe Kx'a Tuu

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    3

    1

    4

    5

    4 4

    4

    4

    4

    4

    2 2

    2 2

    2

    4

  • Sibling classification

    1 = yG/eG 2 = Z/B 3 = yG/eZ/eB 4 = yZ/eZ/ yB/eB 5 = yssG/essG/ osG

    Khoe Kx'a Tuu

    1

    1

    1

    2

    3

    1

    4

    5

    4 4

    4

    4

    4

    4

    2 2

    2 2

    2

    4

    1

  • Sibling classifications: - Type 1 is shared by languages of the Khoe (Nama, !Ora) and Tuu (|

    Xam, ||Xegwi, N||ng) families in the southern part of the area. - Type 2 is shared by the Taa dialects (Tuu) and Eastern Hoan (Kx'a)

    family in a small central part of the area. - Type 3 is exceptional in Ju|'hoan (Kx'a), surrounded by type 4

    terminologies, intermediary stage between types 2 and 4. - Type 4 is shared by languages or dialects of the Khoe (Khwe, Naro, G|

    ui, Akhoe-Hai||om, Damara) and Kx'a (Ekoka !Xun, Angola !Xun, Kx'au||ein) families in in the northern part of the area.

    - Type 5 is exceptional among the Shua as sole representatives of the Kalahari Khoe East branch, described as acculturated in the anthropological literature; possibly effect of contact with Tswana.

    - All possible combinations of language families: Tuu-Khoe (type 1), Tuu-Kx'a (type 2), Khoe-Kx'a (type 4).

    - In the KBA, types of sibling classifications do not trace language family boundaries (contra Murdock 1968).

    - Some sort of relative age distinction (types 2-5) in most groups with a (formerly) predominantly hunter/gather economy except for the Tuu languages spoken in South Africa which were already close to extinction when first documented.

    - Note that even the hunter/gatherer societies who speak a variety of Khoekhoe, a language otherwise spoken by pastoralists have a type 4 sibling terminology.

  • Feature 2: Cousin classifications

    Parallel cousins: Children of parents' same-sex siblings (PssGC) Mother's sisters' children (MZC)

    Father's brothers' children (FBC) Cross cousins: Children of parents' opposite-sex siblings (PosGC) Mother's brothers' children (MBC)

    Father's sisters' children (FZC)

    Type Type Name

    Terms Equivalence

    1 Generational Same terms for siblings and cousins

    G = PGC

    2 Lineal/ Collateral

    Siblings distinguished from cousins

    G PssGC = PosGC

    3 Cross/ Parallel

    Siblings and parallel cousins distinguished from cross cousins

    G = PssGC PosGC

  • Cousin classification

    1: G=PGC

    2: GPssGC= PosGC

    3: G=PssGC PosGC

    Khoe Kx'a Tuu

    3 (?)

    3

    1

    2

    3

    2

    3

    3

    3

    3 3

    3

    1 (?)

    3

    1

    3 3

    3 3

    3

    1

  • Cousin classification

    1: G=PGC

    2: GPssGC= PosGC

    3: G=PssGC PosGC

    Khoe Kx'a Tuu

    3 (?)

    3

    1

    2

    3

    2

    3

    3

    3

    3 3

    3

    1

    3

    1

    3 3

    3 3

    3

    1

  • Cousin classifications - Type 1 is to be found in most Ju dialects (Kx'a) and |Xam (Tuu). - Type 2 is found in Ju|'hoan (Kx'a) and N||ng (Tuu). - Type 3 is shared by all Khoe languages plus Eastern Hoan (Kx'a), all

    Taa varieties and ||Xegwi (Tuu); ||Xegwi: data only available for MBC and FBC.

    - Kx'a: Generational type is possibly proto-Kx'a type; Ju|'hoan type again exceptional both, within the dialect cluster/language family and the neighborhood; isolated Eastern Hoan language shares type 3 with neighbors.

    - Khoe: Cross/parallel type seems to be common ancestry of the whole family.

    - Tuu: 3 different types in 4 languages do not allow to suggest a proto-Tuu type; Taa shares cross/parallel type with neighbors; N||ng possibly adopted lineal/collateral type from Afrikaans.

    - KBA cousin classifications trace language boundaries at least better than sibling classifications.

    - Terms for cross cousins in Taa and Eastern Hoan seem to be secondary recruitments: loan terms (Eastern Hoan, Huan), terms for CEP (West !Xoon), term friend ('N|oha, East !Xoon, Tshasi). This might be seen as evidence that these languages did formerly not distinguish cross cousins. Note: not true for ||Xegwi terms (and N||ng cousin terms).

  • Feature 3: Classifications of parents' siblings

    Type Type name Formula

    0 Descriptive e.g. mother's sister, fathers brother

    1 Lineal/Collateral P PssG=PosG ( PP)

    2 Bifurcate/Collateral P PssG PosG (= PP)

    3 Cross/Parallel Variety of P=PssG PosG a) classic: P(marker)=PssG PosG=PP b) split nuncle: P(marker)=PyssG PessG=PosG=PP c) asymmetric (Khoekhoe): F(marker)=FB MB=PF; M(marker)=MZ FZ=separate term d) asymmetric (Khwe): F(marker)=FB MB=PF M(marker)MZ=FZ e) unskewed (Shua) P(marker)=PssG PosG PP

  • Classification of parents siblings

    0: Descriptive 1: P PssG=PosG 2: P PssG PosG=PP

    3a: P=PssG PosG=PP 3b: P=PyssG PessG=PosG=P