Junos® OS System Basics: Getting Started Configuration Guide

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  • Junos OS

    System Basics: Getting Started ConfigurationGuide

    Release

    12.3

    Modified: 2016-06-10

    Copyright 2016, Juniper Networks, Inc.

  • Juniper Networks, Inc.1133 Innovation WaySunnyvale, California 94089USA408-745-2000www.juniper.net

    Juniper Networks, Junos, Steel-Belted Radius, NetScreen, and ScreenOS are registered trademarks of Juniper Networks, Inc. in the UnitedStates and other countries. The Juniper Networks Logo, the Junos logo, and JunosE are trademarks of Juniper Networks, Inc. All othertrademarks, service marks, registered trademarks, or registered service marks are the property of their respective owners.

    Juniper Networks assumes no responsibility for any inaccuracies in this document. Juniper Networks reserves the right to change, modify,transfer, or otherwise revise this publication without notice.

    JunosOS System Basics: Getting Started Configuration Guide

    12.3Copyright 2016, Juniper Networks, Inc.All rights reserved.

    The information in this document is current as of the date on the title page.

    YEAR 2000 NOTICE

    Juniper Networks hardware and software products are Year 2000 compliant. Junos OS has no known time-related limitations through theyear 2038. However, the NTP application is known to have some difficulty in the year 2036.

    ENDUSER LICENSE AGREEMENT

    The Juniper Networks product that is the subject of this technical documentation consists of (or is intended for use with) Juniper Networkssoftware. Use of such software is subject to the terms and conditions of the End User License Agreement (EULA) posted athttp://www.juniper.net/support/eula.html. By downloading, installing or using such software, you agree to the terms and conditions ofthat EULA.

    Copyright 2016, Juniper Networks, Inc.ii

    http://www.juniper.net/support/eula.html

  • Table of Contents

    About the Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

    Documentation and Release Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

    Supported Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

    Using the Examples in This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv

    Merging a Full Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv

    Merging a Snippet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

    Documentation Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

    Documentation Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

    Requesting Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii

    Self-Help Online Tools and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii

    Opening a Case with JTAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii

    Part 1 Overview

    Chapter 1 Junos OS Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    Junos OS Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    Junos OS Architecture Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    Product Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    Routing Process Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    Packet Forwarding Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    Routing Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    Router Hardware Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    Junos OS Commit Model for Router or Switch Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    Junos OS Routing Engine Components and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    Routing Engine Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Initialization Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Management Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Process Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Routing Protocol Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Interface Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    Chassis Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    SNMP and MIB II Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    List of Junos OS Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    Junos OS Support for IPv4 Routing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Junos OS Support for IPv6 Routing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    Junos OS Routing and Forwarding Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Routing Policy Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Junos OS Support for VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    Junos OS Configuration Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Junos OS Configuration from External Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Junos OS Tracing and Logging Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    iiiCopyright 2016, Juniper Networks, Inc.

  • Chapter 2 Junos OS Security Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    Junos OS Default Settings for Router Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    Junos OS Features for Router Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    Methods of Remote Access for Router Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    Junos OS Supported Protocols and Methods for User Authentication . . . . . 28

    Junos OS Plain-Text Password Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    Junos OS Support for Routing Protocol Security Features and IPsec . . . . . . . 30

    Junos OS Support for Firewall Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    Junos OS Auditing Support for Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    Chapter 3 Junos OS Configuration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    Methods for Configuring Junos OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    Junos OS Command-Line Interface (CLI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    ASCII File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    J-Web Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    Junos XML Management Protocol Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    NETCONF XML Management Protocol Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    Configuration Commit Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    Junos OS Configuration Using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    Creating and Activating a Candidate Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    Format for Specifying IP Addresses, Network Masks, and Prefixes in Junos OS

    Configuration Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    Format for Specifying Filenames and URLs in Junos OS CLI Commands . . . . . . . 38

    Default Directories for Junos OS File Storage on the Router or Switch . . . . . . . . . 40

    Directories on the Logical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    Initial Router or Switch Configuration Using the Junos OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    Chapter 4 Junos OS Monitoring Tools Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    Junos OS Tools for Monitoring the Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    Part 2 Configuration

    Chapter 5 Configuring Basic System Management Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    Configuring Basic Router or Switch Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    Configuring the Hostname of the Router or Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    Mapping the Name of the Router to IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    Configuring an ISO System Identifier for the Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    Example: Configuring the Name of the Router, IP Address, and System ID . . . . . 50

    Configuring the Domain Name for the Router or Switc