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JAZZ HARMONY I Chord Symbols and Chord Extensions Subcourse MU 3320 EDITION A US Army Element, School of Music 1420 Gator Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23521-5170 8 Credit Hours Edition Date: 1991 SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW This subcourse is designed to teach you how to construct chords and label them with the correct chord symbols. Unless otherwise stated, the masculine gender of singular pronouns is used to refer to both men and women. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION: You will construct chords and label them with the correct chord symbols. CONDITION: Given the information in this subcourse. STANDARD: Demonstrated competency by achieving a minimum of 70% on the subcourse examination. This subcourse supports the following Soldier's Manual Tasks: 514-469-3001 Arrange Music For a Combo 514-469-3002 Score Music For The Marching Band 514-441-3501 Train The Section For Performance In A Marching/Ceremonial Setting 514-441-3702 Train The Section For Performance In A Non-Marching/Non-Ceremonial Setting 514-455-4501 Train The Ensemble For Performance In A Marching/Ceremonial Setting 514-455-4502 Train The Ensemble For Performance In A Non-Marching/Non-Ceremonial Setting 514-455-4723 Lead The Stage Band In Performance This subcourse supports the following Warrant Officer Bandmaster Tasks: 02-4407.00-0005 Conduct The Concert Band in Performance 02-4407.00-0007 Rehearse The Concert Band 02-4407.00-0012 Prepare Musical Score For Rehearsal/Performance S2-4409.00-0001 Compose/Arr/Trans Marches & Organizational Songs

Jazz Harmony I MU3320

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Page 1: Jazz Harmony I MU3320

JAZZ HARMONY IChord Symbols and Chord Extensions

Subcourse MU 3320

EDITION A

US Army Element, School of Music

1420 Gator Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23521-5170

8 Credit Hours

Edition Date: 1991

SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW

This subcourse is designed to teach you how to construct chords and label them with the correct chordsymbols.

Unless otherwise stated, the masculine gender of singular pronouns is used to refer to both men and women.

TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVEACTION: You will construct chords and label them with the correct chord symbols.

CONDITION: Given the information in this subcourse.

STANDARD: Demonstrated competency by achieving a minimum of 70% on the subcourseexamination.

This subcourse supports the following Soldier's Manual Tasks:

514-469-3001 Arrange Music For a Combo

514-469-3002 Score Music For The Marching Band

514-441-3501 Train The Section For Performance In A Marching/Ceremonial Setting

514-441-3702 Train The Section For Performance In A Non-Marching/Non-Ceremonial Setting

514-455-4501 Train The Ensemble For Performance In A Marching/Ceremonial Setting

514-455-4502 Train The Ensemble For Performance In A Non-Marching/Non-Ceremonial Setting

514-455-4723 Lead The Stage Band In Performance

This subcourse supports the following Warrant Officer Bandmaster Tasks:

02-4407.00-0005 Conduct The Concert Band in Performance

02-4407.00-0007 Rehearse The Concert Band

02-4407.00-0012 Prepare Musical Score For Rehearsal/Performance

S2-4409.00-0001 Compose/Arr/Trans Marches & Organizational Songs

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S2-4409.00-0002 Compose/Arr/Trans Openers/Fanfares

S2-4407.00-0004 Compose/Arr/Trans Concert Band Selections

S2-4409.00-0008 Compose/Arr/Trans Ensemble Music

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW

ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS

GRADING AND CERTIFICATION

LESSON 1: TRIADS

INTRODUCTIONPART A - CHORD SYMBOLSPART B - MAJOR TRIADSPART C - MINOR TRIADSPART D - AUGMENTED TRIADSPART E - DIMINISHED TRIADSPRACTICAL EXERCISEANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

LESSON 2: SIXTH CHORDS

INTRODUCTION PART A - MAJOR SIXTH CHORDSPART B - MINOR SIXTH CHORDSPART C - AUGMENTED AND DIMINISHED SIXTH CHORDSPRACTICAL EXERCISEANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

LESSON 3: SEVENTH CHORDS

INTRODUCTIONPART A - DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDSPART B - MINOR SEVENTH CHORDSPART C - MINOR SEVENTH (FLAT FIVE) CHORDSPART D - AUGMENTED SEVENTH CHORDSPART E - DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORDSPART F - MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDSPART G - MINOR/MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDSPRACTICAL EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

LESSON 4: EXTENDED CHORDS

INTRODUCTIONPART A - EXTENDED CHORD SYMBOLSPART B - EXTENSIONSPART C - INTERPRETING EXTENDED CHORD SYMBOLS

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PRACTICAL EXERCISEANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

LESSON 5: LESS COMMON CHORDS

INTRODUCTIONPART A - SUSPENDED FOURTH CHORDSPART B - SPECIFIED BASS NOTE CHORDSPART C - ADDED NOTE CHORDSPART D - ALTERED CHORDSPRACTICAL EXERCISEANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

EXAMINATION

ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS1. Number of lessons in this subcourse: 5.

2. Supervisory requirements: None.

3. References: You can read Chapters 10, 11, 15, and 19 of TC 12-41, Basic Music, to obtain informationabout intervals, triads, chords, and chord symbols. You can also take subcourse MU 1305, Intervals andTriads.

NOTE: The triads and chords throughout this subcourse are in root position.

GRADING AND CERTIFICATION INSTRUCTIONSPractice and Practical Exercises: Links are provided for practice and practical exercises so the answers canbe written down and compared to the answer key at the end of each exercise.

Examination: This subcourse contains a multiple-choice examination covering the material in five lessons.After studying the lessons and working through the Practical Exercises, complete the examination. Point andclick on the small circle to the left of your choice for each question. NOTE: You may select only one choicefor each question. We recommend you print out your completed examination before submitting. This willgive you a record of your answers in case you need to resubmit due to electronic transmission. NOTE:Some older browsers may not support this function. To submit your exam for grading, point and click onSUBMIT. You will receive an interim examination score by electronic mail. You will receive a final scoreby surface mail after computer grading. You will receive eight credit hours for successful completion of thisexamination.

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LESSON ONE

TRIADS

OVERVIEWLESSON DESCRIPTION:In this lesson you will learn to construct triads based on the information contained in a chord symbol. Youwill also learn to label triads with the correct chord symbol.

LESSON OBJECTIVE:OBJECTIVE: At the end of this lesson you will be able to construct major, minor, augmented, and

diminished triads from a given chord symbol. You will also be able to labelmajor, minor, augmented, and diminished triads with the correct chordsymbol.

CONDITIONS: Given the information in this lesson.

ACTION: You will:

1. Construct major, minor, augmented, and diminished triads.

2. Label triads with the correct chord symbols.

STANDARDS: IAW the information in this lesson.

INTRODUCTION

Triads provide the foundation of western harmonic theory and the basic color and harmonic texture of ourmusic. The four basic triads are the major triad, the minor triad, the augmented triad, and the diminishedtriad. The triad consists of a root note, the note an interval of a third above the root note, and the note aninterval of a fifth above the root note. Triads can also be extended by adding notes the interval of a sixth,seventh, ninth, eleventh, or thirteenth above the root of the basic triad.

PART A - CHORD SYMBOLS

1. Chord Symbols. Chord symbols are shorthand expressions used to describe triads and extended chords.A chord symbol may contain several components that designate information about the basic triad,alterations of chord members, and extensions of the triad.

a. The root note name is the first component of a chord symbol.

b. The second component of the chord symbol is a quality designator. The four quality designatorsthat we will use in abbreviated form are major (Maj), minor (min), diminished (dim), andaugmented (Aug).

c. The third component of the chord symbol is a numerical designator that can indicate an alteration toa note of the basic triad or an extension of the basic triad by a sixth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, orthirteenth.

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d. These three components can be combined and compounded in many different ways. Figure 1-1shows some chord symbols.

Figure 1-1. Chord Symbols.2. Rules for Chord Symbol Writing. This subcourse follows the chord writing procedures currently used in

Army resident training. Chord notation is not standardized among music writers and publishers, andyou will find other methods of notation in printed music. Some of the variations you may encounter inprinted music are discussed in each lesson of this subcourse. Careful attention to the basic principlespresented in this subcourse will enable you to understand and interpret any chord symbol you mayencounter in printed music.

NOTE: You can read Chapter 15, TC 12-41, Basic Music, to obtain more information about chord symbols.

PART B - MAJOR TRIADS

3. Major Triad Construction. A major triad is constructed by stacking a minor third on top of a majorthird. Figure 1-2 shows a major triad.

Figure 1-2. Major Triad Construction.NOTE: You can read Chapters 10 and 11, TC 12-41, Basic Music , to obtain more information aboutintervals and triads. You can also take subcourse MU 1305, Intervals and Triads.

4. Chord Symbol for Major Triads. Musicians have developed a shorthand way of writing the chordsymbol for a major triad. The chord symbol for a major triad consists of the root note name. The majorquality of the triad is understood, so the quality designator "Maj" is not written. Figure 1-3 shows thechord symbol for major triads.

Figure 1-3. Chord Symbol for Major Triads.NOTE: Whenever a chord symbol consists of only the root note name without any additional qualitydesignators, the chord is always understood to be a major triad.

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PART C - MINOR TRIADS

5. Minor Triad Construction. A minor triad is constructed by stacking a major third on top of a minorthird. Figure 1-4 shows a minor triad.

Figure 1-4. Minor Triad Construction.6. Chord Symbol for Minor Triads. The first component of the chord symbol for a minor triad is the root

note name. The root note name is followed by the letters "min". The quality designator "min"prescribes the minor third of the triad. Figure 1-5 shows the chord symbol for minor triads.

Figure 1-5. Chord Symbol for Minor Triads.NOTE: The quality designator "min" is used throughout this subcourse. Other indicators which may beseen in some printed music are "-", "m", and "mi".

PART D - AUGMENTED TRIADS

7. Augmented Triad Construction. An augmented triad is constructed by stacking a major third on top of amajor third. Figure 1-6 shows an augmented triad.

Figure 1-6. Augmented Triad Construction.8. Chord Symbol for Augmented Triads. The first component of the chord symbol for an augmented triad

is the root note name. The root note name is followed by the letters "Aug". The quality designator "Aug"prescribes the augmented fifth of the triad. Figure 1-7 shows the chord symbol for augmented triads.

Figure 1-7. Chord Symbol for Augmented Triads.

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NOTE: The quality designator "Aug" is used throughout this subcourse. Other indicators which may beseen in printed music are "+", "(+5)", and "(#5)".

PART E - DIMINISHED TRIADS

9. Diminished Triad Construction. A diminished triad is constructed by stacking a minor third on top of aminor third. Figure 1-8 shows a diminished triad.

Figure 1-8. Diminished Triad Construction.10. Chord Symbol for Diminished Triads. The first component of the chord symbol for a diminished triad is

the root note name. The root note name is followed by the letters "dim". The quality designator "dim"prescribes both the minor third and the diminished fifth of the triad. Figure 1-9 shows the chord symbolfor diminished triads.

Figure 1-9. Chord Symbol for Diminished Triads.

NOTE: The quality designator "dim" is used through out this subcourse. The superscripted symbol“ o” isalso commonly used.

LESSON ONEPRACTICE EXERCISE

a. Add accidentals to the following examples as needed to form the triads indicated by the chordsymbols (Figure 1-10).

Figure 1-10. Add Accidentals to Triads.

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b. Fill in the missing notes and accidentals to complete the following triads as indicated by the chordsymbols (Figure 1-11).

Figure 1-11. Complete Triads.c. Construct (in root position) the following triads as indicated by the chord symbols (Figure 1-12).

Use the correct accidentals when they are required.

Figure 1-12. Construct Triads.d. Label the following triads with the correct chord symbol (Figure 1-13).

Figure 1-13. Label Triads.

LESSON ONEPRACTICAL EXERCISE

The following items will test your understanding of the material covered in this lesson. There is only onecorrect answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answerkey that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, review the part of the lesson that contains theappropriate information.

1. What is the first component of a chord symbol?

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A. Quality designator

B. Root note name

C. Numerical designator

D. Chord extension

2. A major triad is constructed by stacking a

A. major third on top of a major third.

B. minor third on top of a minor third.

C. minor third on top of a major third.

D. major third on top of a minor third.

3. If a chord symbol consists of only the root note name without any additional quality designators, what isthe understood quality of the chord?

A. Major

B. Minor

C. Augmented

D. Diminished

4. A diminished triad is constructed by stacking a

A. major third on top of a minor third.

B. minor third on top of a major third.

C. minor third on top of a minor third.

D. major third on top of a major third.

Figure. Questions 6 through 9.

5. Which triad in the above Figure is a minor triad?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

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D. 4

6. Which triad in the above Figure is an augmented triad?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

7. Which triad in the above Figure is a major triad?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

8. Which triad in the above Figure is a diminished triad?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

9. The quality designator "dim" prescribes

A. the root of the triad.

B. the minor third of the triad.

C. both the minor third and the diminished fifth of the triad.

D. the diminished fifth of the triad.

10. Chord symbols are shorthand expressions used to describe triads and extended chords.

A. True B. False

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LESSON ONE ANSWERS TO THE PRACTICE EXERCISE

a.

Figure 1-10. Add Accidentals to Triads.b.

Figure 1-11. Complete Triads.c.

Figure 1-12. Construct Triads.d.

Figure 1-13. Label Triads.

LESSON ONE

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PRACTICAL EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. B. Root note name(Paragraph 1a)

2. C. minor third on top of a major third.(Paragraph 3)

3. A. Major(Paragraphs 4 & 4 NOTE)

4. C. minor third on top of a minor third.(Paragraph 9)

5. B. 2(Paragraph 5)

6. A. 1(Paragraph 7)

7. C. 3(Paragraph 3)

8. D. 4(Paragraph 9)

9. C. both the minor third and the diminished fifth of the triad.(Paragraph 10)

10. A. True(Paragraph 1)

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LESSON TWO

SIXTH CHORDS

OVERVIEW

LESSON DESCRIPTION:In this lesson you will learn to construct sixth chords based on the information contained in a chord symbol.You will also learn how to label sixth chords with the correct chord symbol.

LESSON OBJECTIVE:OBJECTIVE: At the end of this lesson you will be able to construct major and minor sixth

chords. You will also be able to label major and minor sixth chords with thecorrect chord symbol.

CONDITIONS: Given the information in this lesson.

ACTION: You will:

1. Construct major and minor sixth chords.

2. Label major and minor sixth chords with the correct chord symbols.

STANDARDS: IAW the information in this lesson.

INTRODUCTION

A sixth chord is a four-note chord that includes the notes of a triad and the note a major sixth above the rootof that triad. The two types of sixth chords that are most commonly used are major sixth chords and minorsixth chords. The quality of the basic triad (major or minor) does not change when the sixth is added.

PART A - MAJOR SIXTH CHORDS

1. Major Sixth Chord Construction. A major sixth chord is a four-note chord that includes the notes of amajor triad and the note a major sixth above the root of the major triad. Figure 2-1 shows a major sixthchord.

Figure 2-1. Major Sixth Chord Construction.2. Chord Symbol for Major Sixth Chords. The root note name provides the first component of the chord

symbol for a major sixth chord. The root note name is followed by the number "6". In Lesson One youlearned that the major triad does not require any additional quality designator. The same is true for the

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major sixth chord. Only the root note name and the number "6" are needed to make the chord symbolcomplete. Figure 2-2 shows the chord symbol for major sixth chords.

Figure 2-2. Chord Symbol for Major Sixth Chords.

PART B - MINOR SIXTH CHORDS

3. Minor Sixth Chord Construction. A minor sixth chord is a four-note chord that includes the notes of aminor triad and the note a major sixth above the root of the minor triad. Figure 2-3 shows a minor sixthchord.

Figure 2-3. Minor Sixth Chord Construction.4. Chord Symbol for Minor Sixth Chords. The first component of the chord symbol for a minor sixth

chord is the root note name. The root note name is followed by the letters "min" which prescribes theminor third of the chord. The quality designator "min" is followed by the number "6". Figure 2-4shows the chord symbol for minor sixth chords.

Figure 2-4. Chord Symbol for Minor Sixth Chords.NOTE: The quality designator "min6" is used for the minor sixth chord throughout this subcourse. Otherindicators that may be seen in printed music are "-6", "mi6", and "m6".

PART C - AUGMENTED AND DIMINISHED SIXTH CHORDS

5. Augmented Sixth Chords. The augmented sixth chord has a very dissonant quality because the intervalbetween the augmented fifth and the sixth of the chord is a minor second. The augmented sixth chord israrely used and will not be discussed in this subcourse.

6. Diminished Sixth Chords. The notes that make up a diminished sixth chord are the same as the notes ofa diminished seventh chord when the seventh of the diminished seventh chord is spelled enharmonically

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as a major sixth (see Lesson Three, Part E). The chord symbol for the diminished seventh chord is usedrather than the chord symbol for the diminished sixth chord.

LESSON TWO

PRACTICE EXERCISE

a. Add accidentals to the following sixth chords as needed to form the chords indicated by the chordsymbols (Figure 2-5).

Figure 2-5. Add Accidentals to Sixth Chords.b. Fill in the missing notes to complete (in root position) the following major and minor sixth chords

as indicated by the chord symbols (Figure 2-6).

Figure 2-6. Complete Sixth Chords.c. Construct (in root position) major and minor sixth chords as indicated by the following chord

symbols (Figure 2-7).

Figure 2-7. Construct Sixth Chords.

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d. Label the following major and minor sixth chords with the correct chord symbol (Figure 2-8).

Figure 2-8. Label Sixth Chords.

LESSON TWOPRACTICAL EXERCISE

The following items will test your understanding of the material covered in this lesson. There is only onecorrect answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answerkey that follows. If you answer an item incorrectly, review that part of the lesson that contains the portioninvolved.

Figure 1. Question 1.

1. What is the chord symbol for the chord in Figure 1?

A. Bdim6

B. B6

C. BMaj6

D. Bmin6

2. What are the two most commonly used sixth chords?

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A. Major sixth and diminished sixth

B. Diminished sixth and augmented sixth

C. Augmented sixth and minor sixth

D. Major sixth and minor sixth

3. The quality designator "Maj" is included as part of a chord symbol for a major sixth chord.

A. True B. False

Figure 2. Question 4.

4. What is the chord symbol for the chord in Figure 2?

A. D6

B. DMaj6

C. Dmin6

D. Ddim6

5. Which of the following sixth chords is rarely used?

A. Major sixth chord

B. Minor sixth chord

C. Diminished sixth chord

D. Augmented sixth chord

6. A minor sixth chord is a four-note chord that includes

A. the notes of a major triad and the note a minor sixth above the root of the major triad.

B. the notes of a minor triad and the note a major sixth above the root of the minor triad.

C. the notes of a minor triad and the note a minor sixth above the root of the minor triad.

D. the notes of a major triad and the note a major sixth above the root of the major triad.

7. The quality of the basic triad does NOT change when the sixth is added to the triad.

A. True B. False

Figure 3. Questions 8 through 10.

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8. Which chord in Figure 3 is NOT a sixth chord?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

9. Which chord(s) in Figure 3 is/are major sixth chord(s)?

A. 1 and 4

B. 2

C. 3 and 4

D. 4

10. Which chord(s) in Figure 3 is/are minor sixth chord(s)?

A. 2 and 3

B. 1 and 3

C. 3

D. 2

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LESSON TWO ANSWERS TO THE PRACTICE EXERCISE

a.

Figure 2-5. Add Accidentals to Sixth Chords.b.

Figure 2-6. Complete Sixth Chords.c.

Figure 2-7. Construct Sixth Chords.d.

Figure 2-8. Label Sixth Chords.

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LESSON TWOPRACTICAL EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. B. B6(Paragraph 2)

2. D. Major sixth and minor sixth chords(Introduction)

3. B. False(Paragraph 2)

4. C. Dmin6(Paragraph 4)

5. D. Augmented sixth chord(Paragraph 5)

6. B. the notes of a minor triad and the note a major sixth above the root of the minor triad.(Paragraph 3)

7. A. True(Introduction)

8. B. 2(Introduction, Paragraphs 1 & 3)

9. A. 1 and 4(Paragraph 1)

10. C. 3(Paragraph 3)

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LESSON THREE

SEVENTH CHORDS

OVERVIEW

LESSON DESCRIPTION:In this lesson you will learn to construct seventh chords based on the information contained in a chordsymbol. You will also learn how to label seventh chords with the correct chord symbol.

LESSON OBJECTIVE:OBJECTIVE: At the end of this lesson, you will be able to construct dominant seventh,

minor seventh, minor seventh (flat five), augmented seventh, diminishedseventh, major seventh, and minor/major seventh chords. You will also beable to label each type of seventh chord with the correct chord symbol.

CONDITIONS: Given the information in this lesson.

ACTION: You will:

1. Construct seventh chords.

2. Label seventh chords with the correct chord symbols.

STANDARDS: IAW the information in this lesson.

INTRODUCTION

A seventh chord is a four-note chord that includes the notes of a triad and the note a minor, major, ordiminished seventh above the root of that triad. The seventh is the most common extension of a triad. Themost common seventh chord is the dominant seventh chord. The minor seventh chord is also frequentlyused. The quality of the basic triad (major, minor, augmented, or diminished) does not change when theseventh is added to the triad.

The minor seventh is the most frequently used extension of the seventh and is written without a qualitydesignator. When the number “7” appears in a chord symbol without a quality designator, it refers to thenote that is the interval of a minor seventh above the root of the triad. The minor seventh occurs on majortriads, minor triads, augmented triads, and diminished triads.

The major seventh occurs on major triads and minor triads. The major seventh requires the use of a “Maj”quality designator.

The minor seventh can also be lowered by one half-step (which forms a diminished seventh) requiring theuse of a “dim” quality designator. The diminished seventh occurs on diminished triads.

PART A - DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDS

1. Dominant Seventh Chord Construction. A dominant seventh chord is a four-note chord that includes thenotes of a major triad and the note a minor seventh above the root of the major triad. Figure 3-1 shows adominant seventh chord.

Figure 3-1.Dominant Seventh Chord Construction.

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NOTE: The dominant seventh chord is sometimes referred to as a major/minor seventh chord; however, thechord symbol is the same as described in paragraph 2 below.

2. Chord Symbol for Dominant Seventh Chords. Musicians have developed a shorthand way of writingthe chord symbol for dominant seventh chords. The root note name provides the first component of thechord symbol. The root note name is followed by the number “7.” The major triad and the minorseventh extension are understood and require no further qualification. Figure 3-2 shows the chordsymbol for dominant seventh chords.

Figure 3-2. Chord Symbol for Dominant Seventh Chords.NOTE: Whenever a chord symbol consists of only the root note name followed by the number “7”, thechord is always understood to be a dominant seventh chord.

PART B - MINOR SEVENTH CHORDS

3. Minor Seventh Chord Construction. A minor seventh chord is a four-note chord that includes the notesof a minor triad and the note a minor seventh above the root of the minor triad. Figure 3-3 shows aminor seventh chord.

Figure 3-3. Minor Seventh Chord Construction.4. Chord Symbol for Minor Seventh Chords. The root note name provides the first component of the

chord symbol. The root note name is followed by the quality designator “min” that describes the minorthird of the chord. The quality designator “min” is followed by the number “7.” The seventh of thechord is minor and requires no further qualification. Figure 3-4 shows the chord symbol for minorseventh chords.

Figure 3-4. Chord Symbol for Minor Seventh Chords.

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NOTE: The quality designator “min7” is used throughout this subcourse. The symbol “-7” is often seen inprinted music.

PART C - MINOR SEVENTH (FLAT FIVE) CHORDS

5. Minor Seventh (Flat Five) Chord Construction. The minor seventh (flat five) chord is a four-note chordthat includes the notes of a diminished triad and the note a minor seventh above the root of thediminished triad. Figure 3-5 shows a minor seventh (flat five) chord.

Figure 3-5. Minor Seventh (Flat Five)Chord Construction.6. Chord Symbol for Minor Seventh (Flat Five) Chords. The root note name provides the first component

of the chord symbol. The root note name is followed by the quality designator “min” that prescribes theminor third of the chord. The quality designator “min” is followed by the number “7.” The seventh isminor and requires no further qualification. The number “7” is followed by an additional qualitydesignator “flat5.” The symbol “flat5” is placed in parentheses. “(flat5)” prescribes the diminished fifthof the chord. When a second quality designator is used, it must be separated from the first qualitydesignator. The second qualifier (and any following qualifiers) is placed in parentheses. Figure 3-6shows the chord symbol for minor seventh (flat five) chords.

Figure 3-6. Chord Symbol for Minor Seventh(Flat Five) Chords.NOTE: The quality designator “min7(flat5)” is used throughout this subcourse. The minor seventh (flatfive) chord is sometimes called the half diminished chord. When this occurs, the superscripted symbol “Ø” isinserted between the root note name and the number “7.” A Gmin7(flat5) chord would be written GØ 7.

PART D - AUGMENTED SEVENTH CHORDS

7. Augmented Seventh Chord Construction. The augmented seventh chord is a four-note chord thatincludes the notes of an augmented triad and the note a minor seventh above the root of the augmentedtriad. Figure 3-7 shows an augmented seventh chord.

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Figure 3-7. Augmented Seventh Chord Construction.8. Chord Symbol for Augmented Seventh Chords. The root note name provides the first component of the

chord symbol. The root note name is followed by the quality designator “Aug” that prescribes theaugmented fifth of the chord. The quality designator “Aug” is followed by the number “7.” Theseventh is minor and requires no further qualification. Figure 3-8 shows the chord symbol foraugmented seventh chords.

Figure 3-8. Chord Symbol for Augmented Seventh Chords.NOTE: The quality designator “Aug7” is used throughout this subcourse. Other indicators that may beseen in printed music are “7(+5)” and “7(#5).”

PART E - DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORDS

9. Diminished Seventh Chord Construction. The diminished seventh chord is a four-note chord thatincludes the notes of a diminished triad and the note a diminished seventh above the root of thediminished triad. Figure 3-9 shows a diminished seventh chord.

Figure 3-9. Diminished Seventh Chord Construction.NOTE: The seventh of a diminished seventh chord is often spelled enharmonically as a major sixth.

10. Chord Symbol for Diminished Seventh Chords. The root note name provides the first component of thechord symbol. The root note name is followed by the quality designator “dim” which prescribes theminor third, diminished fifth, and diminished seventh of the chord. The quality designator “dim” isfollowed by “7.” Figure 3-10 shows the chord symbol for diminished seventh chords.

Figure 3-10. Chord Symbol for Diminished Seventh Chords.

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NOTE: The quality designator “dim7” is used throughout this subcourse. The diminished seventh chord issometimes called the fully diminished seventh chord. When this occurs, the superscripted symbol “ 0 “ isinserted between the root note name and the number “7.” A Gdim7 chord would be written as a G0 7 chord.

11. The Three Diminished Seventh Chords. The notes of a diminished seventh chord may be spelledenharmonically. Since any note of a diminished seventh chord may be spelled enharmonically, there areonly three diminished chords: Cdim7, C#dim7, and Ddim7. The notes of these three diminishedseventh chords can be arranged in any order to form other diminished seventh chords. Cdim7 has thesame notes as Eflatdim7, F#dim7, and Adim7. C#dim7 has the same notes as Edim7, Gdim7 andBflatdim7. Ddim7 has the same notes as Fdim7, Aflatdim7, and Bdim7. Figure 3-11 shows the threediminished seventh chords.

Figure 3-11. Three Diminished Seventh Chords.

PART F - MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDS

12. Major Seventh Chord Construction. A major seventh chord is a four-note chord that includes the notesof a major triad and the note a major seventh above the root of the major triad. Figure 3-12 shows amajor seventh chord.

Figure 3-12. Major Seventh Chord Construction.13. Chord Symbol for Major Seventh Chords. The root note name provides the first component of the chord

symbol. The root note name is followed by the quality designator “Maj” that prescribes the majorseventh of the chord. The quality designator “Maj” is followed by the number “7.” “Maj” qualifies theseventh of the chord since the major triad does not require a quality designator. The major seventh in achord symbol must always be qualified because the more commonly used minor seventh is writtenwithout a quality designator. Figure 3-13 shows the chord symbol for major seventh chords.

Figure 3-13. Chord Symbol for Major Seventh Chords.NOTE: The quality designator “Maj7” is used throughout this subcourse. Other indicators which may beseen in printed music include: “M7”, “Ma7”, “(+7)”, and “(#7).”

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PART G - MINOR/MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDS

14. Minor/Major Seventh Chord Construction. A minor/major seventh chord is a four-note chord thatincludes the notes of a minor triad and the note a major seventh above the root of the minor triad.Figure 3-14 shows a minor/major seventh chord.

Figure 3-14. Minor/Major Seventh Chord Construction.15. Chord Symbol for Minor/Major Seventh Chords. The root note name provides the first component of

the chord symbol. The root note name is followed by the quality designator “min” that prescribes theminor third of the chord. The quality designator “min” is followed by the quality designator “Maj7” thatprescribes the major seventh of the chord. “Maj7” is placed in parentheses since it is a second qualitydesignator. Figure 3-15 shows the chord symbol for minor/major seventh chords.

Figure 3-15. Chord Symbols for Minor/Major Seventh Chords.

LESSON THREE PRACTICE EXERCISE

a. Add the missing accidentals to the following chords to form the seventh chords indicated by thechord symbols (Figure 3-16).

Figure 3-16. Add Accidentals to Seventh Chords.

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b. Fill in the missing notes to complete, in root position, the following seventh chords as indicated bythe chord symbols (Figure 3-17).

Figure 3-17. Complete Seventh Chords.c. Construct, in root position, the following seventh chords as indicated by the chord symbols (Figure

3-18).

Figure 3-18. Construct Seventh Chords.

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d. Label the following seventh chords with the correct chord symbol (Figure 3-19).

Figure 3-19. Label Seventh Chords.

LESSON THREE

PRACTICAL EXERCISE

The following items will test your understanding of the material covered in this lesson there is only onecorrect answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answerkey that follows. If you answer an item incorrectly, review that part of the lesson that contains the portioninvolved.

1. The most common seventh chord is the

A. minor seventh chord.

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B. major seventh chord.

C. augmented seventh chord.

D. dominant seventh chord.

2. What chord member(s) does the term “major” qualify in a seventh chord?

A. Fifth

B. Third

C. Seventh

D. Root

Figure 1. Question 3.

3. What is the chord symbol for the chord in Figure 1?

A. DflatDom7

B. Dflatmin(Maj7)

C. DflatMaj(min7)

D. Dflat7

Figure 2. Questions 4 through 7.

4. Which chord in Figure 2 is a diminished seventh chord?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

5. Which chord in Figure 2 is a minor/major seventh chord?

A. 1

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B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

6. Which chord in Figure 2 is a dominant seventh chord?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

7. Which chord in Figure 2 is a minor seventh chord?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

8. What is the understood quality of the seventh when it appears in a chord symbol without a qualitydesignator?

A. Minor

B. Major

C. Diminished

D. Augmented

9. The seventh of an augmented seventh chord is a/an

A. major seventh.

B. minor seventh.

C. diminished seventh.

D. augmented seventh.

10. Which notes of a diminished seventh chord may be spelled enharmonically?

A. Third and fifth

B. Fifth and seventh

C. Third and seventh

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D. Any note of a diminished seventh chord may be spelled enharmonically.

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LESSON THREE ANSWERS TO THE PRACTICE EXERCISE

a.

Figure 3-16. Add Accidentals to Seventh Chords.b.

Figure 3-17. Complete Seventh Chords.c.

Figure 3-18. Construct Seventh Chords.

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d.

Figure 3-19. Label Seventh Chords.

LESSON THREEPRACTICAL EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. D. dominant seventh chord.(Introduction)

2. C. Seventh(Introduction & Paragraph 13)

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3. D. Dflat7(Paragraph 2)

4. C. 3(Paragraph 9)

5. A. 1(Paragraph 14)

6. D. 4(Paragraph 1)

7. B. 2(Paragraph 3)

8. A. Minor(Introduction)

9. B. minor seventh.(Paragraphs 7 & 8)

10. D. Any note of a diminished seventh chord may be spelled enharmonically.(Paragraph 11)

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LESSON FOUR

EXTENDED CHORDS

OVERVIEW

LESSON DESCRIPTION:In this lesson you will learn to construct extended chords based on the information contained in a chordsymbol. You will also learn to label extended chords with the correct chord symbol.

LESSON OBJECTIVE:OBJECTIVE: At the end of this lesson, you will be able to construct extended chords using

extensions of the ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth.

CONDITIONS: Given the information in this lesson.

ACTIONS: You will:

1. Construct extended chords from chord symbols.

2. Label extended chords with the correct chord symbols.

STANDARDS: IAW the information in this lesson.

INTRODUCTION

The major and minor sixth chords and the major, minor, augmented, and diminished seventh chords whichwere discussed in the previous lessons can be extended further by stacking notes above the chord to form theintervals of a ninth, eleventh, or thirteenth above the root of the chord. The quality of the basic sixth orseventh chord (major, minor, augmented, or diminished) does not change when extensions are added.

PART A - EXTENDED CHORD SYMBOLS

1. Extended Chord Symbol Guidelines. As chords are built using major, perfect, and/or altered extensionsof the ninth, the eleventh, and the thirteenth, the chord symbols can easily become cluttered and unclear.Here is a simple way to write chord symbols for chords with major, perfect, and/or altered extensions.

a. After the root note name and any necessary quality designator, write the number for the highestunaltered extension.

b. A second quality designator (such as “Maj”) and/or any altered extensions (such as #9) are placed inparentheses.

c. Multiple altered extensions or a second quality designator (such as flat5) with multiple alteredextensions, will also be placed in parentheses. The altered extensions will be stacked within thesame set of parentheses in descending order with the highest extension on the top.

d. Figure 4-1 shows an example of an extended chord symbol with compound quality designators andaltered extensions. The chord symbol in Figure 4-1 shows the extensions that have been added to aGmin7( flat5) chord. The Gmin7( flat5) chord has been extended by the ninth, the eleventh, and the

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flat thirteenth. The ninth and the eleventh are unaltered. The eleventh is shown in the chordsymbol because it is the highest unaltered extension of the chord. The ( flat5) is a second qualitydesignator and is placed in parentheses. The chord has been extended by the flat thirteenth ( flat13)which must also be shown in parentheses since it is an altered extension. Both the ( flat5) and the( flat13) are placed in the same set of parentheses in descending order.

Figure 4-1. Extended Chord Symbol.

PART B - EXTENSIONS

2. Extensions of the Ninth. The ninth chord is a five-note chord that includes the notes of a sixth orseventh chord and the note a ninth above the root of a sixth or seventh chord. The ninth is the mostcommon extension used on sixth and seventh chords. The major ninth is used on the majority of ninthchords. When the major ninth is added to any seventh chord, you can simplify the chord symbol byreplacing the number “7” with the number “9.” Extensions of the augmented ninth and minor ninth areused only on dominant seventh type chords. The augmented ninth (#9) and the minor ninth ( flat9) arealways placed in parentheses since they are altered extensions.

NOTE: The major ninth is often referred to as the natural ninth. The augmented ninth is often referred toas the sharp ninth; the minor ninth is often referred to as the flat ninth. Ninth chord s that contain the flatninth or sharp ninth are referred to as altered ninth chords.

3. Extensions of the Eleventh. An eleventh chord is a six-note chord that includes the notes contained in aninth chord and the note a perfect eleventh or an augmented eleventh above the root of a ninth chord.The perfect eleventh is used with chords containing a minor third. The augmented eleventh is used withchords containing a major third. Chord extensions of the perfect eleventh and the augmented eleventhare used less frequently than chord extensions of the ninth. When the perfect eleventh is added to anyninth chord, you can simplify the chord symbol by replacing the number “9” with the number “11”. Theaugmented eleventh (#11) is always placed in parentheses since it is an altered extension.

NOTE: The perfect eleventh is often referred to as the natural eleventh. The augmented eleventh is oftenreferred to as the sharp eleventh.

4. A thirteenth chord is a seven-note chord that includes the notes contained in an eleventh chord and thenote a thirteenth above the root of the chord. The major thirteenth occurs on major ninth (augmentedeleventh) chords, dominant ninth (augmented eleventh) chords, and minor thirteenth chords. The minorthirteenth occurs on dominant seventh (augmented eleventh, altered ninth) chords, minor eleventh (flatfive) chords, and diminished eleventh chords. The extension of the thirteenth (major or minor) is theleast common extension. When the major thirteenth is added to any eleventh chord, you can simplifythe chord symbol by replacing the number “11” with the number “13”. The minor thirteenth ( flat13) isalways placed in parentheses since it is an altered extension.

NOTE: The minor thirteenth is often referred to as the flat thirteenth.

5. Extended Chord Chart. The chart in Figure 4-2 shows all of the chords that have been discussed in theprevious lessons and their most common extensions. The dominant seventh chord is the most versatile

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chord and uses the greatest number of extensions. The chords and chord symbols shown in Figure 4-2are the most common; however, other combinations of chord extensions are possible.

Figure 4-2. Extended Chord Chart.

PART C - INTERPRETING EXTENDED CHORD SYMBOLS

6. Interpreting Extended Chord Symbols. The following paragraphs will help you to interpret extendedchord symbols.

a. Whenever a chord symbol consists of only the root note name followed by the number “9” or “13”,the chord is understood to be a dominant chord.

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b. When the quality designator “Maj” appears in a chord symbol such as min(Maj7), min(Maj9), ormin(Maj11), it prescribes only the major seventh of the chord.

c. When the number “11” is used without a quality designator; it always refers to the perfect eleventh.Although the eleventh may appear as the only number in a chord symbol, you should remember thatthe seventh and the ninth are understood members of the chord and do not need to be written out inthe chord symbol.

7. Enharmonic Chord Spellings. In printed music, enharmonic spellings are often used to spell thediminished seventh and higher altered extensions to avoid writing double sharps, double flats, or mixedsharps and flats within the same chord. Enharmonic spellings make notation easier to read. In thissubcourse we have used harmonic spellings of chords rather than enharmonic spellings to simplifylearning the chord structures. You should not hesitate to use enharmonic spellings in your personalmusic writing. Figure 4-3 shows some examples of the harmonic spellings of chords and theirenharmonic spellings.

Figure 4-3. Enharmonic Spellings.

LESSON FOUR

PRACTICE EXERCISE

a. Add accidentals to the following chords to form the extended chords indicated by the chordsymbols (Figure 4-4).

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d. Label the following extended chords with the correct chord symbol (Figure 4-7).

Figure 4-7. Label Extended Chords.

LESSON FOURPRACTICAL EXERCISE

The following items will test your understanding of the material covered in this lesson. There is only onecorrect answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answerkey that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, review that part of the lesson which contains theportion involved.

NOTE: Refer to the chart in Figure 4-2 to answer questions 1 through 4.

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1. The extensions “ flat9” and “#9” can be used on which of the following chords?

A. Major seventh

B. Minor seventh

C. Dominant seventh

D. Minor/major seventh

2. Which of the following extensions can be used on a major sixth chord?

A. Ninth

B. Thirteenth

C. Eleventh

D. Flat ninth

3. The extension “#11” is used on which of the following types of chords?

A. Minor seventh

B. Minor sixth

C. Major seventh

D. Diminished seventh

4. Which of the following extensions can be used on minor sixth chords?

A. Ninth and sharp eleventh

B. Flat ninth and sharp ninth

C. Flat ninth and eleventh

D. Ninth and eleventh

Figure. Questions 5 through 8.

5. The chord symbol for the chord in measure 1 of the above Figure is

A. E9.

B. Emaj9.

C. Emaj7(9).

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D. Emin(Maj9).

6. The chord symbol for the chord in measure 2 of the above Figure is

A. Gdim9.

B. Gmin11( flat5).

C. Gmin9( flat5).

D. Gdim11.

7. The chord symbol for the chord in measure 3 of the above Figure is

A.

B.

C.

D.

8. The chord symbol for the chord in measure 4 of the above Figure is

A.

B.

C.

D.

9. Enharmonic chord spellings are often used to avoid writing double sharps, double flats, and mixedsharps and flats within the same chord.

A. True B. False

10. Multiple altered extensions are stacked within the same set of parentheses in ascending order with thelowest extension on the top.

A. True B. False

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LESSON FOURANSWERS TO THE PRACTICE EXERCISE

a.

Figure 4-4. Add Accidentals to Extended Chords.b.

Figure 4-5. Complete Extended Chords.c.

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Figure 4-6. Construct Extended Chords.d.

Figure 4-7. Label Extended Chords.

LESSON FOURPRACTICAL EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. C. Dominant seventh(Paragraph 2, Figure 4-2)

2. A. Ninth

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(Paragraph 2, Figure 4-2)

3. C. Major seventh(Paragraph 3, Figure 4-2)

4. D. Ninth and eleventh(Paragraphs 2 & 3, Figure 4-2)

5. B. EMaj9.(Figure 4-2)

6. C. Gmin9( flat5).(Figure 4-2)

7. A.(Figure 4-2)

8. D. A flatMaj13(#11).(Figure 4-2)

9. A. True(Paragraph 7)

10. B. False(Paragraph 1c)

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LESSON FIVE

LESS COMMON CHORDS

OVERVIEW

LESSON DESCRIPTION:In this lesson you will learn to construct less common chords based on the information contained in a chordsymbol. You will also learn to label less common chords with the correct chord symbol.

LESSON OBJECTIVE:OBJECTIVE: At the end of this lesson, you will be able to construct suspended fourth

chords, specified bass note chords, added note chords, and altered chords.You will also be able to label each type of chord with the correct chordsymbol.

CONDITIONS: Given the information in this lesson.

ACTIONS: You will:

1. Construct less common chords.

2. Label less common chords with the correct chord symbols.

STANDARDS: IAW the information in this lesson.

INTRODUCTION

Any combination of notes may be (and probably has been) used together. Some composers and arrangerswill even go so far as to make up their own chord symbols in order to achieve a desired sound. Specializedchord symbols have been developed to communicate less common chords to musicians. There are manypossible specialized chord symbols. This lesson discusses suspended fourth chords, specified bass notechords, added note chords, and altered chords.

PART A- SUSPENDED FOURTH CHORDS

1. Suspended Fourth Chord Construction. In a suspended fourth chord, the third of the chord is replacedby the note a perfect fourth above the root of the chord. The suspended fourth is most commonly usedon major triads and dominant seventh chords. The suspended fourth may also be used with dominantninth, major sixth, major six/nine, major seventh, and major ninth chords. Figure 5-1 shows a dominantseventh suspended fourth chord.

Figure 5-1. Dominant Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord Construction.

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2. Chord Symbol for Suspended Fourth Chords. The root note name provides the first component of thechord symbol. The root note name is followed by the indicator for the chord extension (6, 7, Maj7, 9,Maj9, or 9/6). The indicator for the chord extension is followed by the quality designator “sus4.” Thesymbol “sus4” is not separated from the rest of the chord symbol by the use of parentheses. Figure 5-2shows the chord symbol for suspended fourth chords.

Figure 5-2. Chord Symbol for Suspended Fourth Chords.NOTE: The quality designator “sus4” is used throughout this subcourse. If the symbol “sus” is present ina chord symbol without any number, it is usually interpreted as a “sus4.” It is possible to construct a“sus2” chord (the major second replacing the major third as a chord tone of a major triad) but this rarelyoccurs.

PART B- SPECIFIED BASS NOTE CHORDS

3. Specified Bass Note Chord Construction. A chord with a bass note other than the root can beconstructed by placing any chord over any specified bass note. The bass note can be a chord member,which indicates that the chord is to be played in inversion. The specified bass note can also be a notethat is not a member of the chord. In the first measure of Figure 5-3, the specified bass note C is a chordmember of the F6 chord. In the second measure of Figure 5-3, the specified bass note C is not a chordmember of the G major chord. The blackened notes represent the specified bass notes.

Figure 5-3. Specified Bass Note Construction.4. Chord Symbol for Specified Bass Note Chords. The normal practice when writing chord symbols for

jazz or popular music is to express the chords in root position. Unless otherwise stated, the bass notewill always be the root of the chord. When a bass note other than the root of the chord is required, it isnecessary to specify that note in the chord symbol. The chord symbol for a chord with a specified bassnote is notated by indicating the desired chord symbol over the desired bass note. The chord symbol andbass note are separated by the use of a diagonal slash. Figure 5-4 shows the chord symbol for chordswith specified bass notes. The blackened notes in each chord represent the specified bass notes.

Figure 5-4. Chord Symbols for Chords with

Specified Bass Notes.

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NOTE: The use of a diagonal slash to separate a chord symbol from its specified bass note is usedthroughout this subcourse. Other methods of notation may be seen in some printed music. A horizontalslash may be used to separate the chord symbol from the specified bass note, or the specified bass note maybe separated from the chord symbol by the use of parentheses such as “G7(C Bass).”

PART C - ADDED NOTE CHORDS

5. Added Note Chord Construction. Added note chords (sometimes referred to as add chords) areconstructed by adding the note (or notes) indicated in parentheses to the basic chord indicated in thechord symbol.

6. Chord Symbol for Added Note Chords. The chord symbol for an added note chord is the desired chordsymbol followed by the added note. The added note is separated from the chord symbol by the use ofparentheses, and is expressed as either the interval above the root of the chord or as the letter name ofthe added note. Figure 5-5 shows the chord symbol for added note chords. In the first and secondmeasures of Figure 5-5, the added notes are expressed as intervals (9th and 11th) above the root of thechords. In the third and fourth measures of Figure 5-5, the added notes are expressed as letter names (Eflat and D). The blackened notes in each chord represent the added notes.

Figure 5-5. Chord Symbol for Added Note Chords.NOTE: Many chords can be analyzed in different ways. It would be possible to look at the first chord inFigure 5-5 and analyze it as a C9 chord, or as a CMaj9 chord with the seventh omitted. Composers andarrangers use added note chords when they want a very specific chord sound. If a composer or arrangerwanted the sound of a C9 chord, but specifically did not want the sound of the seventh, they might expressthe chord as an added note chord.

PART D - ALTERED CHORDS

7. Altered Chord Construction. All of the chords that have been presented in this subcourse may bewritten with one or more altered notes. Any note of any chord may be altered. However, altering theroot can completely change the chord and the chord symbol. Altered chords are constructed by firstconstructing the basic chord and then altering the note (or notes) indicated in the parentheses.

8. Chord Symbols for Altered Chords. The chord symbol for an altered chord is the chord symbol for thebasic chord followed by the altered note (or notes) expressed as interval(s) above the root of the chord.The altered note (or notes) are enclosed within parentheses. Figure 5-6 shows chord symbols for somepossible altered chords. The blackened notes in each chord represent the altered notes. There are manyother possibilities.

Figure 5-6. Chord Symbols for Altered Chords.

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NOTE: Altered chords are written by composers and arrangers to communicate the precise desired chordsound to the player. As chords become more complicated, they can often be correctly analyzed in two ormore different ways. The important thing to remember when writing less common or unusual chord symbolsis to clearly communicate the necessary information to the players.

LESSON FIVE

PRACTICE EXERCISE

a. Add accidentals to the following less common chords as needed to form the chords indicated by thechord symbol (Figure 5-7).

Figure 5-7. Add Accidentals to Less Common Chords.b. Fill in the missing notes to complete the following less common chords as indicated by the chord

symbols (Figure 5-8).

Figure 5-8. Complete Less Common Chords.c. Construct the following less common chords as indicated by the chord symbols (Figure 5-9).

Figure 5-9. Construct Less Common Chords.

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d. Label the following less common chords with the correct chord symbol (Figure 5-10).

Figure 5-10. Label Less Common Chords.

LESSON FIVEPRACTICAL EXERCISE

The following items will test your understanding of the material covered in this lesson there is only onecorrect answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answerkey that follows. If you answer an item incorrectly, review that part of the lesson that contains the portioninvolved.

1. Which chord member does a suspended fourth replace?

A. Third

B. Fifth

C. Seventh

D. Fourth

2. A specified bass note must be a chord member.

A. True B. False

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3. Added note chords allow composers to omit unwanted chord tones and specify a more exact chordsound.

A. True B. False

4. Altering which note of a chord can completely change the chord and the chord symbol?

A. Seventh

B. Fifth

C. Root

D. Third

5. The added note is expressed in a chord symbol as either an interval or as the letter name of the addednote.

A. True B. False

Figure. Questions 7 through 10.

6. The chord symbol for the chord in measure 1 of the above Figure is

A. B flatmin7( flat5)

B. B flatdim7

C. B flat7( flat5)

D. B flat7

7. The chord symbol for the chord in measure 2 of the above Figure is

A. A7/E

B. A7(add E)

C. A7(add 5)

D. A7/5

8. The chord symbol for the chord in measure 3 of the above Figure is

A. GMaj7sus4

B. G7sus4

C. G6sus4

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D. G7(add 4)

9. The chord symbol for the chord in measure 4 of the above Figure is

A. Fmin(add 11)

B. F(add 11)

C. Fmin(add 9)

D. F(add 9)

10. The suspended fourth can be used on which of the following types of chords?

A. Minor seventh chords

B. Dominant seventh chords

C. Diminished seventh chords

D. Minor sixth chords

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LESSON FIVEANSWERS TO THE PRACTICE EXERCISE

a.

Figure 5-7. Add Accidentals to Less Common Chords.b.

Figure 5-8. Complete Less Common Chords.c.

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Figure 5-9. Construct Less Common Chordsd.

Figure 5-10.Label Less Common Chords.

LESSON FIVEPRACTICAL EXERCISE

ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK

Item Correct Answer and Feedback

1. A. Third(Paragraph 1)

2. B. False(Paragraph 3)

3. A. True(Paragraph 6 NOTE)

4. C. Root(Paragraph 7)

5. A. True(Paragraph 6)

6. C. B flat7( flat5)(Paragraph 8)

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7. A. A7/E(Paragraph 4)

8. B. G7sus4(Paragraph 2)

9. D. F(add 9)(Paragraph 6)

10. B. Dominant seventh chords(Paragraph 1)