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JAZZ HARMONY FROM THE BOTTOM UP Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 3 

The Defining Musical Characteristics of the American Standard Song . 3 

Variation in the Interpretation of Standards .................................................... 4 

The Evolution of the Harmonic Materials of the Standard Song .............. 5 

Fakebooks ......................................................................................................................... 7 

Memorizing Standards ................................................................................................. 8 

Bass Function ................................................................................................................. 11 

The Qualities of Emotion in Various Harmonies ............................................ 14 

The Mathematics Underlying the Scale Systems That Shape the Harmony That Shapes the Bass Line. ................................................................. 16 

The Overtone Series .......................................................................................................... 17 

Just Intonation ..................................................................................................................... 17 

Pythagorean Tuning, Equal Temperament, Circle of Fifths, Chromatic Scale ................................................................................................................................................... 18 

Summary of factors involved in arranging and improvising jazz bass lines: .................................................................................................................................. 19 

Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 20 

The Harmonic Materials (and Their Terminology) in Detail .................... 21 

The Seven Scale-tone Seventh Chords ...................................................................... 22 

Nature and Role of Each Modal Variant of Each Degree of the Scale in Detail ....................................................................................................................................... 23 

The Five Non-Scale Tones of the Major Scale ......................................................... 30 

Bass Line Paradigms From Simple to Complex .............................................. 35 

The Main Modules ............................................................................................................... 36 

One-Move Modules ............................................................................................................. 36 

I, IV, V: The Ultimate Simplicity ................................................................................... 37 

The II-V-I Cadence ............................................................................................................ 41 

I-VI-II-V: The Turnaround .............................................................................................. 43 

Diatonic Scalar Modules: ................................................................................................. 44 

Minor Progression Modules ............................................................................................. 46 

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Moves By Steps Other than Diatonic 5ths, Fourths, Minor 2nds, and Downward Minor 3rds. ...................................................................................................... 47 

Turnarounds .......................................................................................................................... 49 

A Syllabus of Chord Substitutions and Alterations ...................................... 57 

Nuances in the Cycle of Fifth Progression Within a Key ............................ 59 

Putting Analysis to Work: Progressions, Modules, and Substitutions in the Bass Lines of Specific Standard Songs. ................................................ 60 

Afterword ....................................................................................................................... 106 

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Introduction Of all of the elements of music, melody is the most resistant to theoretical analysis. Great melodies have been fashioned from sparse or unpromising materials, and great performers have elevated trite tunes to the level of high art. No one can fully explain these phenomena. In what is to follow, the melodic character of the bass lines appropriated from the rich catalog of the American Standard Song for use by jazz improvisers (as they evolved in the mid-20th century) is to be the focus of inquiry. Unlike melodies which are designed to catch and hold the listener's attention through establishing and playing with expectations, bass lines are characterized more by a rational simplicity required for their functionality as tonal and rhythmic basis for the harmonic colors, rhythmic complexity, and melodic intricacy which they support. Although this very simplicity (and subservience to other musical priorities) makes them more amenable to analysis, their success is still partially due to their melodic character. Their analysis will, therefore, often take the path into that land of mystery and magic where the secrets of melody reside. The Defining Musical Characteristics of the American Standard Song First, let’s look at the big picture. The most important relevant large musical generalities are: form, rhythm, harmony, and melody. Let's look at them in that order as they apply to the American Standard Song and the Jazz Classics which follow that model. Form: Standard songs are constructed of even multiples of bar lengths: individual melodic phrase components usually fit within 2 bars; the second 2 bar phrase echoes or continues the initial melodic phrase; the next 4 bars completes the momentum established by the first 4 bars and these 8 bars together constitute the first section (designated the "A." section) of the song. The following sections—usually 3 in number—are constructed similarly, but may be either a repeat of the A section or a new contrasting section. Most song forms are: AABA, ABAB, ABAC, ABA, ABC. Some have 4 or 16 bar sections and some have "tags" of 2 or 4 bars. Rhythm: Rhythm is usually organized within a time signature of 4/4 or 3/4, or less often, cut time, 2/4, 6/8, or 6/4. Since the genre was introduced as dance music, Standards are generally (and for our purposes, exclusively) meant to be played in strict tempo except when a vocalist requires rubato for dramatic effect. Since our focus here is on bass lines, the intricacies of the drum part will be neglected. The basic rhythmic function of the bass is to play every beat or every other beat in duple signatures and the strong beats in triple signatures. Harmony: Standards (with very rare exceptions) begin and end in the same key. They are organized around dominant seventh chord resolutions to either major or minor chords with diminished chords and other non-key chords utilized as passing chords. Chord duration is

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rarely less than 2 beats, most often 2 or 4 beats, quite often 2 bars, occasionally 4 bars, but almost never more except in the case of "modal" songs in which they can be 8, or even 16, bars. Melody: Unlike the harmony, there is no requirement for the melody to begin and end on the same tone. The harmony is required to be congruent with the melody so that the song may be easily singable, so that in an important sense, the melody shapes the harmony. Standards are not contrapuntal, so any other melodic material is the result either of voice-leading from chord to chord or the invention of an arranger or accompanist. Bass lines, although more crucial to the articulation of the harmony than inner lines, belong in this category. As we will see later, bass lines and inner lines can sometimes be interchangeable. Variation in the Interpretation of Standards Since classical music performed from written music is expected to be performed exactly as written, why aren't Standards and Jazz Classics held to the same requirement? The most important reason is that Standards are meant to be sung and meant to be learnable by oral transmission. A second related reason is that they are meant to be realizable by widely varying accompaniments. Often these accompaniments are re-arrangements or improvisations by working musicians with the nuts-and-bolts understanding of musical composition not required of instrumentalists and vocalists performing in the classical tradition. But there are other characteristics of Standards requiring slight to extensive revision in performance stemming from the very way Standards are produced. The first (and universal) divide begins with the original sheet music. The original composer's manuscripts vary greatly from illegible palimpsests or oral instructions to detailed orchestral scores. Although many Standards were composed by Tin Pan Alley tune-smiths specifically for the pop song market, the more sophisticated ones were often conceived in a theatre orchestra, movie score, or big band context. Whatever their source, all went through the homogenizing process of being reduced to commercial sheet music that could be played by amateur or semi-professional musicians. Pop song sheet music gives two versions of the harmony: the note-for-note solo piano realization, and chord symbols. Chord symbols were originally intended as guides for plectra (guitar or banjo) so that they could be strummed continuously as quarter notes so as to do the least violence to the consonance of the rest of the ensemble, or if a solo accompaniment, support a vocalized melody. These are often at odds with, or incomplete representations of, the composer's intent which is usually more nearly realized in the piano score. Even here (since the preparation of sheet music to fit market requirements was left to others) the fine detail of the composer's original intent was often lost in translation. To add to the confusion, many songs of the era became big hits in conjunction with particular arrangements, the details of which were picked up by commercial musicians, or

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found their way into spin-off stock band arrangements. Thus, in general, it's a fool's errand to agonize over what the "real" or "original" chords to standards are. Nevertheless, over the years these songs have all evolved a few main lines of harmonic realization that are in general use by improvising musicians who learn and interpret them in the oral tradition of jazz according to the style they're working in. Each of these harmonic patterns creates its own distinct bass line. For better or worse, the original sheet music provides the standard against which all later revisions must be measured. The needs of the jazz improviser add yet another layer to the evolution of standard's bass lines. Perhaps this is a good point to make clear that what I mean by the bass line is not the ubiquitous quarter-note walking bass characteristic of all jazz from the thirties until the introduction of Latin and rock bass patterns. That is a subject unto itself much explicated in bass methods. What I mean by the bass line is the more abstract succession of bottom notes to harmonies that change seldom more often than 2 beats, and seldom less often than 4 bars. If in improvising a walking bass line, the bassist fails to include these notes at times that make clear the succession of harmonies, then bass function has not been fulfilled. The Evolution of the Harmonic Materials of the Standard Song This is not the place for a detailed historical examination of the evolution of the harmonic devices characteristic of Standards, but a few observations will be useful to give a context to what follows. It must be understood that many exceptions can be found to the generalities contained in these observations. In the pre-WWI era, popular songs used essentially the same materials found in folk songs. Those originating in guitar environments were limited to major and minor triads except for dominant sevenths. Although major chords were most often positioned on the I, IV, and V chords they were allowed to move freely by whole steps to follow the melody. Also, V-I cadences were not a necessity—in fact, major triads sometimes moved several fifths in the opposite direction to cadential resolutions. If the song was conceived as a pianistic vehicle, cadences were the usual engine of harmonic motion, and minor seventh chords began to appear in II-V-I cadences, though often described as a IV Major 6th in the chord symbols. Songs in minor used a IV minor 6th for IV-V-I resolution. The beginnings of the post-WWI Jazz Age can be detected in some of these pre-war songs with the increasing use of dominant 7th chords in the II, III, and VI positions that became popular in barbershop quartet and "Irish" tunes. Also, melodically, fresh breezes were stirring with the occasional use of chromatics. Borrowings from the Late Romantics of the 19th century and the early French Impressionists introduced the augmented triad and ninth chords as extra romantic juice to love songs. The Jazz Age of the 1920's not only furthered these borrowings from the European Classical oeuvre, but added the indigenous devices of the Blues which turned the I-IV-V chords all to dominant 7ths, even allowing the final I chord to remain a 7th. In polite circles of the time, this was considered barbaric. In the course of the decade, the French

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Impressionist harmonies gradually won out over the German and Italian operatic influence, except for the increasing use of diminished chords as passing chords and constituents of dominant seventh flat 9ths. By the 30's the transition had mostly been made to a musical language that superceded triads as the basic harmonic language and enriched them with tetrachordal 7th chord formations. Whereas, pre-WWI pop song melodies clung to the tones of their supporting triad, or if not, sought that position on their next move, by the 30's non-chordal scale tones became target tones and became more frequently supported by upper-structure 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths. The extensive use of the dominant seventh, often with a melody on the 9th, became a hallmark of the 30's, and was heard then as an emblem of modernity. The big bands that became popular in the Swing Era gave composers and arrangers a platform for ever more sophisticated harmonic invention. A host of composers responded to this challenge, with geniuses like Ellington, Gershwin, and Porter leading the way. With Swing for a rhythmic basis, and newfound harmonic resources, the Bebop pioneers of the 40's—Parker, Gillespie, Monk, Powell, Pettiford, and others—created a new melodic language that served as both a style of improvisation, and a resource for the creation of new melodies grafted onto the chords of well-known Standards. Finally, jazz made the leap into a self-referential style. The flatted fifth—the tone most distant from the tonic—became the talisman of the Bebop style. The newfound harmonic freedom was expressed in the bass line by extensive use of the II-V-I cadence and the chromatic bII-I (tri-tone substitution) cadence. Parallel chromatic minor 7th chord changes abounded. Although the use of simple triads was almost entirely abandoned, the blues scale and other elements of the blues were retained. Before Bebop, the bassist doubled the pianist's left hand. Led by the example of the Basie band, the bebop pianists adopted the sparser shell-style left hand which gave bassists freedom to construct varied interpretations of the bass line. By the '50's, the re-worked bass-lines which functioned best were recognized and became a language shared by members of the rhythm section. Although the pianist and bassist didn't know exactly what each other were going to play, they did have a limited range of related options which enabled them to make intelligent guesses as they learned each other's stylistic particularities. Within generally understood limits, bass lines became mutable. It's my purpose here to make the unspoken criteria by which bass lines are shaped through this interaction yield to theoretical analysis. Instruction materials in harmony for pianists, and walking bass for bassists, abound. The interaction of the two is less often dealt with, not only because opinions and practices vary, but because the strict codification of the interaction would tend to rein in its improvisatory character. I don't propose to create a rule-book, only to list and relate the underlying materials and limitations which shape the jazz bass line.

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Since the emergence of jazz education programs, student rhythm-section instrumentalists are learning their craft in the context of big bands and vocal accompaniment. In that context, the character of the bass line is pre-determined by the chart in use. In improvising their accompaniment, the players are each required to interact with the printed page—not with each other. Even if they have developed an insight on how to interact creatively (and get together to play as a combo), the crucible of nightly gigs required to hone their craft no longer exists. If the present effort succeeds, bassists and pianists should be able to hear and understand each other's musical statements better. Fakebooks When I first became aware of them at the mid-point of the previous century, fakebooks were little 5 by 8 pamphlets with a dozen or so pages with three or four standard tunes on a page. The information contained in them was confined to song titles and chord changes separated by bar lines. The original copies given to the print-shop were written out by hand, or with a typewriter, by anonymous musicians seeking to make a buck by engaging in an illegal activity. They filled the need of pianists, guitarists, and bassists in bands where it was assumed that a singer or horn-player knew the melody to the song. If it was a trio gig, the pianist would usually bring along a briefcase of original sheet music to the songs that might be requested that he didn’t know. For bands featuring improvised jazz solos, fakebooks that could be stuffed in horn cases served as guides for horn-players, as well. With the proliferation of originals written as instrumentals by jazz musicians in the 1960s, the needs of local jazz musicians changed. Published sheet music of these songs was usually not available. Their increased melodic and harmonic complexity made transcription more difficult and unreliable. Also, the burgeoning jazz education movement created a market for accurate complete transcriptions. Thus was born the first “Realbook” wherein the melody and chord changes were displayed on a conventional staff with one or two songs to an 8½ X 11 page. Gone was the pamphlet, replaced by a tome of such heft that wire music stands collapsed under its weight. Although apparently produced by authors having a connection to an educational institution, the first “Realbook was not without its flaws. Some of the songs were not transcribed, but were copied from the composer’s manuscripts to which the authors had access. These were, by definition, authoritative. But many of those that were transcribed—although generally melodically accurate—had serious errors in the chord changes. Due to widespread distribution, two of the most egregious examples, Herbie Hancock’s “Maiden Voyage”, and Miles Davis’ “Four” have caused confusion on the bandstand that persists to this day. In addition, versions of Standards taken from transcriptions of recordings sometimes canonized a particular arrangement, either over-simplified or over-elaborated the harmony, or were simply in error.

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The “Realbook” achieved national distribution, but it was still illegal. However, that didn’t prevent others from trying to emulate its success. Finally, Chuck Sher decided to embark on his series of legal fakebooks. He hired pianists with reputations for good ears and good taste to make transcriptions and vetted these with the composers when possible. Also, Jamie Aeborsold’s transcriptions of the compositions of major jazz artists are authoritative. In addition, musicians with personal connections to two of the most challenging genius’s of modern jazz, Thelonius Monk and Charles Mingus, have produced compilations of their compositions taken from original sources. Due to these efforts we now have a library of generally authoritative written music that encompasses the Standards era and the so-called Jazz Classics that is of great utility in educating ourselves and our students. The question remains, what is the proper utilization of this material on the bandstand? Total dependence on the Sher series, requires the transportation and deployment of a library of Talmudic bulk. Sifting through these tomes between tunes in search of the next one can take momentum-killing time and produce discord. “No that’s not in Volume Three, it’s in All-Jazz.” Whatever source is used, there must be several copies of it on the bandstand so that all musicians are on the same page. My main concern is that exclusive dependence on written music in performance discourages memorization, and that without memorization, discourages the internalization that lofts the most inspired improvisations. Mental energy tracking the printed page is mental energy that’s unavailable to the imagination and group cohesion. Memorizing Standards During the era when Standards were the popular music of the day, working musicians would learn tunes simply by hearing them a lot and then playing them on gigs. Many musicians learned a wide repertoire without ever seeing the music to the songs they "knew". Today, young musicians must make a conscious effort to memorize Standards. Unless, of course, you are one of those very rare musicians like Charlie Parker, Mile Davis, Milt Jackson, and Stan Getz (all of whom had photographic memory), in which case you can safely ignore this section. Typically, there's little incentive to memorize tunes unless gigs require it, and very few do. But the ones that do are the ones where the soul of mainstream jazz has the best chance to survive. Here are some tips to make the effort more productive and pleasurable. First, be organized. Start by making a tune-list. Begin by listing the songs that you recognize well enough to name when you hear them. Locate them by leafing through your fake books and CDs. You will be surprised how many you can at least recognize. Standards were originally written as popular songs. A song doesn't become popular (except perhaps with jazz musicians) unless the melody is appealing and memorable.

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Next listen to the song enough times over a great enough span of time that you are able to sing or play the melody at will. If you have no recording of it, you will have to play it. When you play it, take your eyes off the music as soon as you can. As soon as you know the melody to a song by heart, you are entitled to pat yourself on the back and say, "I know this song." Conversely, if you know only the "changes" to a song, you don't truly know that song. At this point in your memorization process, you can safely ignore the dictum often heard that you don't truly know a Standard until you know the lyrics. Standard songs, like baseball statistics, make a perfect subject for an obsessive personality. For those with this tendency, the composer, date of copyright, musical or movie in which it was first performed, etc., etc. will all be of grave importance. Although memorization of the lyrics is not a necessity for the instrumental musician, you will find that in certain cases the lyrics will help you to more precisely remember the melody in those phrases (of which there are many) where similarity to other songs renders them undistinctive. In any case, you can now make a column to the right of your list of song titles in which you can place check-marks to indicate which melodies you have memorized. But what about the changes? If you truly know the melody, a semi-conscious impression of its harmonization and attendant bass-line comes with that knowledge. In other words, even if you couldn't call out the changes, if someone were to play that song with a wildly different harmonization, you would know instantly that something was amiss. At this stage, you are like the guy who said, "I wish I understood everything I know." But if you go about learning the chords one at a time from written music, not only is it tedious, but the link to the melody can be lost and the chord pattern will degrade in your memory over time. Unless the song is very simple (or you're one of that other rare breed with absolute pitch) you will have to invest some time and effort to bring your first impression of the harmonic structure to full consciousness. If you think you "hear" it, and have a recording of it, try picking out the bass notes of each chord by ear as the recording plays. If you are successful on the first pass (and secure in your ability to differentiate chord qualities), chances are good that you have a workable beginning conception of the song that will survive into long-term memory. If not, don't be discouraged; follow the advice below. Each song you learn will make the next one easier. To facilitate accurate and enduring chord-pattern memorization, analyze and generalize. You will find that you will be able to adequately memorize a song with a half-dozen or so key "facts" rather than the thirty-something separate chords found on the sheet music. Fact #1: What is the form? It will be: AABA, ABAC, ABA, ABC, or ABCD. Each of the sections will be 4, 8, or 16 bars. There will be variations, of course, particularly first and second endings and tags; but your firm knowledge of the melody will remind you of these as they occur. Fact #2: What degree of the scale does the first chord of the A section fall on? Fact #3: What degree of the scale does the first chord of the B section fall on?

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Fact #4: What and where are the Out-Moves? (Out-Moves take the harmony away from the tonic.) Associate them with the melodic target tone that they accompany. Fact #5: Identify which Modules are in play at the 2 and 4 bar phrase level. Modules are short chord patterns used over and over in Standards. Facts #s 6 and higher: Identify important idiosyncrasies specific to the particular song. If you're a bassist there's another, even quicker way to learn songs—lie. When the band leader asks you if you know "I'll Never Forget What's-her-name", reply, "Sure, what key?" Then turn to the pianist and ask, "Remind me of the first chord to the bridge." Pleased, as always, to be regarded as an authority, he will share his knowledge with you (even in the midst of the leaders count-off) including the revelation, if applicable, that the tune lacks a bridge due to being constructed in two halves—information (though lacking in specificity) which will eventually prove useful. With luck and a good ear, the probable first chord can be divined from the pianist's intro. After that, the other musicians will be so involved in their own roles that the extent of your guesswork will only be dimly perceived. By the third chorus, unless you have the bad luck to have bitten on an obscure Billy Strayhorn tune, you will have the matter pretty well in hand. As an added bonus, the adrenaline rush attendant upon this method of song learning adds to the likelihood that it will outlive the vagaries of your short-term memory. Of course, the same effect will be achieved without prevarication if the band-leader's call is stimulated by the proffer of a twenty dollar tip, in which case, whether the bassist is truly on board or not is the least of anyone's concern (including the bassist's). On a more serious note, the instructions given here are intended to give encouragement to all musicians to develop as large a repertoire of Standards as possible. Like all musical compositions of any depth, new levels of in-depth knowledge and understanding will be gained with multiple performances with a variety of other musicians. Recourse to printed music to answer questions about details glossed over (as well as to settle sometimes heated arguments) will often be required. Pianists and guitarists are perhaps well advised to take a less cavalier attitude than what I have proposed here, for two reasons. One, they often play solo and tend to wander off into intractable idiosyncrasy without others to bounce off of. Two, their orchestral character tends to, whether for good or ill, dictate the harmonic progression to the rest of the band. Perhaps it would be fitting to conclude this plea for the internalization of the Standard-based jazz repertoire with cautionary advice from someone who takes the loving care and reinvigorating performance (and thus transmission) of the genre with utmost seriousness. In the June 2002 issue of Jazz Times will be found a piece by Ed Berger on the pianist Bill Charlap whom he praises for "walking the fine line between interpretation and recomposition. ... he is always mindful of the composer's intentions and tries to consult original sheet music when possible. 'I want to know what the lyric is. What are the song's

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original harmonies? What's the original meter? What does the melody actually do and how do the lyrics fit with that melody? What's the verse?' " One of the major purposes in looking at the material presented herein is to give the musician who aspires to such a deep connection with the musical tradition of song-form-based improvisation a secure basis for navigating that fine line which separates interpretation from recomposition. Bass Function The definition of bass function in the jazz context varies from different viewpoints. In the most clear-cut—the rhythmic—point of view, the drummer and bassist co-create the pulse. This requires (even in styles that allow the bassist a great freedom to depart from walking quarter notes) the bass to state ‘ones’ with clarity and authority. One (or three—same thing) almost always serves as a point where a chord change may take place. Thus the bass functions as a prime delineator of the strong beats of the bar while providing continuous markers of the progress of the harmonic rhythm. From the melodic standpoint, the bass must play in a range low enough that the notes of the bass line are not only less high than the melodist's, but enough lower that the bass tones reside comfortably in the overtone series at a point that avoids creating beats with not only the melody, but with the supporting harmonic accompaniment, the main tones of which must usually also be lower than the melody. Although range is the most important bass function consideration vis-a-vis melody, common practice dictates that the level of complexity in the bass part should not challenge the melodist for the attention of the listener's ear. Before moving on to a detailed examination of the interaction between the chordal accompaniment and the bass line (which is the real meat of the present inquiry), a few general observations must be made—again, outlining different views of bass function in Standards from differing perspectives. Most of jazz theory originates as a continuation of the analysis of the European classical tradition of the last 300 years. But some of it starts afresh. Jazz practice departs from certain conventions of the European classical canon. These are: All music is pre-composed in its entirety. Forms (in great length, variety, and complexity) are designed around melodic motifs that are both repeated verbatim and developed. Historically, harmonies evolved through the gradual addition of polyphonic voices, so that even with the gradual development of vertical structures of simultaneously sounded tones, chords are conceived as being epiphenomenal to linkages of simultaneous horizontal melodies. Rhythm, at the discretion of the performers or their conductor, is at any moment potentially elastic to allow for the expressive use of rubato. A lengthy description of other characteristics would be needed to fully define the common practices of the European classical tradition, but these are the important ones from which common jazz practice deviates. In jazz, some of the music is usually, but not necessarily, pre-composed, while much of it is improvised on the spot. Forms, rather than being a receptacle for melodic development,

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are short, modular, and attain length through repetition. Harmonies no longer necessarily result from pre-composed melodic lines obeying the laws of counterpoint. The jazz rhythm section is charged with the task of laying down a carpet of quarter-notes of un-varying tempo in combination with certain syncopations. Meanwhile, the improvising melodist conceptualizes the accompanying rhythm/harmony as a field implying a scale (or scales) to be mined for melodic raw material. Both functional needs conspire to promote a more vertical conception of harmony—first a bar of something, then 2 beats of this, followed by 2 beats of that, and so on. The development and ad hoc employment of these alterations (not that the harmonic content was altered so much as the distribution of roles in its articulation) gave rise to a generally understood, democratically decided, spectrum of rhythm section practices. In this model, everyone is required to improvise; no one is tied to a specific repeated part, except for the first and last choruses—and these are kept simple enough to facilitate easy memorization. Even here, vocalists and lead instruments are allowed latitude in departing from the composer’s intent. Groups performing in this mode play without written music as a norm. The distribution of roles can best be described in terms of layers. On the top is the improvising melodist. In the middle is the harmonist—whether keyboard, fretboard or horn section. On the bottom, is the bassist, who provides a foundation that may include anything from a drone, to a repeated figure, to an improvised half note line, to a walking quarter note line (or—in some more recent practice—improvised rhythmically varied patterns), to a doubling of the melody. The bass and drums combine to articulate the pulse, and the drums articulate the language of subdivision and syncopation while reinforcing the rhythmic accents of the melodist and harmonist. Our focus here will be on the interaction between the harmonist and the bassist as they jointly and concurrently improvise their parts. It's useful to note, however, that the "rhythm section" is not called the "harmony section". Although it provides harmony, its rhythmic function is paramount. Whereas the classical canon presupposes deviations from the underlying tonality to be heard is if they were being played in just intonation, jazz practice accepts the chromatic scale of equal temperament as the norm. In the former (in the key of C) there is a real sensible difference between D# and Eb, whereas, in the latter, correct spelling is more of a matter of consistent book-keeping. In the jazz approach to the example above, first, there would be an environment of all white keys. Then comes an environment that has shifted to either the scale of E major, say, or the scale of Eb major, say, and the note is named accordingly, but with little or no thought given to any relation to the key of C which—although no longer active at the moment—remains the uber-tonality of the song-form. The air-tightness of such a modularized harmonic conception is joined together in continuity by the improvised melodic line, the melodic character of the walking bass line, and to a lesser but important degree by the harmonist's voice-leading. Thus, in jazz, an important aspect of bass function is to provide the same kind of melodic connectivity between adjacent harmonic environments that one finds in the lower line of classical counterpoint, without recourse to rigid rules.

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In such an environment it becomes important for the bassist and harmonist to be able to recognize by ear the sounds of commonly used chords, and their transmutation by bass tones out of the chord. Due to an asymmetry in the physiological response of the ear to sonic vibrations impinging on it, combinations of tones sounded together have a distinctive "sound-print". Although we hear the constituent tones of a major third, we can identify it by its distinctive sound-print without having to count intervals by singing up the scale. Further, we hear differing degrees of consonance and dissonance in the various intervals. The octave is most consonant. Then the perfect fifth followed by its inversion, the perfect fourth. Then come the thirds and sixths whose position on the consonance dissonance scale is dependent on context. Then come the minor seventh and its inversion the major second. Most dissonant are the major seventh and the minor second. The flatted fifth or sharp fourth is considered a dissonance, but is difficult to place in relation to other intervals because it is perceived very differently in different circumstances. In any case, quick and accurate interval recognition is a basic requirement for all artist-level musicians. But for the jazz musician, interval recognition is essential in a way that it's not for musicians who realize written music only. Although the need for interval comprehension is universal, consideration of triads and tetrachords brings forth another divide in the concept of bass function as it relates to various styles of harmonic usage. First, the triad. Classical theory limits the use of the term "triad" to those tonal combinations composed of three tones related to each other by thirds. This restriction allows only four possibilities: two major thirds—the augmented; one major third on the bottom, and one minor third on top—the major; one minor third on the bottom, and one major third on top—the minor; and two minor thirds—the diminished. Every triad has two inversions. It's a curious property of triads that inverting them fails to cause the ear to hear them as something essentially different. If a C major triad is played with the C on top rather than on the bottom (as it would be in root position), the ear (at least the trained ear) hears the resulting sound as a C major triad, not an E minor augmented. This has important ramifications for the bass line. In theory, the bass line should be able to fulfill its bass function role by sounding any of the three notes of the operative triad. To effectively do this, the tone which the bass has abandoned must be sounded by others. Negotiating this interchange is one of the chief occupations of classical counterpoint. Lacking the pre-composed certainty of classical counterpoint, bass line improvisers in jazz tend to be root-bound as a default option. But then, they're not working in a strictly triadic environment. As observed before, jazz, as a harmonic style, is based on tetrachords—basically, scale-tone triads with the addition of the appropriate scale tone sevenths. Consider then, in the key of C, the D minor 7th. In first inversion it becomes an F major 6th. Should the sound of the D minor 7th be further thickened with the addition of a 9th, the first inversion will then become an F major 7th, further reinforcing its evolution from minor to major. However, if the bass resolutely sounds a D in the low register, the minor character returns. But with the A in the bass (in the right context) it can easily be heard as an Aeolian A minor. Just as triadic harmony turned previous melody-over-drone or parallel-

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melody styles into a whole new ballgame, so has quatradic harmony recast the rules in the era of jazz. Finally, the adoption of 7th chord-based harmony implies the inclusion of the 9th in a five-tone formation. The reason for this will become apparent from the discussion of the Overtone Series and the Cycle of Fifths to come. The Qualities of Emotion in Various Harmonies Before cataloging the technical details (which, unfortunately, will be an eventual necessity) entailed by quatradic harmony, and showing how and what differences with triadic harmony have evolved, let's take a look at these harmonic considerations from the standpoint of the listener. Harmony in Western music has the unique and paradoxical property of being at once structural and emotional. Melodies (though often crafted by their composers with intellectual skills requiring post-graduate tuition) seem to the listener to follow a path of pure feeling. Rhythmic expression has to do mainly with feelings associated with action/rest. Each chord, though it has a structural function of supporting a melody, of being the result of what has gone before, and the harbinger of what is to come, also has its own distinct and particular mood-potential. Since emotions are subjective, we can't pin down their association with particular sound-formations with certainty, but we can point to a spectrum of common emotional responses generally characteristic of our musical culture. In triadic harmony the moods are fewer and more clearly differentiated from one triad to another. Major triads are happy, settled, jubilant, sunny, serene, bright, exultant, or merely comfortingly normal depending on musical context. A major triad out of the key is either like an unexpected answer to a question, or an outright surprise, in either case, a pleasant outcome. Minor triads are sad, nocturnal, cool, muted (but sometimes alarming), grieving, pensive, feminine, nostalgic and also sometimes normal-sounding, again, depending on musical context. An unexpected minor chord is like a cloud passing over the sun. The diminished triad is restless; it asks the question, "What next?" When occurring in the context of the major scale in which it is the seventh degree, it can sound like a fragment of a dominant seventh. The dominant seventh is the one tetrachord in universal use in otherwise triadic harmonic environments. Through the conditioning of conventional use it is heard as a powerful engine of motion striving for resolution to a chord on the fifth below. To most ears it connotes power and motion. The augmented triad is not found in the major scale, but is in the scale-tone triad of the third degree of the harmonic minor scale. Heard from this perspective, it can sound "minorey". Heard in the context of the whole-tone scale, where it stands on its own, it sounds mystical, spectral. It was appropriated by early 20th century tune-smiths for use in the dominant position because it sounded to them "bluesey", but to modern ears more attuned to the ubiquitous use of the blues scale in jazz and rock, its use makes tunes of

Page 16: Jazz Harmony New Cover


that genre sound quaintly faux-sentimental. Of the four basic triads, the augmented is the most emotionally mutable. Considering that it found prominent employment in styles as various as those of Wagner, Debussy, and Monk, we should not be surprised. Now let us turn to quatradic chords beginning with the scale-tone sevenths of the major scale. All of them can be usefully understood as interlocking triads. For example, a major seventh has a major triad on the bottom with a minor triad from the third to the seventh. The minor seventh reverses this with the minor on the bottom and the major on the top. As previously noted, seventh chords can be perceived (and used) differently in different inversions. That mutability or ambiguity is felt emotionally as well. All these chords have a bittersweet quality that makes them ideal for connoting the emotions of romantic love. It was only natural that they should find their way into the popular song. Let's sample their ambience one by one. The major seventh has an increased brightness in spite of (or perhaps because of) its dissonance of a major seventh between the root and the seventh. This is exacerbated by voicings which place the two tones at a minor second. Thus, when based on the third degree it can easily transmute into an Aeolian minor sixth—a suddenly darker sound than any of the inversions of the minor seventh quatrad. The major seventh is overturned into dark, unstable dissonance at the interval of a minor ninth. It's instructive that jazz pianists often choose to favor the use of the softer major sixth (usually in conjunction with a major ninth) when interpreting music which calls for a major seventh. The pensive quality of the minor triad is considerably softened by the addition of the minor seventh. Unlike the major seventh, the closest interval in any of its inversions is the major second between the seventh and the octave of the root. The smoothness of the minor seventh quatrad has made it the water in which the rest of jazz harmony swims. Although its use typically conjures romantic love, inversion to the third degree can transmute it to a major sixth which adds a certain sweetness which the major triad lacks by itself. The dominant seventh in a quatradic environment retains its power and motion connotation, and adds others as well. It suddenly becomes usable as a passing chord in motion a minor second down rather than down a fifth. In the conventions of the blues it takes up residence as the normal occupant of the fourth degree and the tonic so that it becomes heard as the chord of final resolution. The blues achieves its distinctive effect through the juxtaposition of the power of seventh chords on the bottom with the plaintive quality of melodic tones a half-step flat from the upper three tones of the seventh chord underpinning. This works because of the unique way in which the dominant seventh nests with the overtone series. More than any other of the scale-tone quatrads, the dominant seventh can incorporate a variety of upper structure tones. The resultant emotional range can vary from quite sweet with the addition of ninths and thirteenths to acerbic when ninths elevenths and/or thirteenths are raised or lowered. In between these two extremes lies a rich spectrum of sonic colors that can be lush, bittersweet, ethereal, crushing,

Page 17: Jazz Harmony New Cover


"blue", or tonally ambivalent. The dominant seventh is hardly less dissonant than the tonic major seventh to which it "resolves". Through its rich sources of available added colors it regains a dissonance which makes its progression to a major seventh quatrad more credible as a resolution. The minor seventh flat five (the scale-tone seventh of the VII degree) connotes more the pain of love than the minor seventh, and hints at a tragic outcome. It is most typically used as the II in a II-V-I where the I is minor. The inversion with the III degree on the bottom transmutes it into a minor sixth. In a quadratic context, this inversion serves as a more satisfactory chord of final destination in a composition in minor, as it lacks the ambivalence of the minor seventh. The addition of a major seventh to the minor triad adds a certain bleakness to the mood of nocturnal gloom. The diminished seventh chord intensifies the restlessness of the diminished triad. Each of the two interlocking diminished fifths (at an interval of a minor third) conspire to imply allegiance to two dominant seventh chords at an interval of a diminished fifth, thus creating the possibility of resolution to four different keys equidistant from each other at the interval of a minor third. The four-way-switch capability of the diminished seventh adds "Which way?" to the diminished triad's query, "What next?" Without going into great detail about the remaining triad-based quatrads (augmented major seventh and diminished major seventh) we can venture some comparisons between an all-triad harmonic environment and its all-quatrad counterpart. The difference in emotional affect between the various triads is sharper than between the various quatrads. Clarity of function due to clearer contrast in sound-color from one triad to another, makes quatradic harmony seem, by contrast, more homogenized. Quatradic resolutions are less accompanied by relaxation of tension. Because of the two degrees (major and minor) of added sevenths, there are twice as many types of quatradic formations as there are of triads. This makes quatradic harmony more varied and complex. Transmutation of certain inversions to sixth chords adds another layer of complexity. Three non-triad-based quatrads in wide use—the "phrygian", the 7 sus4, and the 7 b5—add even greater complexity and range of affect to the dominant 7th chord. The Mathematics Underlying the Scale Systems That Shape the Harmony That Shapes the Bass Line. So far, the stage has been set for a detailed examination of the harmonic context shaping the jazz/standard bass line by concentrating on major scale-related considerations. Our understanding of these relationships is shaped largely by the terminology inherited from the European classical tradition, which is in turn shaped by the tunings of just intonation, which in turn were shaped by a particular set of mathematical relationships. Unquestionably, all tonal music has been subject to Occam's Razor—the simplest explanation is the best. Just intonation exemplifies only one of the three most obvious contenders for the mathematical simplicity prize. The other two are the overtone series and even-tempered scale. In our culture, we go back and forth between these tonal sub-

Page 18: Jazz Harmony New Cover

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Page 19: Jazz Harmony New Cover

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Page 20: Jazz Harmony New Cover


fifths, they become identical. This is the basis of the use in jazz of the ubiquitous "tri-tone substitution" which allows for a seventh chord a half step above the tonic to function as a substitute dominant, a phenomenon which I prefer to call chromatic resolution. In practice, realizing bass function in an overtone series context involves articulating the root of the harmonic or intervallic superstructure at the lowest rung possible of the overtone series ladder. Realizing bass function in terms of tonality involves creating the feeling of forward, backward, or sideways motion in relation to a key center. Realizing bass function in terms of the chromatic scale involves movement along the circle of fifths/fourths, or, analogously, along the chromatic scale, and the transposition of key center to any of the other chromatic tones. Summary of factors involved in arranging and improvising jazz bass lines: Oral transmissability. Various interpretations forced by varying needs and capabilities of performers. Mixed messages from chord symbols and piano score in the original sheet music. Quirks in widely popular versions often become generally incorporated. The need for jazz artists to have the song's harmony follow paths that facilitate their

improvisations. Difference in harmonic underpinning because of the era of the original song and the

consequent need to alter harmonies to better fit the style of performance, such as giving a particular standard more of a blues feel.

The division of labor between the harmonist, the bassist, and the arranger. Creative bass line variations are less called for in big band and vocal accompaniment

situations. Classical European harmonic theory, by itself, is insufficient to the needs of the jazz

performer. Bass function is rhythmic and melodic, as well as harmonic and form articulating. Normally, jazz musical materials are memorized or improvised, not sight-read. Harmonically, jazz is a sandwich with melody and bass the bread and the harmony

the filling. For clarity, jazz harmony is conceived as modular, and locally, rather than globally,

tonal. Training the ear to recognize, distinguish between, and employ various harmonic

sound-colors is essential to the jazz improviser. Triadic and quatradic harmonic practices, though related, have significant differences. Harmony is at once rational (structural), and emotional. Major is happy, minor is sad, diminished is restless, and so on, all dependent upon the

context and sequence in which they occur. Quatradic harmony mixes major and minor to achieve a much more homogenized

effect. A culture exists (with many recorded examples) of improvising harmonies in jazz

performance that lie within limits appropriate to the particular style.

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Harmony is grounded in mathematical relationships. The overtone series shapes the way all tonal sound is perceived. Just intonation is the ancient system of whole-integer proportions between low prime

numbers and their multiples. The modern system of equal temperament is a convenient approximation of the pure

whole-integer proportions in order to produce uniform intervals, and ease of key transposition.

The full utilization of the chromatic scale outruns the strictures of tonal harmony. Conclusion It becomes a somewhat less far-fetched notion to postulate that the shape of the bass line can, and indeed has, become emancipated from the strictures of the European classical norms. This freedom carries with it the implication that at most points in the harmonic flow of Standard and Jazz Classic songs, there are several viable options which, to varying degrees, work with one another. In this environment opportunity jousts with chaos. Musicians who have taken improvisational freedom to the outer limits have felt compelled to return to the Standards as their primary platform for improvisation. How is the opportunity/chaos nexus negotiated on the bandstand in mid-performance? Obviously, if the musicians responsible for improvising a continuous harmonic environment needed to run down the check-list above at every chord-change, tempos would have to be very slow. In practice, nearly all the decisions necessary to avert chaos are predetermined. For those that aren't, the choice must be made by instinct in a time-frame that precludes thinking. Understandably, the safest choice—even though less exciting or creative—often seems the most attractive. For the bass, grounding the group often involves much stating of the obvious, thus serving as a launching pad for more adventurous and surprising statements from others. But the question remains, which of the instrumentalists charged with the various melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic responsibilities calls the shots? In a jam session, what you hear is what you get. Many people, including a sizable segment of the jazz audience, feel the jam session to be the purest and most enjoyable jazz expression. However, even with the highest level of jazz improviser involved, the jam session format ensures either an all-safe-choice blandness or a certain raggedness around the edges. That said, some of the classic un-paralleled moments in recorded jazz history have nevertheless been made in that sort of a setting. If the rhythm section locks, it's because of a shared musical vocabulary and syntax, great ears, and luck. And it doesn't hurt to have played together before. But what about a band intent upon a dependable high-quality level of music-making suitable for the concert hall or recording? Taking the leader, the band's charts, the choice of material, and the soloist's accompaniment preferences out of the equation leaves two or three people's interactions: bass, keyboard (piano, accordion, organ, synthesizer), and guitar to produce the hoped-for harmonic synergy. (The drummer's contributions are crucial to the music's success, but seldom to its harmonic component.) The keyboard-

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player is the only one with instrumental power capable of dictating a particular path. Deferring to the keyboardist is, therefore, the default option, or if guitar only, the guitar. If guitar and keyboard play chordally at the same time, pre-rehearsed routines are almost required, unless both have lightning ears and flexible chops. But as bass line is our focus here, the interaction of bass with keyboard or guitar merits the closer attention. The bass playing a walking quarter note line has an un-restricted choice of notes on the weak beats—nearly always the ones on which a chord-change doesn't occur. This gives ample opportunity for great elaboration of the underlying bass line. But what if the exact progression of the underlying bass line is itself mutable? In practice, the variations in underlying bass lines usually have enough similarities that some of the bassist's weak-beat notes will seem relevant to the alternate harmonization. In the worst case (of two really different paths in a two-bar or longer section), if both are played with conviction and authority (and come back together at the end) the ear can be very forgiving of the bi-tonal tension involved if the forward thrust of the music remains uncompromised. If there is no chordal instrument in the rhythm section, the bass becomes the sole articulator of the harmony through choice of bass line. Performing bass function in the company only of a harmonically meticulous soloist leaves no doubt of the harmony intended. This being the case, pianists have learned to play chords at times and places that allow the bass the greatest latitude to imbue the bass line with a more melodic character, while the pianist devotes more concern to underlining and filling in the holes in the soloist's melody in concert with the drummer's punctuations. Guitarist’s and keyboardist’s tone quality lack the overtones of the acoustic piano and sustain without losing volume. In this environment (or one in which an acoustic pianist plays in lower registers with the sustain pedal depressed) the bassist is well advised to avoid muddiness in the bass by restriction to roots as much as possible. Thus the answer would appear to be that where the bass is alone, the bass shapes the bass line, and where the keyboard is charged with articulating the bass line in the absence of a bassist, the keyboard takes complete control of all aspects of the harmonic progression. In between these two extremes lies the situation of the normal rhythm section where the shaping of the bass line is to a degree shared. Shared function will be facilitated by shared understanding. That is what the analysis of the following examples hopes to further. If successful, this should be helpful not only in resolving differences between improvisers, but in guiding composers and arrangers to reap the full musical potential of the bass line. "In nature, as in art, the secret of conservation is not to disturb the wild things." "In the lower registers, the half-step is not heard with the same clarity as in the higher—particularly, as the commonplace assessment would have it, by the practitioners assigned to those nether regions." The Harmonic Materials (and Their Terminology) in Detail

Page 23: Jazz Harmony New Cover

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ource for basds are the hood

ssonant five,a Lydian





VI s s


Page 24: Jazz Harmony New Cover

StanddiminpossiLovethe 6ta mindomidescefourthdiminaugm

To ge7th chdimincombpresestanddegre


). I chordTheyHowe Natur If, onforgivto” asComdeepechapt“syst

dards, in pracnished, Perfeible combinar Has Gone,th in a descenor triad. Thnant seventh

ending to theh phrases arenished quatra

mented triad b

eneralize frohord. For evnished quatbination withence in the exdard chord-syee. In additio

ture” tones f

don’t opposeds, or for my take up lessever, I’ve ne

re and Role o

n first readinven. If, like spects, you mplex at this pening your uters here wasem”.

ctice, emploect, or augmations on all , covers mucending phrase third phrash chord. Thee 11th and the, respectivead appears abegins the fo

om above, fovery tone thetrad, but exch major thirdxamples to fymbol notation to the fou

for each such

e the use of mi7b5 chords space on cheglected to u

of Each Mod

g, you find tmost readersmay want to point. At a f

understandins necessitate

oy seventh chmented 5ths, a

degrees of thch of this terrse over a Majse switches te fourth phrahen to a 10thely, up a stepat the top of tourth phrase

or every toneere also existcluding—fords) that will bfollow will bion followin

ur tones of sc

h chord: the

the symbolsds, or + for aharts and are

use them here

dal Variant o

the next fews of jazz theoskip ahead t

future time, tng of the intried in order to

hords compoand 6ths, Mihe scale. A sritory (ex. 5)

ajor Triad. Ththe melody tase switches h over a domp and down athe flat 9th c on the top o

e of the scalet 6 other sever now—the dbe referred t

be indicated bng the Romancale tone 7th

9th (, , )

s: for Ma7 augmented tre generally we.

of Each Degr

chapter’s deory texts, yoto Bass Linethis materialicacies of jazo fully explic

osed of eitheinor 7ths, ansong publish). The first phe second phto natural anthe melody

minant 7th cha step from tchord in the of the augme

e, there existenth chords diminished ato as "modalby my prefen numeral wchords, ther

), 11ths, ( ,and Ma69 c

riads, or fowell understo

ree of the Sca

ensity forbidou are most ie Paradigml may be morzz harmony.cate the pote

er Major or Mnd Major 7thhed in 1931, phrase uses bhrase does th

nd flatted 9thto the augm

hord. The ththe tonic. Althird phrase

ented 11th ch

ts a specific (including th

and augmentl variants". Terred variatiowhich indicatre exist three

, , ), and

chords, –7 foor diminishedood by musi

ale in Detail

dding, you arinterested in

ms From Simre useful to y. The inclusiential and lim


Minor 3rds, hs in all

When Yourboth 7ths andhe same ovehs over a

mented 11th ird and lso, the e, and the hord. (ex.6)

scale-tone he ted fifths in Their on of tes scale e “upper-

13s( , , or mi7th d chords. cians.

re to be n their “how mple to

you in ion of these mits of the


r d


Page 25: Jazz Harmony New Cover

I. The Ideparoftenrest, i

The Inot n

The IA chaRemeas in

The Ithe bathe 6 is wh

II. The I[Somsomedomithe mI-II-I

I chord (C Mrture and ult

n with a modit marks end

I 7 dominantecessarily, in

I minor-majoange to the Iember AprilHow High t

I diminishedass line on Ipositions be

hat led the fir

II chord (Dmmetimes it is hetimes the II-nant to the t

minor 7th III II opening o

Major 7th, CEimate destinal variant m

dings of phra

t modal varian the directio

or 7th (Cmi-I minor 7th (, can but alsothe Moon. (e

d quatrad (Cd, a passive, setter reflects rst chord of

mi7, D,F,A,Cheaded towa-V progressetonic minor Vchord. The I

of Pennies Fr

EGB) is the tnation (unles

major seventhases within s

ant (C 7, CEon of the IV

Ma7, CEbG(Cmi7, CEbGo serve to si


dim, C,Eb,Gstatic result ithe multi-di

Stella By Sta

C) is most typard the VII ces to III-VI7VI chord in aII chord findrom Heaven

tonic, whichs the song is

h—becomes ong-forms. (

EGBb) sets thV. (ex.8)

GB) temporarGBb) can alsgnal a transp

Gb,A) is alwais ensured. Pirectional moarlight to mi

pically emplchord as in th, as in Satin a scheme wh

ds use in para. (ex.11)

h means it iss in minor, inthe tonic mi(ex.7)

he I chord in

rily displaceso displace tposition to a

ays a passingPlacing the bobility of theigrate to the

loyed in II-Vhe bridge to Doll.] In Fa

here the domallel ascendi

the default n which the inor). Alway

n motion—ty

es the I as in the tonic maja key a whole

g chord. If thbass on the be diminishedbV. (ex.10)

V-I resolutionAlong Came

avela, it servminant VI ching bass line


point of VI chord—

ys a point of

ypically, but

I Love Parisjor as in I'll e step lower

he bass keepb3, the b5, ord chord. This

ns. e Betty, and

ves as the subhord is also es such as th






s r s

d b-


Page 26: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The ewith IV, Vcontrin po

The Ias TaIn madirectfinds whichmigh

The oDear as to

The Imino

III. The Iidentheademove

extensions ono dissonan

VI, and VII cribute to contint. (ex.12)

II 7 (D7, D,Fake the A Traany others, stion of the dmany uses i

h the minor ht resolve to t

occurrence ocomes immmake the ba

II minor 7 b5r, although i

III (E,G,B,Dical with a Med in the diree either to or

f the II chordce worse tha

chords, whichtroversy. Th

F#,A,C) is a ain, it followsuch as Rosedominant V, in the interio7th lacks, anthe Tonic to

of the II Majomediately to masic tonality

5 (D,F,Ab,Cin the case o

D) chord findMajor 7,9 wiection of somr from the ne

d—9, 11, anan a major 7th, while a fe

he first chord

very commo

ws an openine Room, it opsometimes a

ors of song fnd because ito soon. (ex.

or 7 (D,F #,Amind. The Jaof the song o

C) implies a Iof I Love You

ds most generith the root leme form of teighboring II

nd 13—incorth. For this r

ertile source d of the secon

on usage in Sng I chord as pens the sonas a part of aforms becaust's useful in .13)

A,C#) in Staazz Standardopen to ques

II-V progressu, the resolu

ral use as a seft out. In a the VI chordI and IV cho

rporate all toreason it canof bass line nd 8 bars of

Standards. In the first mo

ng. Typicallya VI (Ami7),se it gives fostretching ou

andards is rad, Hi Fly, emstion. (ex.14

sion headed ution is to the

surrogate I cCycle of Fif

d. In a parallords. (ex.16)

ones of the pn easily morp

variations, cf Mack the K

n countless sove away froy, it will be h, II7 (D7), Vocus to the IIut a form tha

are, althoughmploys it to s


in the directe I Major. (e

chord becausfths context, lel scalar con


parent scale ph into the can also

Knife is a cas

songs, such om the Tonicheaded in theV (G7). It I position at otherwise

h Ruby My uch a degree

tion of I ex.15)

se it is it is usually

ntext, it can



c. e



Page 27: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The Iwherits us

The Iis folidentdomiRhapChina

The etransp

IV. The IJust Fhalf obeginusualprogrOr sobVII of theprogrfifths

III b5 (E,G,Be a followin

se as a surrog

III 7 (E,G#,Blowed by cyical, though nant resolvin

psody. Occasa. (ex.18)

existence of posed to that

IV (F,A,C,E)Friends, for eof the phrasen a bridge, aslly been precression can go one would 7)—as a tur

e III surrogaression culms—the VII ch

Bb,D) chord g VI 7 woulgate for the I

B,D) begins tycling 7th ch

slower movng to a minosionally, it w

the III Majot key. (ex.19

) is usually fexample—ste it's in, whets well). So frceded by a I go no furtherthink, but a

rn-back to thte). The alte

minated by arhord. (ex.20

would mostd be headedI 7 is plausib

the opening

hords. It also ving, capacityor, such as thwill head step

or 7 (E,G#,B9)

found in quittart on the IVther 4 bars, 8

from whence7. Having arr in that direubiquitous S

he Tonic (whernate escaperrival at the I0)

t likely find ud for the II. Able. (ex.17)

phrase of Nbegins the b

y. It's also vehe III 7-VI pp-wise towar

,D#) usually

te specific pV chord. Aft8 bars, or a b

e has it arriverrived at thection withouStandard trophich is most se route climbIV position w

use in a CycAlthough no

Nice Work If bridge to I Gery importan

pickup to therd the IV cho

y means that

laces in Stanter that it tenbridge (althoed, and wher

e bottom of thut changing kpe allows thsmoothly exbs to #IV dimwill re-enter

cle of Fifths examples co

f You Can GGot Rhythm int in its func beginning oord as in Slo

t the song ha

ndards. Mannds to be fouough it's oftere is it headehe Circle of key by addin

his move—IVxecuted throuminished. Sor at the top o


progression ome to mind

et It where iin an

ction as a of I Hear a ow Boat to

as temporaril

ny songs—und in the lasen used to ed? It's f Fifths, the ng one flat. V-IVmi (or ugh the use ometimes thef the cycle o






e of

Page 28: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The IStand

The Ifollow(ex.2(see e

In a Jor sim

V. Not sand Aabundsandwenvirto prodomi

The V"resoIn mo

IV 7 (F,A,C,dards are in a

IV mi 7 (F, Aws a IV or IV2), or headeex.20)

Jazz context,milarly, an a

since the TwAvalon, havedance, but nwich that its ronment) togompt its mornants. This i

V sus4 (G,Colve" to the 3ore recent tim

,Eb) chord isall respect si

Ab,C,Eb) opV 7 and is eid directly (o

, the IV mi 7ltered V cho

wenties, whice Standards bot the V. Thubiquity-rat

gether with itrphing into tis the one th

,D,F) is so n3rd of the V mes, the sus

s the default imilar to the

pens For Heaither the II in

or penultimat

7 b5 (F,Ab,Cord. (ex.23)

ch produced begun with t

he V chord isting combinets capacity fothe bII 7 (Dbey're all sub

named in thechord before7 has becom

Blues optioIV chord w

aven's Sake an a II-V-I temtely, if follow

Cb,Eb) is hea

songs like Wthe V (G,B,Ds cast so excled with its b

for acceptingb,F,Ab,Cb) cbing for. (ex

expectatione once againme a mainsta

n. Otherwisewith a Major 7

and very fewmporary tranwed by a bV

ard as an upp

Way Down YD,F) chord. Tlusively as t

blandness (ing out-of-the-kchord. Muchx.24)

n that the "sun returning toay of modal

e, its functio7th. (ex.21)

w other songnsposition to

VII 7) back to

per extension

Yonder in NeThe II and ththe meat in thn an all 7th ckey extensio

h is made of

uspended" 4to the root of Jazz Classic


ons in )

s. Usually ito the bIII o the Tonic.

n of the bII 7

ew Orleans he II-V in he II-V-I hord

ons conspiresubstitute

th will f the I chord.cs as the





Page 29: Jazz Harmony New Cover


The VWritedecidsome

The VFor Mi.e., Gthe V

VI. In TrQuatridentchord(Bmioftenscale Aeolithe Vof DTonicline,

The Vchordobtainmelo

or of preferersions, and itexts. (ex.25)

V Maj 7 (G,Be a Book. Ondedly non-Ble form of V-I

V mi 7 (G,BMy Baby, buGmi7, C7, FM

V mi 7 hints a

riadic harmonradic harmonical (except d at the 13th 7 -5)-III 7(E

n does (sometones of the

ian mode. InVI maj7(A,C

ear Old Stocc Minor. (exas we shall s

VI 7 (A,C#,Ed as in Sween a more bludic ideas. Ne

ence for the Mts tonic ambi)

B,D,F#) occnly in the brilues cast. It'sI resolution.

b,D,F) findsut more typicMa7. The saat a IV mino

ny, the VI chny, the situafor inversion. Therefore, E 7)) can soutimes in con

e ascending mn that case, th,E,G#). Howckholm), the

x.28) These see when ana

E,G) modal vt Georgia Br

uesey effect,ever, of cour

Mixolydian mivalence, it w

curs in the inidge of Aint s most often (ex.26)

s occasional cally serves aame progressor destination

hord is invaration is less cn) to the I 6 the minor 7tund unresolvntradiction tomelodic-minhe modal vawever, if voie scale-tone V6ths and 7thalyzing indiv

variant is qurown. Some increase therse, out of si

mode. Due twill merit fu

nteriors of ceMisbehavinpreceded by

use as a subas a II chordsion with a Vn. (ex.27)

riably referreclear. The scchord, and oth on the VI ved—as if it o the composnor often repariants introdiced properlyVI b6 (A,C,Ehs can have ividual songs

uite common

jazz pianiste sense of foimple ignora

to its radicaluller discussi

ertain Standan' does it avoy a II 7 chord

bstitute domid in II-V-I arV mi 7 b5 (G

ed to as the Rcale-tone VI only differen degree (eve

t might go onser's origina

place the VI duced are they (as in the ME,F) can quiimportant rams.

n in Standardts substitute iorward motioance. (ex.29)

l transformation later in sp

ards such as oid giving thd, and is foll

inant V chorround the subG,Bb,Db,F) i

Relative Min(A,C,E,G) c

ntly patterneen if preceden to a II 7(D

al intent). As degree-genee VI 6 (A,C,Miles Davis ite effectivelmifications f

ds—even as it for a minoon, or to ratio)


tions in its pecific

If I Could he song a lowed by

rd as in One b-dominant, in place of

nor. In chord is ed from the Ied by a VII 7), which it a result, the

erated E,F#) and/orarrangemen

ly act as a for the bass

the opening or 7th to onalize their



t e

r nt


Page 30: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The Veight transi

The Vwhichanyw

VII. The VtranslStandbeginA, altthis e

The Vthe Ctwo-band B

The pplace

VI Ma 7 (A,Cbars of the J

itory transpo

VI dim 7 (A,h is the same

where and he

VII (B,D,F,Alated back todards, a morens. The VII mthough its usexpectation.

VII 7 (B,D#,Cycle of Fifthbar opening Back in many

presence of te, as in the fi

C#,E,G#) is Jazz Classicositions. (ex.

,C,Eb,Gb) ise as the bV dading almos

A) chord is uo the parent ke prominent min 7(B,D,Fse (also as an(ex.32)

,F#,A) chordhs. That failerole in The By songs—Yo

the VII Ma 7rst chord of

strangely un Along Cam.30)

s the same asdim. All havst anywhere.

usually emplkey—reads one would b

F#,A) tends tn opening ch

d is the mosted to preventBest Thing fou Do Some

7 (B,D#,F#,Athe bridge o

ncommon inme Betty whe

s the I dim, wve the capabi


oyed as the as VII-III 7-be I Didn't Ko signal a trahord) in The

t remote scalt Irving Berlfor You Is Mething To Me

A#) chord inof Sophistica

n Standards. ere it is one i

which is the ility of havin

II in a Tonic-VI 6. Of maKnow What ansitory tran

e Shadow of

le-tone 7th clin from givi

Me. It is usede, for examp

ndicates that ated Lady. (e

It appears inin a sequenc

same as theng come from

c Minor II-Vany exampleTime It Was

nsposition toYour Smile

chord from thing it a very

d to go chromple. (ex.33)

a transpositex.34)


n the first ce of

e bIII dim, m almost

V-I, which—es of its use is, which it

o the key of contradicts

he Tonic on prominent

matically Ou

ion has take





Page 31: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The Vthe Templ

The F #I an Sincepossi(C#,E7,b9 resultthose

The #Minoarriveone. (

One wso. It the m

The bsubstb5 Mbig, adistin'40s isubst

VII dim 7 (BTonic and the

oyment. (ex

Five Non-Sca

nd b2

e chords baseibility of beinE,G,Bb). Par(A,C#,E,G,Bting bass lin

e descending

#1 mi7 b5 (Cor of the II Med in this str(ex.37)

would think begins the o

melody links

bII 7 (Db,F,Atitution—hea

Ma7, but if soand unpleasanguished fromis rare, from titution in a j

B,D,F,Ab) is e Relative M.35)

ale Tones of t

ed on this cang scale-tonrticularly if iBb). which me (I-#I-II) is

g fifths and c

C#,E,G,B) wMa 7, which wrange land. I

the #1 mi7 (

opening sequit to a II-V-I

Ab,B) is mosaded immedi

o at the end oant, surprise.m the V-I dithen on it be

jazz context)

usually a coMinor respect

the Major Sc

ategory (and ne sevenths, lit follows themeans that it

an ascendinhromatics, a

would seem towould lead oIf an exampl

(C#,E,G#,B)uence of MoI progression

stly used as iately to the

of a phrase (o. I refer to thiatonic resoluecame comm), particularl

onstituent oftively, and th


the remainilet's begin bye I chord, it it's headed in ng chromaticand occurs fa

o be headed one to wondle exists in th

) would be soment's Noticn. (ex.38)

an altered doTonic. Of co

or worse, thehe bII 7-I proution. Altho

monplace (paly if the I is a

f a V b9 or IIherefore rece

ing ones to foy looking firis almost certhe direction

c scale—a reairly frequen

for the VII mder by what rhe Standard

similarly arcace where the

ominant—thourse, it coue end of the ogression as ough its use iarticularly aa Tonic Min

II 7,b9 whicheives extensi

follow) have rst at the #1 rtain to funcn of the II ch

efreshing chantly in Stand

minor, the Rroute the comliterature, it

ane, but thate common to

he so-called uld also be gsong) it woua chromatic

in Standardss an improvi

nor as in A N


h resolve to ive

no diminished

ction as a VI hord. The ange from aldards. (ex.36

Relative mposer t's an obscur

t's not quite one on III in

"tri-tone" oing to the uld come as c resolution as prior to the ised

Night in



ll )


a as

Page 32: Jazz Harmony New Cover

TunisYou N

The bprogrOut o

#II o The ##IV dfunctof fulbass lis chrthinkHowecalledmajorment

The #Minoobscu

The bchordII-V-

sia. bII 7s fuNeedn't and

bII Ma7 (Dbression (as inof a Dream a

r bIII

#II diminishediminished (tion as the 7 lfilling this fline, it can bromatically d

k of the #II inever, not infd out as suchr 7th voiced ioned above

#II mi7 b5 (Dor of the III Mure one. (ex.

bIII mi7 (Ebd between thI progressio

unction as OnEpistrophy.

b,F,Ab,C) is un Solar), butas a chromat

ed 7 (D#,F#(F#,A,C,D#)b9 of the II(

function whebe usefully thdescending (n stand-alonefrequently, a h on sheet min the bass i

e. (ex.41)

D#,F#,A,C#)Ma 7. Again42)

,Gb,Bb,Db) he III(Emi7) n to the bII k

ne-BackMov (ex.39)

usually arrivt not always.ic BackMov

,A,C) has th, and the VI (D), the IV(Fere the #II dihought of as (making an Ie terms, in wmelody not

music) of a diinstead of th

) would seemn, if an examp

finds most uand the II(Dkey (Db), as

ve Modules

ved at by a b It confers g

ve on the sec

he same tonediminished

F), the #V(Gim is a part operforming

InMove) frowhich case a e will fall oniminished-mhe melody, th

m to be headple exists in

use as the smDmi7). It alsos in Solar (ex

(see pg. 28 f

bIII mi7 (Ebmgreat individucond chord.

s as the I dim7 (A,C,D#,F

G#), and the Vof an upwardthe VII 7b9m the III to bIII designa

n II position major 7th (Eb

he chord bec

ded for the #the Standar

moothest InMo, predictablx.43)

for definition

mi7)-bVI7(Auality to You(ex.40)

minished 7 (F#). As suchVII(B). In md-moving (B

9 function. Ifthe II , it is b

ation might bcreating the

b,Gb,A,[C],Dcomes the II7

#I minor, the rd literature,

Move chromly, functions


ns) in Well

Ab7) u Stepped

(Cdim), the h, it can most instanceBackMove) f the bass linbetter to be better. e effect (ofteD). With the 7b9

Relative it's an

matic passing s as a II in a





Page 33: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The bHere'betwesubst

The tsecondemoII-V-progrMovebVI M

#IV o The #showtheseis theF#). Tto a f

The mthe IV'Rhyt

bIII 7 (Eb,G,'s That Rainyeen the III antitution for a

tonal constitund chord (whonstrates. In I temporary ression is foue. As an In MMa7-bII Ma7

or bV

#IV is one ofwn later in Ba

non-scale-toeir position oThe most frefollowing VI

most frequenV(FMa7) or thm changes

,Bb,Db) in ay Day), servnd II chordsbIII diminis

uents of the hich places tthe second etranspositio

und in the brMove it finds7.

f only two Nass-line Paraone bass-lin

on either endequent chordII 7. (ex.46)

nt use of the IV 7(F7) to

s are obvious

addition to itves like the o. Not immedshed 7(Ebdim

bIII Ma7 (Ethe III Ma7 oeight bars thon to the bIIIridges of sevs use in an a

Non-Major-Sadigms. The e constituen

d of the majod-types in thi

#IV diministhe I chord w

s examples o

s obvious at

other bIII chodiately obviom) if played

Eb,G,Bb,D) aover a I pedae bIII Ma7 iI Ma7 appearveral Standaralternate 4-m

Scale-tones toother is the b

nts in what isor scale laid is usage are

shed 7 (F#,Awith the V in

of this usage

ttraction to thords as an Inously, it serv

d as a 7, b5, #

are nearly idal) of On Gres visited agaring now as rd songs, wh

move InMove

o figure in thb7. The reas

s otherwise aout in fifths the #4 mi7 o

A,C,Eb) is asn the bass (C. (ex.47)

he bVI(Ab) nMove passives credibly #9, 13. (ex.4

dentical to theen Dolphinain, this timea I chord (e

here it followe module: III

he progressison for the inan all-scale-t(Bb, F, C, G

or the #4 mi

s a passing chCMa7/G). B


chord (as in ing chord as a


e I mi7, as n Street e by way of ax.45). This

ws a I7-IV I-bIII Ma7-

on patterns nclusion of tone context G, D, A, E, B7 b5 joined

hord from lues and




Page 34: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The #Stellabeginintercor III

The bbegin

#V or The #VI(Aand thascen(becaInMofunct

The upath t


#IV mi7 b5 (a By Starlighns a 4-move changeable wIMa7. (ex.48

b5 Ma7 (Gb,ns the bridge

r bVI

#V diminishAmi7) and V

he IV(F Ma7nt to the VI cause the G#dove. (ex.50) tion as a root

unlikely appto a #4 mi7(

larly, the #Vule destined

(F#,A,C,E) fht, and as theInMove mo

with #IV mi78)

,Bb,Db,F), the of Warm V

ed 7 (G#,B,Dmi7(Gmi7) 7). Also, starchord, i.e., I/dim is a surro

Hopefully, t is, by this t

earance of aF#mi7). (ex

V minor7 (G#to resolve, f

finds use as te opening chdule progres7 (F#,A,C#,E

he most distValley after a

D,F) finds ocin the 6-movrting from V/V(C Ma 7/Gogate III7(E7a reminder t

time, superfl

a #V mi7 b5 x.51)

#,B,D#,F#) bfinally, to the

the substituthord in the fissing to the TE) when foll

ant possible a very brief I

ccasional usve InMove m

V(G) in the bG) or V(G7)-7) chord) mathat all tonesluous.


begins the 8-e Tonic via t

tion of choicirst phrase oTonic. It is mlowed by VI

chord from II-V prepara

se as a passinmodule betwbass, it can a--#5dim--(Gakes the lasts of a dimini

#) would sug

-move Cyclethis path: #5

ce for the firsf Woody'n Y

more or less II 7 resolving

the Tonic matory progres

ng chord between the I(C accomplish aG#dim)--VI(At chord changished 7th qua

ggest a way-s

e of Fifths In5mi7-#I7-#IV


st chord of You where it

g to either II

major 7th, ssion. (ex.49

tween the Ma7) chord

a chromatic Ami7), whicge an atrad can

station on th

nMove Vmi7-VII7-








Page 35: Jazz Harmony New Cover

III-VII in aor diathe fa

The bimmeafter wise progr

The bthe prmodu

#VI o The #chordchord(A#,C(ex.5

The bWhatfairlythe sethe bV

VI7-II-V-(I). Wa II-V resoluatonically toamiliar II-V-

bVI 7 (Ab,Cediately descan initial I cprogression

ression. (ex.5

bVI Ma7 (Abrogression: Iule, III-bIII M

or bVII

#VI diminishd. Its use wod, or a modaC#,E,G#) ex5)

bVII mi7 (Bbt's New. It aly complicateeventh bar oVI Ma7 (Ab

With appropution either c the bV(Gb -(I). (ex.52)

,Eb,Gb) chocends to the chord. It figu

as well as th53)

b,C,Eb,G) chI-bVIImi7-bMa7, bVI M

hed 7 (A#,C#uld in all likl variant ther

xcept that the

b,Db,F,Ab) lso appears id sequence of Ladybird.

bMa7). (ex.5

priate respellchromaticallMa7). Put m

ord begins BlV chord. In

ures in the I (he chromatic

hord is arrivIII7-bVI Ma

Ma7, bII Ma7

#,E,G) is an kelihood be lreof. The sam

e modal varia

has already in the ninth bof chromaticThere, as in 56)

ling, the bVIly through th

more simply,

lue Lou (andseveral song

(or I mi7)-bVcally descend

ved at in the a7. It also fig-(I). (ex.54)

unusual namlimited to gome would beant would al

been identifbar of Alongc II-V's. Its aWhat's New

I mi7 (Ab,Bhe bII 7(Db7 this is the "

d a few othergs it appearsVII 7-bVI 7-ding bVII 7-

opening phrgures in the

me and spelloing to, or coe true of the lmost certain

fied above ing Came Bettyappearance iw it serves to

,Eb,Gb) fun7) to the Tontri-tone subs

r Standards)s as the secon-V 7 descend-VI 7-bVI 7-

rase of Whaalternate tur

ling for this doming from, #VI mi7 b5

nly be the VI

n the openingy as an elemis more straigo link the I (C


ctions as thenic (C Ma7) stitution" for

) and nd chord ding step--V

at's New by rnaround

diminished the VII

5 II ma7 chord

g phrase of ment in a

ghtforward iC Ma7) with





in h

Page 36: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The bin Bato thesongsmove

The bfourthTonicand a

Bass It canunivethe hafolk mcreati Harmtone (musicresortcontinattach In Wbeen the Lof hascale harm

bVII 7 (Bb,Dass-line Parae I. (ex.57) Ts—Killer Joee In-Move M

bVII Ma7 (Bh bar of Endc minor. It aascends from

Line Parad

nnot be overeersal need foalf-century omusic to the ive geniuses

monically, th(or drone) thc of the Inditing to changnuous fifth ah to the melo

estern musican accepted

Late Romantirmonic deviin a single c

monic motion

D,F,Ab) is thdigms. In thThe bVII 7 ce and That O

Module: bVII

Bb,D,F,A) chd of a Love Also appears i

m, the VI cho

digms From

emphasized or simple, coof jazz's bluehighest leve

s along the w

e very simplhat establishean subcontinge in bass toand octave oody as a harm

c, triadic hard norm for thics at the endices that migcompositionns. We must

he other non-his context it chord servesOld Devil MI 7(Bb7)-VI

hord appearsAffair, in botin the fourth

ord. (ex.59)

m Simple to C

that the rootmprehensibles-and-Standel of artistic

way often we

lest foundaties a tonic thnent achieveone or introdof the tamboumonization.

rmony incorphree centuried of the 19th

ght have bass, they kept toask, then, w

-scale-tone cis preceded

s as a repeateoon come to7(A7)-bVI(A

s in the fifth th cases the r

h and sixth b


ts of the Stanle accompandards-based achievemen

ere breakthro

ion is an unvat grounds a

es great varieduction of a tura drone se

porating chas at the begi

h century hads lines that vonality focu

what are the s

chord to be iby IV mi 7

ed One-Movo mind at oncAb7)-V(G7)

bar of How result of a IIar of Beatric

ndard song lniment to sonmeteoric cli

nt, the innovaoughs into ne

varying repetall tones of thety and sophtriad-producrve to center

anges from oinning of thed developed visited every sed by resor

simplest poss

included in tand moves d

ve Module ince. Also, it b). (ex.58)

High the MI-V-I beginnce where it d

lie in the peong and danceimb from neations of theew simplicit

tition of a sihe melody. T

histication wiing third tonr the drone r

one chord to e modern era

a wide-rang tone of the

rting to the ssible harmon


the examplesdirectly backn many begins the 4-

oon and the ning with thedescends to,

ople's e. Indeed, inar-illiterate

e seminally ties.

ngle bass The classicaithout

ne. The rather than to

another hada. Although ging palette chromatic implest of nic moves?


s k







Page 37: Jazz Harmony New Cover


It is worth noting that the harmonic moves compiled below can function either as "stand-alone" repeated cyclical repetitions, or as modules in combination with other harmonic patterns. Moves generally unsuited to cyclical repetition will be covered in a following section. The Main Modules The bass lines of standards are cyclical—that is, they go out from a center and return in to the center. They are required to be cyclical only over the whole song-form. In jazz, the song-form (or chorus) constitutes the mega-module whose number of repetitions is undetermined. Two halves of a song-form may be the next cyclical level (usually with first and last endings). The quarters of the song-form (usually eight bars) are cycles. Cycles can occur at four bar intervals, two bar intervals, less frequently at one bar intervals, and rarely at two beat intervals. Chord progression Modules typically occur within rhythmic and formal envelopes that are limited to 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 time signatures and melodic and harmonic phrase-lengths limited to multiples of two (½, 1, 2, 4, 8). Further, no more than three repetitions of a melodic or harmonic phrase in a row are permitted. The compositions of Thelonious Monk were the first and most consistent in pushing against these constrictions while clearly remaining within the realm of the Standard Song. Dave Brubeck broke the time signature limitation with “Take Five”. From the 60s on, the works of jazz composers cannot be depended upon to obey any of these “rules”. Here, then, are the chord progression Moves that constitute the inner workings of the Main Modules. Moves (or chord changes) are defined herein as either In-Moves, Back Moves, Out-

Moves, Jumps, Tilts, Swings, or Home Runs. In-Moves move either down a fifth on the Cycle of Fifths, or down a minor-second

on the Chromatic Scale. Back-Moves move either up a fifth on the Cycle of Fifths, or up a minor-second if

the Move substitutes for an up-a-fifth Move. All other Moves are Out-Moves, except for Jumps, Tilts, and Home Runs.. Jumps are flat-five substitutions In a Tilt, the bass remains stationary while the chord changes. In a Swing, the chord remains stationary while the bass changes. In a Home Run, a 7th chord based on tones other than the V or bII “resolves”

directly to a I Ma7, a I Ma6, or in some cases, a mi7. (Parenthetically, it’s useful to realize that a dominant 7th chord on any degree of the chromatic scale may be made to “resolve” to a I Ma7 or I Ma6 with voice movements no larger than a whole-step.)

One-Move Modules The typical kinds of harmonic paths followed by Standards cause One-Move Modules to be more commonly employed as sub-units of longer modules. Although repeated One-

Page 38: Jazz Harmony New Cover

Movethat aBrack I, IV, Fromwith to I) i

Allowinto tprogris basas anWash

A keycontichordlater. Let's develback patteris theThat SpanFifthsto thefourthAn esunderhistorthembe the

e Modules sare included kets signify

V: The Ultim

m the standpoa pedal I. (exis the [I-V] o

wing the basthe I-IV and ressions. (exsed on these ultimate go

herwoman w

y element inguity on the d but they ar

reflect for alopment of aand forth berning. Also, e combinatiolack is at thegled Banners (or betweee tonal matrih or a fifth assential qualrlying abstrarical styles. Nselves entiree underlying

sometimes obelow excepa module en

mate Simplic

oint of the bax.60). Equaover the ped

s to move frI-V progres

x.62). A greairreducibly od in its own

which alterna

n the simpliciCycle of Fif

re all relative

a moment ona melodic coetween two tfourths and

on of more sie heart of ther. But since tn the second

ix, like it or nare the quintelification is tact nature of Neither polyely to explicag harmonic m

ccur betweept for the act

nvelope and i


ass line, the ally simple (edal V. You ca

rom root to rsions. (ex.61

at deal of musimple bass n right, one n

ates between

ity rating to fths. Four oely remote on

n the significncept for the

tones barely fifths are lea

ingable step-e complaint the naturalned, third, and not, the motiessential methe reminderf the bass lineyphonic counating root mmotion.

en scale-tonetivity aroundimply repeat

simplest posexcept for than't get simp

root introduc1). Equally s

usic, some (bmotions. If need look no

n I and V onl

the ear of thother Major tn the Cycle

ance of these bass line. Iqualifies as aps, not step-wise motionabout the la

ess of harmofourth partiaions proceedlodic materir that we are e, not necessnterpoint nor

motion by fou

es other thand the minor Itability.

ssibility is thhe necessity pler than no m

ces no furthesimple are thbut not most)one values so further thaly.

he I,IV,V contriads share cof Fifths. W

e protean prIn the first plmelody. Th

ps. The essenns with stratck of "music

onies movingals of the Ovding either uials of the ba examining sarily it's rear jazz walkin

urths or fifths

n the root, noII,VI, and II

he alternationof an eventumotion at al

er harmonic he reverse IV) of it very ssimplicity ofan The Irish

njunction is common ton

We shall retu

rogressions tlace, a simpl

here isn't enonce of melodtegically placcality" of theg along the Cvertone Serieup or down bass line in to(at this poinalization in tng bass liness even thoug


o examples oI chords.

n of [I-IV] ual resolutionl.

complexity V-I and V-I ophisticatedf bass motion


nes with the urn to them

to the le alternation

ough dic patterninced leaps. e Star Cycle of es) is built inby either a nal music.

nt) the he various s restrict gh that may




d, n





Page 39: Jazz Harmony New Cover

Is it maesthhas aobviobenefline. enhanfrequ If thiaesththroubegintranspexpecour hmotio An im(whetalternthe lofourthV-I-Vvoicegravior mo(II)-Vseek sambcompaesth

I-V, Iseven Becauall cysimplbossaChild

merely its fuhetically satis lot to do wi

ous implacabfit of escape This charactnced by its c

uently than th

s analysis is hetic for bassugh variety, dnning and a fporting a pascted destinat

hypothesis, leons to see if

mportant obsther polkas onates betweeowest two anh lower (ex.6V-I-V-I-V... es are not reqitate to it. If tore, drumistiV-... Perhaptheir express

bas. In any capetitive simphetically plea

I-IV (I & IVnths).

use it movesycles is the olicity it's usua-nova intro d. (ex.64)

unctional necsfying in basith it. Howevble rationalitfrom total s

teristic of ratchanges at hahe supported

correct, at les lines differsdetail, exprefeeling of inessenger, safetion, with erret's start by lthey match t

servation at tor waltzes), en articulatinnd one-half o63). The reasays, "Left,

quired to prothe harmonyic continuitys one of the sion above thase, the poin

plicity of tonasing through

V chords can

s either up oron-off [I-V](aually confinevamps. The

cessity whichss lines but over, it wouldty such bass stasis withoutional, predicalf-note, whod melody.

east for Stans from lead lssion of emoevitability ate and predictratic maneuvlooking nextthe paradigm

this point is if the I chord

ng the root ofoctaves of thason? The ba

right, left rigoduce this efy alternates by is best presreasons "bohe root rathe

nt is undersconally simple dh an almost

n have either

r down onlya Back-Moved to one bar[I-IV7] ope

h makes motonly occasiond seem that th

lines possesut competingctable, suppoole-note, and

ndards, the clines. Upperotion, surprit the end. Batable in steadvers only at t at the melom.

that in traditd occupies of the I chord

he piano, andass and the feght,..." at anffect; the lowbetween I anserved by thessas" are "noer than the pored that theduple alternasubconsciou

added sixth

y one unit of ve) or [I-IV](r and two baens Willow W

tion by fourtnal in upperhe utter absoss give the mg for attentioortive, non-cd two bar int

onclusion car melody linese, and unprass lines shody motion frthe service odic aspect o

tional Europone bar or md on the first d articulatingeet have an i

n almost atavwer voices ofnd V at a freqe bass articuova" is that a

position belowe predictableation in bass

us functional

s, minor sev

the Cycle of(an In-Move

ar modules. TWeep for Me

ths and fifthr melodies? Solute simplic

music they sun with the ucompetitive tervals—seld

an be drawn es should draredictability ould be like arom known oof its rider. Wf the simple

pean dances more, the bass

beat somewg the fifth ofin-built affin

vistic level. Tf drum choirquency of on

ulating I-V-(Ialternating fw more typi

e, supportives lines becomlity.

venths, or ma

f Fifths, the e). Because oThe [I-V] is e and God B


s Surely that city and upport the upper melodi

simplicity isdom more

that the aw attentionat the

a vehicle origin to With this as st bass

and marchess typically

where within f the I chordnity, so that ITuned bass rs routinely ne bar apieceII)-V-I-V-fifths tend to ical of e, non-mes


simplest of of its ultimatused a lot fo

Bless the


ic s



a I-


te or

Page 40: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The rused less cMonk

II-V, Thesevampfar leWhat

The rfrom reverrespe

I-V-V Proceourseonly I-V, a

reverse [V-I]in the first tw

common, butk's Bye-ya.

, VI-II (and

e are the minp. It also begess common t the World N

reverse, V-IIflat to sharp

rse of VI-II (ectively, the

V-I: The Tw

eeding onwaelves for the the I, IV, anand so on. T

](In-Move) ,wo bars of I t occurs in th(ex.65)


nor analogs ogins a commoas a repeatedNeeds Now

I(Back), is unp on the Cyc(and III-VI), first six bars

wo-Move Lin

ard from the moment to p

nd V chords where exist a

, finds occasGot the Sun

he first eight

of I-V and I-on interpretad module, buIs Love.

n-used as a rle of Fifths) the III-VI(B

s and the brid

ne Followed

ultimate simpatterns easiwe have the dozen possib

ional use oun in the Mornt bars of Lov

-IV. The II-Vation of Sumut does find

repeated elemwithout ben

Back) and thedge of Favel

d By Its Mir

mplicity of twily realized wwidely usedble variation

utside the [I-Vning. The [IVve for Sale, a

V(In) lives immertime. (e

expression i

ment becausnefit of domie II-VI(Backla. (ex.67)

rror Image

wo-move patwithin two bd I-V-V-I, I-Ins of combin

VI-II-V] moV-I](Back-Mand the first

in ubiquity aex.66) The Vin the first fo

se it back-cyinance on thk) are both f

tterns, but cobarsand relyiIV-V-I, I-Vnations of I-I


odule. It's Move) is eve

four bars of

as a Latin VI-II(In) is our bars of

yles (moves he II. The found in,

onfining ing still on

V-I-IV, I-IV-IV and I-V,


en f

Page 41: Jazz Harmony New Cover

most the bachordchordthe IVThese First,out, Ifirst 4patterif theknowYes S(comIn LoVie Efirst sfinal bars. of Se

Two I-IV- If theworldbluesbluesminimsuch

To dithe re

of which arealance pointd is the end pd along the CV chord has e two form t

, the I-V-V-II think I'll go4 bars of Haprn takes up t

e composer's ws no stylistiSir, That's M

mposed, 1965ove With LovEn Rose, Ciesection with refrain with The Beer B

ecret Love. (e

Move Mod

-V: The Blu

e I-V-V-I arcd of contemps—remains as progressionmum stay onas the most

igress momeemarkable as

e unused by t between thepoint in the nCircle of Fiftgone beyond

the basis for

I pattern. It to in". The firppy Birthdaythe whole ofscore paper

c, national, oMy Baby, She5), Around thve, O Solo Melito Lindo, aalternating Ian extended

Barrel Polka ex.68)



chetype seemporary jazz, a vital sourcen is: I (4 barsn any one chbasic one: (e

entarily into spects of, on

Standards. Te other two mnatural moveths, the V chd the center scores of so

tells a little srst 4 bars of y. Mack the

f the first 8 br came with ior temporal beik of Arabyhe World, AlMio, Mexicaand RudolphI and V, a sed [I-I-I-V]-[Vfollows muc

ms of only hiits rival for oebook for crs), IV (2 bar

hord is necesex.69).

the thicket on the one han

The reason? major triads ement of scahord represenand can go n

ongs and we

story. "First IMuskrat RamKnife stretc

bars. Waltzesit imprinted bounds. A p

y, I Want To lways, I Cou

an Hat Danceh the Red-Noecond sectionV-V-V-I] pach the same

istorical, nosorigin in hoaeative invens), I (2 bars)sary to accom

of the quartend, a kind of

On the Circcomposing

ale tone triadnts the last lino further wwill look at

I am in, thenmble are a p

ches each chs and polkasalong with s

partial list of Be Happy, uld Have Dae, Hokey Poosed Reinden with altern

attern, 2 barspattern, as d

stalgic, or coary antiquity

ntion. The sim), V (2 bars),mmodate bo

r-note bass lf mathematic

cle of Fifths a major scal

ds beginningink in that ch

without changthose next.

n I go out, nopure exampleord to 2 bars depend on istaves. In facf its beneficiaSomewhere

anced All Niokey, Chickeer. Tiger Ra

nating V ands per chord, rdoes the 16 b

ommercial iny—the I-IV-Vmplest form , I (2 bars). oogie-woogi

line, the boocally perfect


the I chord ile. Since the

g with the VIhain, whereaging key.

ow that I'm e. So are thes so that the it heavily, asct, its usage aries include My Love ght, Falling

en Dance, Laag, after a d I, begins thrunning to 1bar A. sectio

nterest to theV of the of the 12 baThe 2 bar e ostinatos

ogie bass hasserial analo


is I II as




he 6




s g

Page 42: Jazz Harmony New Cover

to theevocaleap oovertto comthe siback apogeof theexactlimit an ocemphsevena conFor odrawnasym

The 2commstruct7][V note lphrasone abeatstrump

The bthe basimpldevelsong- The I Whilsharpadd th

e overtone seation of the rof a major thtone series, amplete a majixth, and finaby a path idee it bumps e seventh patly which wothe pattern's

ctave higher hasis of this inth chord is tnsequence, thour purposesn more to fo

mmetry of lyr

2 bar unit as mon—harmoture of the b7-IV 7- I 7-line undergirses are identiand the V ch, though optps featureles

blues has maasic harmonlicity of the lopment of q-structure pr

II-V-I Caden

e still stayinp direction alhe II. But d

eries in its prrhythmic drihird, then (coand the Circlajor triad, andally by a hal

dentical to itsagainst the lrtial of the o

ould eliminas ascent at thon the stronimportant pothe parent, fhe rules of cl, the notion t

orms of almorical melodie

the basis of onic design olues as commI 7 (or I7,V7rd this formaical to the firord on the fitional, is the ss formal sym

any faces. Lanic building bbasic blues s



ng within thelong the Circo we entirely

rogression oive of the bluonstrained byle of Fifths) d then (like lf-step to thes ascent, thuslimit of the eovertone serite the sixth (

he octave. Thng first beat oosition. The fallback, defalassical Eurothat the shap

ost geometrices gains adde

f blues is notof the blues. monly playe7)]. (ex.70) at. It's intererst one excepirst bar of thusual choice


ater we'll looblocks and thstructure togd popular m

e bounds of 3cle of Fifthsy leave the I

of intervals, bues. Looked y the combinascends by aa projectile l

e minor-seves describing even-tempereies rather tha(or the sevenhe result is thof the secondmessage senault, typical opean harmoping of the mc purity in coed support.

, however, th With the si

ed becomes: Ostinatos 1

esting to notept for the IVe final one. Te; putting a p

ok at some ohe bass linesgether with it

music drew us

3-move prog. Doing so, wIV behind? W

but on the otd at as melodned gravitatianother smalosing energ

enth, where—a perfect mu

ed chromatican followingnth, which ithat rather thd bar, the sevnt loud and cchord of thi

ony have beemelodic charontrast to th

he only—oringle bar as t[I 7-IV 7-I 7bar in lengthe that each o

V chord on thThe final V period at the

of these afters which connts seminal ros into the ex

gressions, letwe leave theWe're in Qua

ther, an emody, it ascendsional pulls o

aller leap of agy to gravity)—exhausted—usical parabc scale's app

g the overtont sometimes an the root bventh gains clear is that tis genre of men bent to otracter of basse greater var

r even the mothe unit, the 7-I 7][IV 7-Ih or a walkinof the three fhe first bar ochord on the

e end of the s

r we have exnect them. Tole in the 20

xamination o

t's move onee IV behind iatrad Countr


otional s with the of the a minor third) by a step to—it falls ola. At its

proximation ne series does) and

being restatethe added the dominan

music and, asther purposes lines is riety and

ost default

IV 7-I 7-I ng quarter four bar of the seconde last two sentence

xamined all The very 0th century of a particula

e notch in thein order to ry now, and


d o


nt s s.




Page 43: Jazz Harmony New Cover

very (F,A,positican imcruci If thesevenStandexpou How probarefereresoluto thefifth tThe n"perfFifthsWith provijourn

It is ilengthchordaboutTheseV com The I The sII 7 (chordplacid

quickly real,C,D). We wion in a chormpart to eacal to making

e dominant-snth II chord idard songboound upon it.

can we explably, is the loent of that isution of the e consonancetoo far, thennear equivalefect cadence"s by passingthe I chord,

ides front steney. (ex.71)

important to h as the I pad will fill thet some of thee songs, althmponents in

II 7-V Moda

scale-tone mD,F#,A,C) (d role in Stand minor-seve

ize that the swould be misrd progressioch quite distig both of the

seventh V chis the automok. Its very u One would

lain the adopong history i

s the ancient flat-five disse of the majo

n to the fifth ence of the I" to be expre

g through the the opened

eps to walk u

note that theart. In other we next bar, ane songs liste

hough playabn typical cont

al Variant

minor-seventh(as if we migndards. Pianenth provide

scale-tone seled, howeveon and the wnct II-ness ose distinctio

hord is the enmatic self-star

ubiquity makd be hard-pre

ption of suchin Western mscale of Just

sonance betwor third of thon the other II and IV choessed more ae II rather thadoor says, "

up thereby ex

e II-V part owords, if thend so on for d previously

ble with simptemporary p

h isn't the onght possibly nists will subes. (ex.72)

eventh II choer, to say thaway they use or IV-ness. Tons.

ngine of harmrter. The II-Vkes it seem pessed to find

h a universalmusic of the t Intonation ween the thirhe tonic, and

side, and finords in Quatas going straan the IV. THoney, I'm xtending the

of the equatio II and the Vall duple mu

y as exampleple V chordserformance.

nly II chord obe headed fostitute it wh

ord (D,F,A,Cat they're "the

the overtoneThe path whi

monic motioV-I progresspointlessly, p

d a Standard

l practice? MIV-V-I cadethat is less drd and seven

d more depennally comingtradic harmoaight to the taThe V chord home!" The

e forward mo

on is generalV are allottedultiples. If yes of I-V-V-Is, are genera.

option, howeor G Maj 7) en they desi

C) inverts to e same chorde series by thich the bass

on, then the msion is everypedanticallywithout it.

Most importaence. But thedependant onnth of the dondant on goig to rest at th

ony allows tharget along tputs the key

e preparatoryotion of the h

lly metricalld two beats aou had reserI, you were cally broken d

ever. The mois often cast

ire more grit


the IV6 d". Their heir voicingline takes is

minor-ywhere in they redundant t

ant, e basic n the

ominant choring first one he center. he so-called the Cycle of y in the doory II chord homeward

ly of the samapiece, the I rvations correct. down into II-

odal variant t in the II than the



e to





Page 44: Jazz Harmony New Cover

The I The othe I in theseldoused,(ex.7

Why practsevenas thepointdoub The R As inas to by itsdefau Thre I-VI-IThe TThis conveto theV can(A,Cas theall tobasicbass l

II b5 Modal

other II chorchord might

e present casom original t, it transform3)

are these vaice, the quarnths of chordey have a clet where that bling an inner

Reverse II-V

n the II-V-I, tthe I. Rather

self, it ends bult answer is

ee or More M

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As mentioned earlier, by the forties, jazz had incorporated the b5 substitution for the dominant chord as a common harmonic device. Used mainly to add tension to the harmonies accompanying soloists, these substitutions must be a good fit with the melody. For that reason, this substitution requires careful attention to context.

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A Syllabus of Chord Substitutions and Alterations In the matrix below, chords are assumed to be moving in a continuum that extends from the VII chord to the IV chord in this order: VII(Bmin7b5) to III(Emin7) to VI(Amin7) to II(Dmin7) to V(G7) to I(Cmaj7) to IV(Fmaj7). The I chord acts as the beginning and/or end of the typical harmonic progression and therefore is limited in the substitutions that can be applied to it without destroying its function as the Tonic. The same is true of the VI chord when it has origin/destination function as the relative minor. Therefore, in the usual case, substitutions listed below can only be safely used for the I and VI chords when these chords occur in the middle of a progression. SCALE SUBSTITUTIONS TONE CHORD diatonic single note b5 diminished limited variation substitution substitution I. Cmaj7 Emin7 Amin7 C7,C+maj7,Emin7b5 F#min7b5 N.A. II. Dmin7 Fmaj6 G7sus4 Dmin7b5 Fmin6 Ab7 Ddim III Emin7 Cmaj7 A7sus4 Emin7b5 Gmin6 Bb7 Edim IV Fmaj7 Dmin7 F7 F#min7b5 B7 or B7alt N.A. V G7 G7sus4 Dmin7 G7b5 G7#5 Db7 N.A. Abmin7->Db7 VI Amin7 Cmaj7 D7sus4 A7 Amin7b5 Eb7 Adim VII Bmin7b5 G7 Bmin7 Bdim The 5 non-diatonic tones (each with two names depending on context) complete the picture. SCALE SUBSTITUTIONS TONE CHORD diminished-scale 7ths minor 7ths #I C#dim A, Eb, C, F#, 7b9 Db7 Dbmin7 bII Dbdim #II D#dim B, D, F, Ab, 7b9 Eb7 Ebmin7 bIII Ebdim #IV F#dim D, Ab, 7b9 Gb7 F#min7 bV Gbdim #V G#dim E, Bb, G, Db, 7b9 Ab7 G#min7 bVI Abdim #VI A#dim F#7b9 Bb7 Bbmin7

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Chord Substitution Along the “Ladder of Thirds.” The diagram below is offered as a broad generalization for the functionality of chords in diatonic progressions, or progressions along the circle of fifths, within a particular major scale. An important caveat to this construction relates to the VIth degree or Amin7 in the example. Injudicious use of an A on a strong beat in the bass in a C major context can produce the effect of the relative minor (A minor). Dominant Related Tonic Related G7 Bm7b5 Dm7 FM7 Am7 CM7 Em7 G B D F A C E G B D In other words, the effect of being in the Tonic (in this case, C) will still be maintained by the context of the progression even if an Emin7 or Amin7 is the chord actually played—with certainty if the bass plays a C. Conversely, the bass can play an E or an A on a strong beat without conflicting with the Tonic function—again, with certainty if the piano plays a Cmaj7. However, if any of the Dominant Related chords are played in what is intended to be a Tonic context, they will conflict with the Tonic—even if not actually dissonant. This division is a bit more ambiguous for the bass. An F on a strong beat clearly subverts C as the Tonic while a G is more likely to be weak or slightly mis-leading. In the 7th chord environment of most modern jazz, a D is actually not that dissonant in a Cmaj7 environment, but its stepwise relationship to the tonic can produce the misleading effect of a D7sus4. A B in the bass not only misleads but is dissonant. The addition of the tri-tone substitution (and its close relations), in this case Db7, to the list of Dominant Related chords completes the picture, as no such chromatic addition is functional in the Tonic environment. The row of single tones at the bottom of the diagram also depicts the upper-structure 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths as one moves left from their 7th chord basis. A similar overlapping of chords along the ladder of thirds occurs in the Minor Ma7 scale. Dominant Related Tonic Related G7 Bm7b5 Dm7 F7 Am7b5 CmiMa7 EMa7+5 G B D F A C Eb G B D

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Nuances in the Cycle of Fifth Progression Within a Key The major scale scale-tone 7th chords cycle through their part of the Cycle of Fifths in the following order: I (CMaj7), IV(FMaj7), VII(Bmi7b5), III(Emi7), VI(Ami7), II(Dmi7), V(G7), I. Modal variants at every station can alter, refine, and qualify exactly how far along the Cycle the harmony has progressed. Beginning with the I chord: CMaj7 C7sus4 or Gmi7(11) C7 C7b5 or Gb7b5 Gb7 or Dbmi7-Gb7 FMaj7 (note: from the IV chord, going on to IVmi (Fmi) and on to bVII7 and on to I by the "back door" is usual but follows the Cycle out of the key.) Fmaj7b5 Fmaj7b5(13) or Bmi7b5(11) Bmi7b5 E7sus4(b9) E7b9 E7b5 or Bb7b5 Bb7 or Fmi7-Bb7 Emi7 or Emi7(11) or A7sus4 A7 A7b5 or Eb7b5 Amin7 or Ami7(11) or D7sus4 D7 D7b5 or Ab7b5 Ab7 or Ebmi7-Ab7 Dmin7 or Dmi7(11) or G7sus4 G7 G7b5 or Db7b5 Db7 or Abmi7-Db7 CMaj7 There also exists a very fine gradation within 7th chords deriving from the choice and combination of upper-structure tones. For the most part, this gradation doesn't impact the bass line. However, playing one of the variants on the list, followed by one further down, followed by a I chord with appropriate upper structure (all connected by appropriate voice-leadings), can sound like a II-V-I progression even though the bass remains fixed on the root of the dominant. G7sus4 G7sus4(9) G7sus4(9)(13) G7sus4(13) G7sus4(9)(b11)(13)

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G7sus4(b11)(13) G7sus4(b11) G7sus4(b9) G7sus4(b9)(b11) G7(9)(11)(13) G7(9)(11) G7(9)(13) G7(9) G7(9)(#11)(13) G7(9)(#11) G7(9)(b13) G7(b9)(13) G7(#9)(13) G7(#11) G7b5(9)(13) G7b5(9) G7b5(b13) G7b5(b9) G7b5(#9) G7b5(#9)(b13) G7b5(b9)(b13) G7b5(b9)(#9) G7b5(b9)(#9)(b13) Putting Analysis to Work: Progressions, Modules, and Substitutions in the Bass Lines of Specific Standard Songs. So far we have looked at those harmonic elements characteristic of the Standard song and joined most of them into progressions using anywhere from 2 to 8 elements, but mostly two to four elements. We are ready to look at particular songs that exemplify a variety of ways in which these elements are joined together. Taken as a whole, the thousands of songs comprising the American Standard Songbook, have in common many patterns of harmonic motion which the particular song exemplifies. For instance, the bridge—I 7-IV-II 7-V—was used in so many tunes that it was known in my youth as the "Sears & Roebuck bridge". Two song-forms to be examined—“rhythm changes", and the blues—will receive the most detailed examination. These particular forms have demonstrated a seemingly never-ending capacity for absorbing alterations and updating. The devices that constitute their essence, together with the ones added over the years, form the basis of the harmonic language that is then applied to other songs in the interest of stylistic coherence. Gunther Schuller notes in the first book of his musicological study of jazz history, "Early Jazz", that "no one discovered how the African was capable of sustaining his interest and his audience's for a single dance that may last an hour or more. Jones (A. M. Jones, Studies in African Music, 2 vols.) has found the answer. It is nothing more than the

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chorus pattern we accept so casually in jazz as the basic improvisational procedure... Actually, three structural levels govern these dance forms. They reflect the fundamental cellular structuring of nature itself: the overall form breaks down into still relatively long "master patterns," which in turn consist of repetitions of smaller phrase fragments, which in themselves may contain tiny cell-patterns." Schuller then proceeds to diagram this form thusly: Overall form ___________________________________________________________ Master patterns______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Phrases _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Motives ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Analyses of Various Standard and Jazz Classic Songs The fifty picks, selected from the thousands of possibilities, were chosen to present a comprehensive overview historically (the ‘teens through the seventies), to range from simple to complex, to illustrate the variety of opening harmonies, and to favor songs that are likely to be called in mainstream jam sessions. I have purposefully refrained from displaying melodies or giving composer credit. These analyses are designed to focus exclusively on the harmonic patterns of the songs, harmonic patterns that are common to most of the songs examined here, and are seldom the invention of one composer. These analyses are not intended as performance aids or even as definitive harmonic progressions. They are intended to be studied as memorization aids and a jumping-off place for more detailed study of the songs shown and the other songs they resemble. For the serious student, many sources for such study exist in published sheet music or authorized transcriptions. For the songs with lyrics, one can find examples of performances of all of them on YouTube from which one can make one’s own transcriptions. For the instrumentals, recordings afford the same opportunity. In any case, playing standards or jazz classics as a rhythm section player requires that one must try to develop one’s ear so as to detect the small differences between musician’s conceptions and thereby contribute to a musically synergetic outcome. The notation is in bass clef and is intended to be read as the 8ba register employed for bass instruments. When whole notes or repeat signs are shown, the intention is to indicate that the scale implied by the chord symbol is operative in that bar. In practice, that may mean that that chord will be the only one played, or it may mean that a turnaround in that key will be called for depending on context.

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The display of notes from the upper structure triad has been avoided except where they are essential to the harmony. In actual practice, these are the ones most subject to alteration by the harmonist, again, depending on context. In the analyses, the term “II-V” is used in two senses. Its basic use is to relate the two chords to the tonic. It’s also used as a generic term independent of its relation to the tonic for the most basic progression to be found in standards and jazz classics. Here, then, are the analyses of fifty songs. 50 Songs for Analysis: 1st chord Ist move Key(s) Songs that proceed from the I chord to an out or back-move in the sharp direction: I Want to Be Happy I II-V I Joy Spring I II I Exactly Like You I II7 I Take the A Train I II7 I Pennies from Heaven I II I I Got Rhythm I VI I Good Bait I VI I I’m Old Fashioned I VI I Have You Met Miss Jones I VI I Indiana I VI7 I Ain’t Misbehavin I bIIdim I Like Someone in Love I VII I Confirmation I VII I Lover I VII7 I

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Songs that proceed from a chord other than the I chord to a move in the sharp direction: Perdido II V I Honeysuckle Rose II V I Body and Soul II bI dim I Sophisticated lady II III7 I All the Things You Are VI II I Fly Me To the Moon VI II I Sweet Georgia Brown VI 7 II7 I You’dBeSoNiceToComeHomeTo VI VII VI, I Guess I’ll Hang My Tears Out… III bIII7 I Hi Fly III mi7 VI7 II Ma7, I Nice Work If You Can Get It III 7 VI7 I Best Thing for You Is Me VII7 III I Stella by Starlight #IVmi7b5 II I Blue Lou bVI 7 V I Social Call bVII 7 VI 7 I

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Songs that proceed from the I chord to an out-move in a flat direction: Blues I7 IV7 I On Green Dolphin Street I bIII tilt I Giant Steps I bIII 7 #V, III, I Dolphin dance I I7sus4 tilt III, b IIsus4 I’ll Remember April I I mi b tilt I mi How High the Moon I I mi b tilt VII Ladybird I IVmi7 I Very Early I bVII7 You Stepped Out of a Dream I bII Ma7 bVI Ma7, I

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Songs that proceed from a chord other than a I chord to an out-move in a flat direction: Whisper Not I mi VImi7b5 ? Solar I mi Vmi7 IV,I Invitation I mi IV7 b III mi So What I mi7 bIImi7 bII mi7 Silvers Serenade I mi7 bVmi7 ? Moments Notice bII mi7 bV7 I Bolivia II-V bIII Ma7 bIII,II,V,IV Along Came Betty II bIIImi7 bII Ma7, I Naima Vsus4 V mi7 tilt I What Is This Thing Called Love Vmi7b5 I7 IVmi7, I Miyako VI sus4 bV sus4 I,VI,

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Songs that proceed from degrees of the scale other than the fifty already examined: Spring Is Here I dimMa7 Duke Ellington’s Sound of Love bII 7(#9) Ugly Beauty bII mi7b5 April in Paris II mi7b5 ? bIII 7 ? bIII mi7 Bye-Ya IV7 Monk’s Dream IV mi7 ? bV7 Humph bVI7 ? bVI mi7 East Coasting VI Ma7 Eclipse bVII7 (#9) Introspection (if in D) bVII mi7 ? bVII mi7b5 Introspection (if in Db) VII mi7

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Afterword Improvising jazz on established harmonic and formal frameworks is both more simple and more complex than first perceived. My hope is that you will find internalizing these musical structures as rewarding an addition to your mental landscape as I have.