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Jazz Harmony (Almost) Everything there is to know Dr. M.Mermikides Monday, 28 February 2011

Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

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Page 1: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Jazz Harmony(Almost) Everything there is to know

Dr. M.Mermikides

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 2: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

www.scribd.com/mmermikides

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 3: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

99% of Jazz Harmony• Major/minor scale and Diatonic Harmony (with extensions)

• Diatonic cycle of 5ths and the ii-V-I. Guide tones.

• Taming the V7: Secondary dominants, Tritone Substitutions, related ii chords and extensions

• Passing Diminished Chords

• Major and Minor interchange

• The Blues I7, IV7 and inflections

• CESH Chromatically Embellished Static Harmony

• Pentatonics and hexatonics

• Modes and modal interchange (about 10)

• Sliding chords and Parallelism

• Non-triadic, upper structure and polychords

*

* results may vary

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 4: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

The C Major Scale and its Diatonic Harmony©2010 Mermikides

44&

1. The 7 notes of C Major:

I

tone

Major 3rd

Perfect 4th

II

tone

Perfect 5th

III

Major 6th

semitone

Major 7th

IV

tone

V

tone

VI

tone

VII

semitone

&

2. Triads: Root 3rd & 5th starting from each scale degree: (These triad types occur in the same order in any major key)

'US''UK'

Major Triad: R, 3, 5

IC

I

Major 2nd

ii

DmIIm

Minor Triad: R, b3, 5

iii

EmIIIm

Octave

FIVIV

Diminished Triad: R, b3, b5

V

GV

vi

AmVIm

viiº

BdimVIIº

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 5: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

[email protected] Diatonic Harmony Practice

&

Reference: The diatonic triads and 7th chords of C Major.

'US''UK'

IC

I ii

DmIIm

iii

EmIIIm

FIVIV V

GV

vi

AmVIm

viiº

BdimVIIº

&

II^7

Cmaj7

ii7

Dm7IIm7

iii7

Em7IIIm7

Fmaj7

IV^7IV^7

V7

G7V7 VIm7

Am7

iv7 viØ

Bm7b5VIIm7(¨5)

&

1. Find the key (add key signature), notate and analyse the following progression.

GŒ„!7 E‹7 A‹7 D7

&E‹7 A‹7 D7 GŒ„!7

&CŒ„!7 D7 E‹7 A‹7

&CŒ„!7 D7 GŒ„!7

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 6: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Cycle of 5ths

CG

D

AEb

F#Gb

E

F

Bb

Ab

Db

The Cycle of 5ths©2010 Mermikides

B

AmEm

Bm

F#mCm

D#mEbm

C#m

G#m

Dm

Gm

Fm

Bbm

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 7: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

DiatonicCycle of

5ths

I

V

ii

viiii

IV

viiº

1. Diatonic Cycle of 5ths©2010 Mermikides

Imaj7

V7

ii7

vi7iii7

IVmaj7

viiø

(augmented 4th/dimished 5th)

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 8: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

{{{{

D‹7 G7 CŒ„!7

D‹7 G7 CŒ„!7

D‹7(b5) G7 C‹7

D‹7(b5) G7 C‹7

&

The 'guide tones' in 7th chords are the 3rd and 7th - determining much of the character of the chord.In a ii-V-i progression the guide tones moves in a particularly elegant fashion (indicated)

Motion of 'guide' tones (3rd and 7th)

ii - V - I Voice Leading

?

&

A different voicing.

?

&

The motion is similar, but not identical in a 'minor ii-V.' The flat 5 in the ii chord is not technically a guide tone but is included for context

Motion of 'guide' tones (3rd and 7th)

?

&

Motion of 'guide' tones (3rd and 7th)

?

ww ww www w w

ww ww www w w

ww ww wwbbwwb w w

ww ww wwbbwwb w w

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 9: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

DiatonicCycle of

5ths

I

V

ii

viiii

IV

viiº

2.Composing with Diatonic harmony

©2010 Mermikides

Imaj7

V7

ii7

vi7iii7

IVmaj7

viiø

They're are no compositional 'rules' But here are some effective mechanisms to tryI can jump to any chord ('I' as in 'one' not me)

Any chord can jump to I (or IV or V) All other motion as indicated (dashed is less common)

End on IChords can be in there triadic, 7th or other form (6th, 9th, 13th,

add9 etc.)

(augmented 4th/dimished 5th)

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 10: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Secondary Dominants

V7/V

V7/iiV7/vi

V7/iii

C!7

G7

B7

F!7

Dm7

D7Am7

A7

Em7

E7

I7

G7

C7

I!7

V7

ii7

vi7iii7

IV!7

viiø

3.Secondary Dominant 7ths

©2010 Mermikides

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 11: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Secondary Dominants

V7/V

V7/iiV7/vi

V7/iii

C!7

G7

B7

F!7

Dm7

D7Am7

A7

Em7

E7

I7

C7

G7

v7

Gm7

I!7

V7

ii7

vi7iii7

IV!7

viiø

4.Secondary Dominant 7ths Paths

©2010 Mermikides

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 12: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

44&bbb

The 7 notes of the C natural minor scale:

The C Natural Minor Scale and its Diatonic Harmony

tone semitone tone tone semitone tone tone

&bbb

Minor Triad: R, b3, 5

The triads in a minor key are:Triads: Root 3rd & 5th starting from each scale degree:

ImCm

i

DdimIIºiiº

Diminished Triad: R, b3, b5

E¨¨IIIIII

FmIVmiv v

GmVm

Major Triad: R, 3, 5

VI

A¨¨VI

VII

B¨¨VII

&bbb

It is common in a minor key for the V chord to be changed from min7 to dom7. So here Gm7 would become G7 eg V7 - i or iiø - V7 - i.

7th Chords: Root 3rd 5th & 7th starting from each scale degree:The 7th chord types in a natural minor key are:

Major 7 chord: R, 3, 5, 7

Dominant 7 chord: R, 3, 5, b7

Imi7

Cm7

iiøØIIm7(¨5)Dm7b5

¨III^7III^7

E¨maj7

Minor 7 chord: R, b3, 5, b7

Minor 7b5 chord: R, b3, b5, b7(Half diminished)

Fm7

iv7IVm7

v7Vm7

Gm7

VI^7¨VI^7

A¨maj7

VII7¨VII7

B¨7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 13: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

[email protected] Diatonic Harmony Self-test

&

Reference: The diatonic triads of A natural minor.

'US''UK'

Imi

Am Bdim

iiºIIº ¨III

C

III

DmIViv

'US''UK'

VmEm

v VI¨VIm

F G

VII¨VII

AmImi

Common alterations from Harmonic minor:

E

VV

G©º

viiºVIIº

&

Reference: The diatonic 7ths of A minor.

'US''UK' i7

Im7Am Bdim

iiØIIm7(¨5)

C^7¨III^7IIImaj7

Dm7

iv7IVm7

'UK''US'

Em

v7Vm7

VI^7¨VI^7

F G

VII7¨VII7

AmIm7i7

Common alterations from Harmonic minor:

E7

V7V7

G©º7

viiº7VIIº7

&

1. Notate, write chord names and analyse the diatonic triads of

a) sharp minor key of your choice (using a key signature)- indicate the common alterations of the v and VII chords

&

b) flat key of your choice (using a key signature) - indicate the common alterations of the v and VII chords

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇

˙̇̇# ˙̇̇̇#

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇

˙̇̇̇# ˙̇̇̇#Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 14: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Borrowing Chords from the Minor [email protected]

&'US''UK'

IC

I

In a major key, often chords are borrowd from the 'parallel' minor key. So in the key of C (top stave) triads from the key of C minor may be used (bottom 2 staves)

ii

DmIIm

iii

EmIIIm

FIVIV V

GV

vi

AmVIm

viiº

BdimVIIº

&ImCm

i

DdimIIºiiº

Common uses

E¨¨IIIIII

FmIVmiv v

GmVm

VI

A¨¨VI

VII

B¨¨VII

&

The 'Beatles' chord

The 'subdominant minor' IVm, iv

minor key

Fmiv

major key

IC

the bVI bVII I

'Epic'

A¨bVI

minor key

bVII

major key

IC

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇

˙̇̇b ˙̇̇b ˙̇̇bb ˙̇̇b ˙̇̇b ˙̇̇bb ˙̇̇b

˙̇̇̇b ˙̇̇˙ œœœbb œœœb ˙̇̇n

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 15: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Borrowing Chords from the Minor Scale-2

&

II^7

Cmaj7

ii7

Dm7IIm7

iii7

Em7IIIm7

Fmaj7

IV^7IV^7

V7

G7V7 VIm7

Am7

iv7 viØ

Bm7b5VIIm7(¨5)

&Imi7

Cm7

iiøØ7IIm7(¨5)Dm7b5

¨III^7

Common 7th chord uses

III^7

E¨maj7 Fm7

iv7IVm7

v7Vm7

Gm7

VI^7¨VI^7

A¨maj7

VII7¨VII7

B¨7

&

The 'subdominant minor7' IVm7, iv7

minor key

iv7Fm7

Imaj7

major key

Cmaj7 Cmaj7

major key

Imaj7

The bIIImaj7 and bVImaj7

bIIImaj7

minor key

E¨maj7bVImaj7A¨maj7 G7

V7

major key

Cmaj7Imaj7

&minor key

iiøØ7

Minor to major ii-V

Dm7b5

V7

G7

major key

I^7Cmaj7

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇

˙̇̇̇bb ˙̇̇̇b ˙̇̇̇bb ˙̇̇̇bb ˙̇̇̇b ˙̇̇̇bb ˙̇̇̇bb

˙̇̇̇bb ˙̇̇˙n

œœœœb œœœœbb œœ

œœb œœ

œœn wwwwb

œœœœb œœœœ ˙̇̇̇

2

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 16: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

What do all those numbers mean?G7

CminA7(#5)Bbmaj7

C9D7#9

Cmin11E13

F7(#11)B69

Dmaj13(#11)

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 17: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

CŒ„!7 C©º7 D‹7 D©º7 E‹7 E¨º7 D‹7 D¨º7

FŒ„!7 F©º7 C/G F7 F©º7 C7/G

CŒ„!7 B¨7 CŒ„!7 F‹7 B¨7 CŒ„!7

B¨ F C FŒ„!7 B¨Œ„!7 C

CŒ„!7 B¨7(#11) CŒ„!7 B¨9(#11)

&

Diminished chords are often used as passing chords between chords I, ii and iii in either direction.Imaj7

The #IVº7 chord is often used between chords IV and a 2nd inversion I chord

#Iº7 IIm7 #IIº7 IIIm7 bIIIº7 IIm7 bIIº7

Passing Diminished [email protected]

&

IVmaj7 #IVº7 I IV7 #IVº7 I7

&

The bVII7 chord (borrowed from the parallel minor) is sometimes used as a resolution to I

The bVII major triad, particularly when in proximity to a major IV chord is a very common rock deviceand can be seen as being drawn from the parallel mixolydian mode.

Imaj7 bVII7 Imaj7 IVm7

The bVII7 chord may also be preceded by a related II.We could call this the 'Aeolian ii-V' as it is drawn from the Aeolian mode and is quite common.

bVII7 Imaj7

The bVII7 chord

&The bVII7 chord when it includes a #11 (and/or 9) is a common jazz device,not borrowed from parallel minor but Mixolydian b13 (a melodic minor mode)

bVII IV I IVmaj7 bVIImaj7 I

The bVII chord from Mixolydian

&Imaj7 bVII7(#11) Imaj7 bVII9(#11)

The bVII7(#11)

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 18: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

{{

D‹7 G7 CŒ„!7

D‹7 D¨7 CŒ„!7

D‹7 D¨7CŒ„!7

A¨‹7 D¨7 CŒ„!7

&

Taking another look at the guide tones in the ii-V-I progression, we notice that the 3rd and 7th of the dominant chord form a tritone interval.

Motion of 'guide' tones (3rd and 7th)

3rd

7th 3rd

7th 3rd

7th

Tritone [email protected]

?Root Root

Root

&

Since the tritone interval may be inverted. This implies that a dominant chord a tritone away may be substituted with the guide tones maintained (with an enharmonic adjustment).

3rd

7th

3rd

7th (B-nat = Cflat)

3rd

7th?Root Root Root

&

Notice that the tritone substitution dominant chord now resolves down a semitone rather than a 5th,When a 'sub V' resolves down a semitone, let's analyse it with a dashed arrow. Similarly, a min7 or min7(b5) chord going down a semitone to a dominant chord gets a dashed bracket.

IIm7

subV7

subV7 Imaj7

Imaj7

&

SubVs may be preceded by min7 chords a 5th above

Tritone subs often have 9ths and /or #11 intervals added. The latter sometimes written as b5.

ww ww www w w

ww wwb www wb w

V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 19: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

I7

IV7 I7

™™

V7 IV7 I7

I7 IV7 I7

IV7 #IVº7 I7

™™

V7 IV7 I7I7I7I7

VIm7IV7

V7

I7IIm7

V7

V7V7

44&'Statement'

This is the very basic form based around I7, IV7 and V7. In this case I7 and IV7 are notconsidered secondary dominants as they do not have the same tendency to drop down a 5th. IV7 does not compel a resolution down a 5th and a piece can happily start and end on I7.Consider these dominant chords as idiomatic substitutions for I and IV (ot Imaj7 and IVmaj7)Note that the 12 bars are divided into 3 groups of 4 bars and that I, IV and V begin each group.

Basic Form

The 12- Bar Blues (Major)

&'Restatement'

'Response'

&The basic form is often embellished with harmonic inflections, the 'quick change', the #IVº7 and the 'turnaround'.

&

'quick change'

&

The #IVº7 raises the rootof the IV7

The 'turnaround', the last 2 bars, is a little turn resolving the harmony back to the beginning of the form.There are many variations, 4 of them are given below

&

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 20: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

I7

IV7 I7

™™

V7 IV7 I7

I7 IV7 I7

IV7 #IVº7 I7

™™

V7 IV7 I7I7I7I7

VIm7IV7

V7

I7IIm7

V7

V7V7

44&'Statement'

This is the very basic form based around I7, IV7 and V7. In this case I7 and IV7 are notconsidered secondary dominants as they do not have the same tendency to drop down a 5th. IV7 does not compel a resolution down a 5th and a piece can happily start and end on I7.Consider these dominant chords as idiomatic substitutions for I and IV (ot Imaj7 and IVmaj7)Note that the 12 bars are divided into 3 groups of 4 bars and that I, IV and V begin each group.

Basic Form

The 12- Bar Blues (Major)

&'Restatement'

'Response'

&The basic form is often embellished with harmonic inflections, the 'quick change', the #IVº7 and the 'turnaround'.

&

'quick change'

&

The #IVº7 raises the rootof the IV7

The 'turnaround', the last 2 bars, is a little turn resolving the harmony back to the beginning of the form.There are many variations, 4 of them are given below

&

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V VMonday, 28 February 2011

Page 21: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

I7C7 F7

IV7

C7

I7 Vm7

G‹7

V7/IV

C7

F9

IV7

F©º7

#IVº7

C7

I7

E‹7(b5)

IIIm7(b5) V7/II

A7

™™

IIm7

D‹7 G7

V7 I7

C7

VIm7

A‹7 D‹7

IIm7 V7

G7

I7

FŒ„!7 E‹7(b5) A7 D‹7 G7 C‹7 F7

B¨7

IV7

B¨‹7 E¨7 A‹7 D7 A¨‹7 D¨7

™™

IIm7

G‹7

V7

C7 F6 D7 G‹7 C7

&

A 'jazz blues' takes the basic 12-bar blues form and embellishes it with secondary dominants.Bars 9 and 10 are typically IIm7 to V7 rather than V7 to IV7.Jazz-blues appear in many different forms and a typical example is given below. Although not written, 7th chords are often extended to 9ths, 11ths and 13ths for added colour

&

&

&b

A complex jazz-blues progression is found in Charlie Parker's 'Blues For Alice' Even though there is much embellishment of harmony, the 3 basic 4-bar divisions arestill in place (analysed below). A jazz analysis on the remaining chords will be helpful in unravelling its complexity.

&b

&b

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

2

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 22: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

I7C7 F7

IV7

C7

I7 Vm7

G‹7

V7/IV

C7

F9

IV7

F©º7

#IVº7

C7

I7

E‹7(b5)

IIIm7(b5) V7/II

A7

™™

IIm7

D‹7 G7

V7 I7

C7

VIm7

A‹7 D‹7

IIm7 V7

G7

I7

FŒ„!7 E‹7(b5) A7 D‹7 G7 C‹7 F7

B¨7

IV7

B¨‹7 E¨7 A‹7 D7 A¨‹7 D¨7

™™

IIm7

G‹7

V7

C7 F6 D7 G‹7 C7

&

A 'jazz blues' takes the basic 12-bar blues form and embellishes it with secondary dominants.Bars 9 and 10 are typically IIm7 to V7 rather than V7 to IV7.Jazz-blues appear in many different forms and a typical example is given below. Although not written, 7th chords are often extended to 9ths, 11ths and 13ths for added colour

&

&

&b

A complex jazz-blues progression is found in Charlie Parker's 'Blues For Alice' Even though there is much embellishment of harmony, the 3 basic 4-bar divisions arestill in place (analysed below). A jazz analysis on the remaining chords will be helpful in unravelling its complexity.

&b

&b

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

2

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 23: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

CŒ„!7

Imaj7 V7/II

A7

IIm7

D‹7

V7

IVm6

G7

IIIm7

E‹7

V7/II

A7

IIm7

D‹7

V7

G7

CŒ„!7

Imaj7

C7V7/IV IVmaj7

FŒ„!7 F‹6 E‹7IIIm7

A7V7/II IIm7

D‹7

V7

G7

CŒ„!7

Imaj7 V7/II

A7

IIm7

D‹7

V7

G7

IIIm7

E‹7

V7/II

A7

IIm7

D‹7

V7

G7

CŒ„!7

Imaj7

C7V7/IV IVmaj7

FŒ„!7

IVm6

F‹6 E‹7IIIm7

A7V7/II IIm7

D‹7 G7V7

C6

I6

E7V7/VI

A7

V7

V7/II

D7V7/V

G7

CŒ„!7

Imaj7 V7/II

A7

IIm7

D‹7

V7

G7

IIIm7

E‹7

V7/II

A7

IIm7

D‹7

V7

G7

™™

CŒ„!7

Imaj7

C7V7/IV IVmaj7

FŒ„!7

IVm6

F‹6 E‹7IIIm7

A7V7/II IIm7

D‹7 G7V7

C6

I6

44&

This is the basic form of a rhythm changes. Deviations from this form occur but usually only minimally,through secondary dominants, passing diminished chords, tritone substitution, and related ii chords, to the dominants (particularly on the bridge). Maj7 and 6 chords are interchanged. This is a very important musical form to know by heart and you will recognize it in tunes such as The Flintstones,I've Got A Rhythm (Gershwin) and Jumpin' at the Woodside (Basie)

A1

Rhythm Changes

&A2

&

&

&B

&

&A3

&Note that the A sections are made of I-vi-ii-V implications (bars 1-2, 3-4 and 7-8) and a move to the IV then IVm6from the parallel minor (bars 5-6). The bridge (B section) is a series of dominant chords descending 5ths beforeresolving to the original key (A 'cycle V'). As an exercise, identify with arrows all the resolving dominant chords, and with brackets, ii-V relationships. Hunt through jazz books to find and analyse rhythm changes. Anthropology, Oleo and Cotton Tail should get you started, and give you ideas for composition.

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V VV V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V VV V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

A3=A2

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 24: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

C C& C6 C&

C‹ C‹& C‹6 C‹&

C CŒ„!7 C7 C6 F

C C/B C/B¨ A‹7 F/A

C‹ C‹(Œ„!7) C‹7 C‹6 F9

C‹ C‹/B C‹/B¨ C‹/AA‹7(b5)

F9/A

&I

There are harmonic progressions that may be described as a chord with a chromatically altered scale degree. Below are some common examples

Minor Triad with moving 5th (5,+5,6,+5)

Major Triad with moving 5th (5,+5,6,+5)I+ I6 I+

©2010 Mermikides

Chromatically Embellished Static Harmony

&bbbIm

Major Triad with moving Root/7th (R,7,b7,6)

Im+ Im6 Im+

&I Imaj7

...similar progression with bass motion

I7 I6OR

IV

&I

Minor Triad with moving Root/7th (R,7,b7,6)

Imaj7 (3rd inv.) I7 (3rd inv.) VIm7 OR IV (1st inv.)

&bbbIm Im(maj7)

...similar progression with bass motion

Im7 Im6 OR IV9

&bbb

Im Im(maj7) (3rd inv.) Im7 (3rd Inv.) VIm7(b5)OR

IV9 (1st inv.)IV9

www www# wwwwn www#

www www# wwwn www#

wwww wwww wwwwb ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇˙

www www wwwb ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇˙

wwww wwwwn wwwwb ˙̇̇̇n ˙̇̇̇̇

www wwwn wwwb ˙̇̇̇n ˙̇̇̇̇n

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 25: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

C C& C6 C&

C‹ C‹& C‹6 C‹&

C CŒ„!7 C7 C6 F

C C/B C/B¨ A‹7 F/A

C‹ C‹(Œ„!7) C‹7 C‹6 F9

C‹ C‹/B C‹/B¨ C‹/AA‹7(b5)

F9/A

&I

There are harmonic progressions that may be described as a chord with a chromatically altered scale degree. Below are some common examples

Minor Triad with moving 5th (5,+5,6,+5)

Major Triad with moving 5th (5,+5,6,+5)I+ I6 I+

©2010 Mermikides

Chromatically Embellished Static Harmony

&bbbIm

Major Triad with moving Root/7th (R,7,b7,6)

Im+ Im6 Im+

&I Imaj7

...similar progression with bass motion

I7 I6OR

IV

&I

Minor Triad with moving Root/7th (R,7,b7,6)

Imaj7 (3rd inv.) I7 (3rd inv.) VIm7 OR IV (1st inv.)

&bbbIm Im(maj7)

...similar progression with bass motion

Im7 Im6 OR IV9

&bbb

Im Im(maj7) (3rd inv.) Im7 (3rd Inv.) VIm7(b5)OR

IV9 (1st inv.)IV9

www www# wwwwn www#

www www# wwwn www#

wwww wwww wwwwb ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇˙

www www wwwb ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇˙

wwww wwwwn wwwwb ˙̇̇̇n ˙̇̇̇̇

www wwwn wwwb ˙̇̇̇n ˙̇̇̇̇n

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 26: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

The Derivation of Modes©2010 Mermikides

44&

The major scale has a particular pattern of tones and semitones.

I

tone

II

tone

III

semitone

IV

tone

V

tone

VI

tone

VII

semitone

&

Since these intervals are not regular, we get a different pattern, and set of scale degreesdepending from which of the 7 notes we start with. Each of these 7 starting pointsgives a 'mode' of the major scale and each has its own distinct and beautiful character, harmonic language and repertoire.

tone

Mode 1: Starting on the 1st degree: Ionian. In this case: C Ionian (C, D, E, F, G, A, B) with degrees (R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)Identical, of course, to the major scale.

semitone

2. DORIAN

1. IONIAN

&tone

Mode 2: Starting on the 2nd degree: Dorian. In this case: D Dorian (D, E, F, G, A, B, C) with degrees (R, 2, b3, 4, 5, 6, b7)Natural minor with a 'sweet' and 'funky' major 6th.

semitone

&semitone

Mode 3: Starting on the 3rd degree: Phrygian. In this case: E Phrygian (E, F, G, A, B, C, D) with degrees (R, b2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7)Natural minor with a 'sinister' and 'moorish' minor 2nd.

tone

3. PHRYGIAN

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 27: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

The Derivation of Modes©2010 Mermikides

44&

The major scale has a particular pattern of tones and semitones.

I

tone

II

tone

III

semitone

IV

tone

V

tone

VI

tone

VII

semitone

&

Since these intervals are not regular, we get a different pattern, and set of scale degreesdepending from which of the 7 notes we start with. Each of these 7 starting pointsgives a 'mode' of the major scale and each has its own distinct and beautiful character, harmonic language and repertoire.

tone

Mode 1: Starting on the 1st degree: Ionian. In this case: C Ionian (C, D, E, F, G, A, B) with degrees (R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)Identical, of course, to the major scale.

semitone

2. DORIAN

1. IONIAN

&tone

Mode 2: Starting on the 2nd degree: Dorian. In this case: D Dorian (D, E, F, G, A, B, C) with degrees (R, 2, b3, 4, 5, 6, b7)Natural minor with a 'sweet' and 'funky' major 6th.

semitone

&semitone

Mode 3: Starting on the 3rd degree: Phrygian. In this case: E Phrygian (E, F, G, A, B, C, D) with degrees (R, b2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7)Natural minor with a 'sinister' and 'moorish' minor 2nd.

tone

3. PHRYGIAN

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

&tone

Mode 4: Starting on the 4th degree: Lydian. In this case: F Lydian (F, G, A, B, C, D, E) with degrees (R, 2, 3, #4, 5, 6, 7)Major with a 'bright' and 'magical' raised (augmented) 4th.

4. LYDIAN

semitone

&tone

Mode 5: Starting on the 5th degree: Mixolydian. In this case: G Mixolydian (G, A, B, C, D, E, F) with degrees (R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7)Major with a 'bluesy' and 'majestic' flattened 7th.

semitone

5. MIXOLYDIAN

&tone

Mode 6: Starting on the 6th degree: Aeolian. In this case: A Aeolian (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) with degrees (R, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7)Just like natural minor but without the alteration of the 6th and 7th degrees as found in typical tonal harmony. Aeolian is a 'bleak' and 'sorrowful' mode.

semitone

6. AEOLIAN

&semitone

Mode 7: Starting on the 7th degree: Locrian. In this case: B Aeolian (B, C, D, E, F, G, A) with degrees (R, b2, b3, 4, b5, b6, b7)Phrygian with a flattened 5th. Locrian's diminished quality is 'demonic' and 'twisted'.

tone

7. LOCRIAN

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

2

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 28: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&tone

Mode 4: Starting on the 4th degree: Lydian. In this case: F Lydian (F, G, A, B, C, D, E) with degrees (R, 2, 3, #4, 5, 6, 7)Major with a 'bright' and 'magical' raised (augmented) 4th.

4. LYDIAN

semitone

&tone

Mode 5: Starting on the 5th degree: Mixolydian. In this case: G Mixolydian (G, A, B, C, D, E, F) with degrees (R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7)Major with a 'bluesy' and 'majestic' flattened 7th.

semitone

5. MIXOLYDIAN

&tone

Mode 6: Starting on the 6th degree: Aeolian. In this case: A Aeolian (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) with degrees (R, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7)Just like natural minor but without the alteration of the 6th and 7th degrees as found in typical tonal harmony. Aeolian is a 'bleak' and 'sorrowful' mode.

semitone

6. AEOLIAN

&semitone

Mode 7: Starting on the 7th degree: Locrian. In this case: B Aeolian (B, C, D, E, F, G, A) with degrees (R, b2, b3, 4, b5, b6, b7)Phrygian with a flattened 5th. Locrian's diminished quality is 'demonic' and 'twisted'.

tone

7. LOCRIAN

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

2

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 29: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&#Root

Let's look at the dorian mode, and choose A dorian so we can easily see its relationshipto A natural minor. Since A dorian is derived from G major (the 2nd mode of G major) we'll use one sharp in the key signature. However A (and not G) should be considered the root, and we'll work out allscale degrees and chords with A as the root. The scale degrees are (R,2,b3,4,5,6,b7)

A Dorian

Maj2 Min3

Ä

Dorian

P4 P5

( )

Maj6

ÄMin7 Octave

&#Im

Note that Dorian is different from natural minor in that it has a major 6th (not minor 6th) - in this case F# not FThis is its character note. In fact it is the presence of both a minor 3rd and major 6th that gives much of Dorian's vibe.

A Dorian

Here are the triads of A Dorian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character major 6th (F#) are underlined. The IIm and IV are the most commondorian modal chords (the VIº ir unstable and not commonly found)

A‹

IIm

B‹

bIII

C

IV

D

Vm

E‹

VIº

F©º

bVII

G

&#Im7

A Dorian

And here are the 7th chords with roman numeral analysis. A very common and effective Dorian chord is the IV7, as it contains both the minor 3rd and major 6th of the mode.Of the seventh chords IIm7, IV7 are the most often used to describe Dorian modality, but most ofthe other diatonic chords may be found in progressions. In addition the Im6 is chord is often used.

There are may examples of the Dorian mode in popular music here are a few:

So What - Miles Davis (alternates between D Dorian and Eb Dorian)Scarborough Fair and Drunken Sailor traditional songs,Pink Floyd 'Another Brick in the Wall' ( D Dorian:Dm7, F, C, G Im7, bIII, bVII, IV)The classic arpeggio of 'Sine On You Crazy Diamond' (G dorian. and most of the 'Dark Side of the Moon' album (E Dorian: Em (or Emadd9,Em7) to A7-Im to IV7)The opening riff of Lenny Kravitz' 'Always On the Run' (E dorian)Beatles - Eleanor Rigby (Verse melody in E dorian)Joe Satriani - 'Ice 9' opening melody (C# dorian)Loads of funk tunes: eg 'Brick House' - Commodores 'Le Freak' Chic Moondance - Van Morrison. The verses are Am Bm/A C/A Bm/AOye Como Va - Santana (Am D7 -Im IV7)

A‹7

IIm7

B‹7

bIIImaj7

CŒ„!7

IV7

D7

Vm7

E‹7

VIø7

F©‹7(b5)

bVIImaj7

GŒ„!7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙# ˙ ˙

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ www

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ wwww

4

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 30: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&bRoot

Now Let's look at the 3rd mode, the phrygian mode, and choose A phrygian so we can easily see its relationshipto A. Since this is derived from F major (the 3rd mode of F major) we'll use one flat in the keysignature. However A (and not F) should be considered the root, and we'll work out allscale degrees and chords with F as the root. The scale degrees are (R,b2,b3,4,5,b6,b7)

A Phrygian

( )Min2

ÄMin3

Phrygian

P4 P5 Min6 Min7 Octave

&bIm

A Phrygian

Note that Phrygian is different from natural minor in that it has a minor 2nd (not major 2nd) - in this case Bb not BThis is the character note of Phrygian which gives it its unique 'flamenco' quality.

Here are the triads of A Phrygian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character minor 2nd (Bb) are underlined. The bIIm and bVIIm are the most commonphrygian modal triads (the Vº if unstable and not commonly used)

A‹

bII

bIII

C

IVm

D‹

bVI

F

bVIIm

G‹

&bIm7

Here are the seventh chords of A phrygian with roman numeral analysis.Of the seventh chords bIImaj7 and bVIIm7 are the most often used to describe Phrygian modality, but most ofthe other diatonic chords may be found in progressions. In additional the Im(addb9) chord is also used. Also note that 'power chords' (chords with just roots and fifths) are found in Phrygian (and other modal) contexts.

A Phrygian

There are may examples of the Phrygian mode in popular music, particularly when 'spanish' andsinister atmospheres are required. Here are a few:

White Rabbit - Jefferson Airplane. (F#5 and G5 and the notes from F# phrygian are used)

Symphony of Destruction - Megadeth (the opening riff uses E5, F5 and G5 from E Phrygian)

The God That Failed - Metallica (Eb5, Fb5, Gb5, Bb5 from Eb Phrygian)

War - Joe Satriani (E5 and Fmaj7(#11) from E phrygian)

A‹7

bIImaj7

B¨Œ„!7

bIII7

C7

IVm7

D‹7

Vm7(b5)

E‹7(b5)

VIø7

FŒ„!7

bVIIm7

G‹7

˙ ˙b ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ www

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ wwww

5

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 31: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&#Root

The 4th mode of the major scale, the Lydian mode, is often found in film soundtracks for its 'floating' and'magical' quality. The lydian mode can be derived from C major from F to F. If we calculate Lydian with a root of C,we can easily see how it compares to a major scale. In this casewe get an F# instead of an F. Lydian is a major scale with a raised (augmented) 4th. (R, 2, 3, #4, 5, 6, 7)

C Lydian

Maj2 Maj3

( )

Lydian

#4

ÄP5 Maj6 Maj7 Octave

&#I

C Lydian

Note that Lydian is different from major in that it has an augmented 4th (not perfect 4th) - in this case F# not FThis is the character note of Lydian which gives it its unique 'magical' quality.

Here are the triads of C Lydian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character augmented 4th (F#) are underlined. The II and VIIm are the most commonlydian modal triads (the #IVº if unstable and not commonly used)

C

II

D

IIIm

E‹

#IVº

V

G

VIm

A‹

VIIm

B‹

&#Imaj7

Here are the seventh chords of C lydian with roman numeral analysis.Of the seventh chords II7 (often in 3rd inv.), Vmaj7 and VIIm7 are the most often used to describe Lydian modality, but most of the other diatonic chords may be found in progressions. In addition the Imaj7(#11) chord is also used.

C Lydian

There are many examples of the Lydian mode in popular and film music, particularly when a floating andmagical atmospheres are required. Here are a few moments from pop songs:

Sara - Fleetwood Mac. (Opens with F, G/F and Am/F all from F Lydian)

Man on the Moon - REM (the intro and verses use C major to Dadd11 from C Lydian)

The Simpsons theme - Danny Elfman (One of the most famous lydian melodies of all time in C Lydian-In fact some of the harmonic material implies Lydian dominant - a mode of melodic minor)

The Riddle - Steve Vai (Open in E Lydian with an A# (sharpened 4th as the opening melody note)

Other examples include Blue Jay Way - The Beatles, Every Little Thing She Does is Magic - The Police,All I need - Radiohead (C Lydian) The verses of Tonight, Tonight - Smashing Pumpkins.

CŒ„!7

II7

D7

IIIm7

E‹7

IVm7

F©‹7(b5)

Vm7(b5)

GŒ„!7

VIm7

A‹7

bVIIm7

B‹7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙# ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ www

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ wwww

6

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 32: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&bRoot

The 5th mode of the major scale, the mixolydian mode, is often found in rock and blues.It is also found in superficially 'eastern' influenced pop music due to its similarity with some Ragas. The mixolydian mode can be derived from C major from G to G. If we work out a mixolydian scale with a root of C,we can easily see how it compares to a major scale. In this casewe get a B-flat instead of a B, so mixolydian is a major scale with a minot (flattened) 7th. (R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7)

C Mixoydian

Maj2 Maj3

Mixolydian

P4 P5 Maj6 Min7

Ä( )

Octave

&bI

C Mixolydian

So Mixoydian is different from major in that it has a minor (not major) 7th - in this case B-flat not BThis is the character note of mixoydian which gives it its 'dominant' quality. In fact it is the combination of the major 3rd and minor 7th that sets it apart from all the other modes of the major scale.Here are the triads of C Mixolydian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character minor 7th (Bb) are underlined. The Vm and particularly the bVII are the most common mixolydian modal triads (the IIIº if unstable and not commonly used)

C

II

D‹

IIIº

IV

F

Vm

G‹

VI

A‹

bVII

&bI7

Here are the seventh chords of C mixolydian with roman numeral analysis.Of the seventh chords I7 , Vm7 and bVIImaj7 are the most often used to describe mixoydian modality, but most of the other diatonic chords may be found in progressions, particular the IV chord. bVII/IV/I, for example, is a common mixolydian progression.

There are countless examples of the mixolydian mode in popular music - particularly in the harmonyof a track (even if melodies and solos are in minor pentationic) The bVII/IV/I sequence can be foundin everything from AC/DC to Zappa. More 'pure' examples of mixolydian (when harmony and melody are both mixolydian) include:

Norwegian Wood - Beatles. (E Mixolydian)

Sweet Child of Mine - Guns and Roses and Sweet Home Alabama - Lynyrd Skynyrd(D, Cadd9, G D in verses and the notes of guitar intro are all from D mixolydian)

Champagne Supernova - Oasis (A, A/G, A/F# and A/E - derived from A mixolydian)

Other examples include Led Boots - Jeff Beck, Within You or Without You - Beatles,

C Mixolydian

C7

IIm7

D‹7

IIIø

E‹7(b5)

IVmaj7

FŒ„!7

Vm7

G‹7

VIm7

A‹7

bVIImaj7

B¨Œ„!7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙b ˙

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ www

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ wwww

7

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 33: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&Root

The 6th mode of the major scale, the aeolian mode, is a common mode in rock and pop music when amournful emotion is required.The aeolian mode can be derived from C major from A to A which gives us the followingscale degrees. (R, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7)

A Aeolian

Maj2 Min3

Aeolian

P4 P5 Min6

ÄMin7

ÄOctave

&I

A Aeolian

You'll notice that the aeolian mode is identical to the natural minor scale.However in a minor key, the 7th note of the scale is often changed to a leading tone (harmonic minor)which allows for V7 chord for example. The 6th degree is also sometimes changed, as in melodic minor.However the aeolian mode has a fixed minor 6th and minor 7th which gives it its particular character. Here are the triads of A Aeolian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character minor 6th (F) - distinguishing it from Dorian - are underlined - the IIº (rarely used), IVm, VI. The Vm and bVII which contain the character minor 7th (G) are also underlined.

A‹

IIº

III

C

IVm

D‹

Vm

E‹

VI

F

bVII

G

&Im7

Here are the seventh chords of A aeolian with roman numeral analysis. All of these contain the minor 6th and minor 7th, and they are all used in aeolian progressions -although theIIm7(b5) is rare.A Aeolian

There are many examples of the Aeolian mode in popular music - the Im/bVII/bVI/bVII sequence is common,as well as peices built around Im, IVm and Vm.Here are a few examples of the Aeolian mode in popular music

The X-Files Theme - melody in A Aeolian.

All Along the Watchtower - Jimi Hendrix (C#m - Bm - A all from C# Aeolian - although the guitar is tuned down a semitone)

Ain't No Sunshine- Bill Withers is built around Am7, Dm7 and Em7 (all from A Aeolian)

Stairway to Heaven (Led Zeppelin) outro solo has the repeated chords Am G F G from A Aeolian.

The Sound of Silence (Simon and Garfunkel) is in Eb Aeolian. (with chords Im bVII bVII and III)

A‹7

IIm7(b5)

B‹7(b5)

bIIImaj7

CŒ„!7

IVm7

D‹7

Vm7

E‹7

bVImaj7

FŒ„!7

bVII7

G7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ ˙̇̇ www

˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ ˙̇̇̇ wwww

8

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 34: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Modal Interchange

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 35: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&

The major pentatonic is like a major scale but without the 4th and 7th.Note that the omitted 4th and 7th scale degrees are the ones with semitone relationships against a tonic triad,and the source of the most harmonic motion in the major scale. With the 4th and 7th omitted, the major pentatonicis a very neutral, singable and familiar scale.

Root

Pentatonics are hugely important scales in a wide range of musical styles.There are many 5 note scales in use, but the two most common are themajor pentatonic and minor pentatonic and are shown below.

Maj 2nd

C major pentatonic (C D E G A) (R,2,3,5,6)

MAJOR PENTATONIC

Maj 3rd Perfect 5th

©2010 Mermikides

Maj 6th

Pentatonic Scales

&

The major pentatonic has 5 modes, the most common starts on the last note (the A here) and is calledthe minor pentatonicSo the notes of C major pentatonic (C D E G A) are the same as A minor pentatonic (A C D E G)

The minor pentatonic is like a natural minor (aeolian) but without the 2nd or 6th (which havesemitone relationships against a tonic minor triad) With the 2nd and 6th omitted, the minor pentatonicis an extremely useful, effective and commonly used scale.

Root

A major pentatonic (A C D E G) (R,2,3,5,6)

Min 3rd

MINOR PENTATONIC

Perfect 4th Perfect 5th Min 7th

&R

C major pentatonic

2

It is useful to compare major and minor pentatonic scales in parallel - here is C major pentatonic side by side with C minor pentatonic.

3

Comparing Major and Minor Pentatonic

5 6

C minor pentatonic

R b3 4 5 b7

w w w w w

w w w w w

œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ œb

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Page 36: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&

The major pentatonic is like a major scale but without the 4th and 7th.Note that the omitted 4th and 7th scale degrees are the ones with semitone relationships against a tonic triad,and the source of the most harmonic motion in the major scale. With the 4th and 7th omitted, the major pentatonicis a very neutral, singable and familiar scale.

Root

Pentatonics are hugely important scales in a wide range of musical styles.There are many 5 note scales in use, but the two most common are themajor pentatonic and minor pentatonic and are shown below.

Maj 2nd

C major pentatonic (C D E G A) (R,2,3,5,6)

MAJOR PENTATONIC

Maj 3rd Perfect 5th

©2010 Mermikides

Maj 6th

Pentatonic Scales

&

The major pentatonic has 5 modes, the most common starts on the last note (the A here) and is calledthe minor pentatonicSo the notes of C major pentatonic (C D E G A) are the same as A minor pentatonic (A C D E G)

The minor pentatonic is like a natural minor (aeolian) but without the 2nd or 6th (which havesemitone relationships against a tonic minor triad) With the 2nd and 6th omitted, the minor pentatonicis an extremely useful, effective and commonly used scale.

Root

A major pentatonic (A C D E G) (R,2,3,5,6)

Min 3rd

MINOR PENTATONIC

Perfect 4th Perfect 5th Min 7th

&R

C major pentatonic

2

It is useful to compare major and minor pentatonic scales in parallel - here is C major pentatonic side by side with C minor pentatonic.

3

Comparing Major and Minor Pentatonic

5 6

C minor pentatonic

R b3 4 5 b7

w w w w w

w w w w w

œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ œb

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Page 37: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&

The major scale has 7 modes, 3 major (ionian, lydian, mixolydian) 3 minor (dorian, phrygian and aeolian)and 1 dimished (locrian). Interestingly the 3 major modes all contain the major pentatonic, andonly differ in terms of there 4th and 7th degrees. Similarly, the 3 minor modes all have the minor pentatonicin common, with their 2nd and 6th degrees differing.

(Perfect 4th, Major 7th)

PENTATONIC SCALES AND THE MODES

R 2

C major pentatonic

3 5 6

&R

C Ionian

2 3 4 5 6 7

Add 4th and 7th

C Lydian

R

(Augmented 4th, Major 7th)

2 3 #4 5 6 7

(Perfect 4th, Minor 7th)

C Mixolydian

R 2 3 4 5 6 b7

&

(major 2nd, major 6th)

R b3

C minor pentatonic

Add 2nd and 6th

4 5 b7

&R

C Dorian

2 b3 4 5 6 b7

C Phrygian

R

(minor 2nd, minor 6th)

b2 3 4 5 b6 b7

C Aeolian

R

(major 2nd, minor 6th)

2 3 4 5 b6 b7

œ œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb

œ œb œ œ œb

œ œ œb œ œ œ œb œ œb œb œ œ œb œb œ œ œb œ œ œb œb

2

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 38: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&

The major scale has 7 modes, 3 major (ionian, lydian, mixolydian) 3 minor (dorian, phrygian and aeolian)and 1 dimished (locrian). Interestingly the 3 major modes all contain the major pentatonic, andonly differ in terms of there 4th and 7th degrees. Similarly, the 3 minor modes all have the minor pentatonicin common, with their 2nd and 6th degrees differing.

(Perfect 4th, Major 7th)

PENTATONIC SCALES AND THE MODES

R 2

C major pentatonic

3 5 6

&R

C Ionian

2 3 4 5 6 7

Add 4th and 7th

C Lydian

R

(Augmented 4th, Major 7th)

2 3 #4 5 6 7

(Perfect 4th, Minor 7th)

C Mixolydian

R 2 3 4 5 6 b7

&

(major 2nd, major 6th)

R b3

C minor pentatonic

Add 2nd and 6th

4 5 b7

&R

C Dorian

2 b3 4 5 6 b7

C Phrygian

R

(minor 2nd, minor 6th)

b2 3 4 5 b6 b7

C Aeolian

R

(major 2nd, minor 6th)

2 3 4 5 b6 b7

œ œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb

œ œb œ œ œb

œ œ œb œ œ œ œb œ œb œb œ œ œb œb œ œ œb œ œ œb œb

2

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 39: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&

The major and minor pentatonic scales may be embellished with an added note(making 6-note - or hexatonic -scales) These added notes gives the 'blues' scale an idiomatic bluesy quality.

The Major Blues 6-note scale is created by adding a sharpened2nd (minor 3rd) interval between the 2rd and 3rd degree.This gives the scale an idiomatic minor 3rd as well as major 3rd.

C Major Blues

R

Major and Minor Blues Hexatonic scale

2 #2/b3

Major Blues

3 5 6

&

The blues scales are embellished versions of their pentatonic counterpoints creatingan idiomatic bluesy quality. They might be used wherever the pentatonic scale is - asdescribed on page 3. So for example a progression in B minor can be melodicized withB minor blues, a G major progression with G major blues and a Dminor7 chord with D minor blues.

On page 1 we created a minor pentatonic scale by starting a major pentatonic from the last scale degree. We can do the same thing to the mMajor Blues, tocreate the minor blues scale. This is a minor pentatonic scale with anidiomatic raised 4th (flattened 5th).

R

A Minor Blues

b3 4

Minor Blues

#4/b5 5 b7

œ œ œ# œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ# œ œ

4

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 40: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

&

The major and minor pentatonic scales may be embellished with an added note(making 6-note - or hexatonic -scales) These added notes gives the 'blues' scale an idiomatic bluesy quality.

The Major Blues 6-note scale is created by adding a sharpened2nd (minor 3rd) interval between the 2rd and 3rd degree.This gives the scale an idiomatic minor 3rd as well as major 3rd.

C Major Blues

R

Major and Minor Blues Hexatonic scale

2 #2/b3

Major Blues

3 5 6

&

The blues scales are embellished versions of their pentatonic counterpoints creatingan idiomatic bluesy quality. They might be used wherever the pentatonic scale is - asdescribed on page 3. So for example a progression in B minor can be melodicized withB minor blues, a G major progression with G major blues and a Dminor7 chord with D minor blues.

On page 1 we created a minor pentatonic scale by starting a major pentatonic from the last scale degree. We can do the same thing to the mMajor Blues, tocreate the minor blues scale. This is a minor pentatonic scale with anidiomatic raised 4th (flattened 5th).

R

A Minor Blues

b3 4

Minor Blues

#4/b5 5 b7

œ œ œ# œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ# œ œ

4

Monday, 28 February 2011

Page 41: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

E G A B D B

G5 B¨5 C5 G5 B¨5 D¨5 C5 G5 B¨5 C5 B¨5 G5

G F© F E

&####

'Knock on Wood' Floyd/Cropper

Parallel Major chords on an E minor pentatonic scale

Some harmonic progressions include one chord type (usually a 5, major triad or dom7 chord)that is moved in a 'block' to create non-diatonic progressions. Often this can be best explainedas the 'block' harmonisation of a scale - often pentatonic -(regardless of diatonicism)Here are some examples.

POWER CHORDS ON A MINOR BLUES SCALE

MAJOR CHORDS on MINOR PENTATONIC

Parallelism

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'Smoke on the Water' Deep Purple

Parallel Power chords (inverted root and 5th) outlining part of a G minor blues scale.

CHROMATIC PARALLEL MAJOR CHORDS

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'I'm A Man' Steve Winwood

Parallel major chords moving down chromatically

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œœœœœœnnnnnj

‰ œœœœœœj˙̇̇˙̇̇ ™™™™™™ ˙̇̇̇

˙̇ ™™™™™™ ‰

œœœœœœnnnJ

‰ œœœœœœ#J

˙̇̇̇˙̇ ™™™™™™

œœj ‰ œœj ‰ œœ ‰ œœj ‰ œœj ‰ œœbb J œœ Œ œœn j ‰ œœj ‰ œœ ‰ œœj ‰ œœj ˙̇ ™™

wwwwwnnnn ˙̇̇

˙̇#˙̇̇˙̇nnnnn www

www

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Page 42: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

G7 B¨7 C7 G7 C7

E5 F5 E5 G5 E5 F©5 E5 F©5 G5 F©5 E5

D5 E¨5 E5 F5 D5 E¨5 E5 F578

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'Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band' (Chorus) - Beatles

Parallel dominant 7 chords on part of G minor pentatonic (G, Bb, C).

DOMINANT CHORDS ON PENTATONIC

&#

Parallel 5th chords on implied modes. Bars 1-2: phrygian. Bar 3: aeolian mode. Bar 4: locrian/minor blues.

POWER CHORDS ON CHROMATIC and OTHER SCALES

'Enter Sandman' -Metallica

>

&b

Parallel 5th chords on D, Eb, E, F chromatic notes.

'Them Bones' - Alice in Chains

œœœn œœœŒ œœœbb œœœ Œ œœœb œœœ Œ

œœœnn œœœŒ œœœb œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ

œœœn œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœn œœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œœ# œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œb œ ‰œœnj

œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœbb œœœ œœœ œœœnnn œœœ œœœ œœœ‰

œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœbbb œœœ œœœ œœœnnn œœœ œœœ œœœ‰

2

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Page 43: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Upper structure triads

• Em/C Bm/C D/C Major/Lydian implication

• F/G Mixolydian/Sus implication

• Fm/G Phrygian Dominant/Sus implication

• C/D Em/D Minor/Dorian implication

• F/E Dm/E Phrygian implication

• Db/G Altered implication

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Page 46: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

4

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Page 48: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

229

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Page 49: Jazz Harmony Lecture Slides

Disco 115bpm

™™ Cm7 Eb7 Cm7 Ab7 Eb7

Cm7 Eb7 A¨7 Ab/Bb

Eb6 Db9sus Eb7

™™Eb6 Db9sus Eb7

Eb7 Cm7 Fm7 Ab/Bb Eb7 Cm7 Fm7 Ab/Bb Eb7 Cm7

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. . . . . . . . . .Intro

Jackson 5Arr. E. Peasgood

Blame It On The Boogie

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&bbb(Verse)

A

&bbb

&bbb(Chorus)

B

&bbb

&bbb(Bridge)

C

e e e e e e e e e e ‰™er!er! en r!ee e e e e e e e e e e e ‰™er!er! en r!ee e

e e e e e e e e e e ‰™er!er! en r!e ee e e e e e e e e e e ‰™er!er! en r! en ™J

V V V V V V V V V V V V V ™ V ‰ VJ +

V V V V V V V V V V V V V ™ V ‰ VJ +

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

VJ ‰ Œ VJ ‰ Œ VJ ‰ Œ ‰ VJ !V ™J VJ ‰ Œ VJ ‰ Œ VJ ‰ Œ ‰ VJ !V ™J VJ ‰ Œ VJ ‰ Œ

9

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393

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Monday, 28 February 2011