Islamic Jurisprudence Book

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The original sources of Islamic law, which include the constitutional law and the law of the land, are the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah. These two are the Divine sources. However, by the passing of the time the acts of the khulafa-i-rashidin and of the companions (ridwanullahi ta'ala 'alayhim ajma'in) were also included in it. Their source was still based on the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah. Further by exercising the right of qiyas, which is a favour of Allah Almighty on the Muslim 'Ummah, the law making continued and the results obtained were applied by Muslims practically in their lives and thus confirmed them, like was Consensus ('Ijmaمَاع) is one of the significant basis of Islamic Law. By this methodology the matters on which there is any ambiguity or doubt and that ambiguity or doubt is removed away by Consensus ('Ijma'/اِمَاع) those are made an absolute part of the Islamic law on the force or authority of the agreement of the 'Ummah. This shows that the will of the people is, among others, one of the most significant effective thing in the philosophy of Islamic law. Normally, the expert jurists (fuqaha') are considered law makers of Islam and it is they who interpret, explain and state the meanings of the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah but when deeply pondered upon the verdict of any single jurist (faqih/فقیہ ) is not accepted. Rather, the agreement of the generality of the men of knowledge ('ulama'/عُلَمَاء) is necessary to accept such a verdict. At the back of the men of knowledge ('ulama'/عُلَمَاء) there is the will of the people in general. In other the 'Ummah gives to the men of knowledge ('ulama'/عُلَمَاء) the right of ijtihad on its behalf. Out of the A'immah Ijtihad whose verdicts have been accepted by the 'Ummah only their conclusions have been declared as acceptable. This shows that the general consensual tendencies have also a role in creating significance (and force) that has come in these fiqhi qawanin. In any case, at the back of the men of knowledge ('ulama'/عُلَمَاء) there is certainly the public will i.e. the 'Ummah gives the ulama' the right to exercise Ijtihad on its behalf. [Islami 'Adl Gustari, Abdul Hafiz Siddiqi, 1947 AD, p.18]. Its result is that besides the basic injunctions (ahkam) which may be termed as Divine by the advent of the time and by the force of this public will there has taken place a mighty evolution (and development) in the Fiqh. Thus in the present era the code of Islamic law is the name of this evolution. Islamic law i.e. the Shari'ah stresses upon moral obligations and duties and besides the religious and domestic life of the Muslims it is comprehending all the aspects of their political and social life. Thus in the Shari'ah, besides the injunctions (ahkam) relating to the religion and religious duties there are injunctions (ahkam) concerning the mutual relations of the individuals of the millat (ملۃ) and their discipline and harmony. Further, there are detailed rules and principles regarding every aspect of human life. It is for this reason that in the evolution of Islamic Jurisprudence the needs of life have been given a prominent place and juridical has become merely a secondary thing. Despite this the Shari'at is a sacred law which may be called especially the juris law.

Text of Islamic Jurisprudence Book

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1903980 ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE ) ( by Justice Dr. Munir Ahmad Mughal Table of Contents Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1903980Islamic Jurisprudence 2 Justice Dr.Munir Ahmad Mughal 2 PREFACE...............................................................................................21 PRINCIPLES OF JURISPRUDENCE..........................................................51 (USUL AL-FIQH (I ) CHAPTER 1................................................................................................51 FIQH.......................................................................................................51 Definition...............................................................................................51 Tafqahuna: ....................................................................................55 Nafqahu: ......................................................................................55 Yafqahu: ......................................................................................55 Yafqahuna: .................................................................................56 Yafqahu hu: ...................................................................................58 yatafaqqahu: ...................................................................................58 Faqiha: ............................................................................................59 Tafaqqaha: ....................................................................................61 Istafqaha: .....................................................................................61 Fiqhun: ............................................................................................62 Faqihun [pl. Fuqahau ]: ..........................................................63 Afqahu: ...........................................................................................65 Subject Matter.......................................................................................68 Proof of Dependence of the Shari`ah indications upon the four sources of Law......................................................................................69 Object and Advantage...........................................................................81 Importance............................................................................................82 History ..................................................................................................82 Old and Significant Books on Jurisprudence written by Hanafi Jurists: ..................................................................................................82 CHAPTER 2...............................................................................................85 SHARI`AH VALUES (AHKAM) ........................................................................85 Definition:..............................................................................................85 Essential Elements of Law (Arkan Hukm) ..............................................86 Classification of laws (Aqsam al-Ahkam)................................................86 Defining laws(Ahkam, talkifi).................................................................86 Declaratory laws(Ahkam wad`i). ............................................................86 With regard to enforceability the laws are divided into three classes .................................................................................................87 RESPONSIBILITY (TAKLIF) .................................................................87 Definition...............................................................................................87 Islamic Jurisprudence 3 Justice Dr.Munir Ahmad Mughal 3 Essential Elements of Responsibility (Arkan al-Taklif)............................87 Object of responsibility (Ghard al-taklif) ................................................88 Conditions of Responsibility(Sharait al-taklif) ........................................88 Receptive legal capacity (Ahliyyat al-Wujub)..........................................88 Active legal capacity (Ahliyyat al-ada)....................................................88 Definition...............................................................................................88 Types of Active Legal Capacity(Aqsam ahliyyat al-ada) .........................88 1. Deficient active legal capacity (naqis ahliyyat al-ada) .........................88 2. Complete active legal capacity (kamil ahliyyat al-ada)........................89 Conditions of Responsibility(Sharait al-taklif) ........................................89 Obstacles of Responsibility(Mawani` al-taklif)........................................89 Kinds of Obstacles of Responsibility(Aqsam mawani` al-taklif)...............89 Section 2...............................................................................................90 Defining Laws (al-ahkam al-taklifi) .........................................................90 Definition...............................................................................................90 Grades of defining laws :.......................................................................91 Fard (an act obligatory in the first degree)..............................................91 Definition:..............................................................................................91 Legal Effect:..........................................................................................91 Kinds of Fard:........................................................................................91 Wajib (an act obligatory in the second degree) ......................................92 Definition of Wajib: ................................................................................92 Legal Effect...........................................................................................92 Examples: .............................................................................................92 Fard and Wajib used as synonyms: .......................................................93 Preliminaries of Fard and Wajib.............................................................93 Sources of proof of Fardiyyat or Wujub of an act....................................93 III. SUNNAH..........................................................................................93 1. Definition...........................................................................................93 2. Legal Effect (hukm) ...........................................................................94 3. What Refers to Sunnah (Misdaq Sunnah) ..........................................94 4. Kinds of Sunnah (Aqsam Sunnah).....................................................94 1. Sunnah al-Huda ...........................................................................95 2. Sunnah al-Zaidah........................................................................95 5. Status of various kinds of Sunnah .....................................................95 6. Kinds of Sunnah al-Muakkadah (The Emphatic Sunnah)...................95 7. Sources of Proof of Sunnah...............................................................96 IV. MUSTAHABB (Commendable) ........................................................96 1. Definition...........................................................................................96 Islamic Jurisprudence 4 Justice Dr.Munir Ahmad Mughal 4 2. Other titles of a Mustahabb................................................................96 3. Sources of Proof of Mustahabb..........................................................96 4. Legal Consequence ..........................................................................96 5. Wujub of an act which is Sunnah or Mustahabb.................................97 6. Legal Consequence of Denial of a Sunnah or Mustahabb..................97 Example................................................................................................97 V. Haram (Unlawful)..............................................................................97 1. Definition...........................................................................................97 2. Legal Effect (Hukm)...........................................................................97 3. Examples..........................................................................................97 4. Kinds of unlawful acts........................................................................97 5. Occasions of unlawfulness (mawaqi` hurmat) ....................................98 V. Makruh Tahrimi.................................................................................98 Definition...............................................................................................98 Legal Effect (Hukm) ..............................................................................98 Example................................................................................................98 OCCASIONS OF KARAHAT TAHRIMI ..............................................................98 What Refers to Absolute Abomination (Misdaq Karahat Mutlaqah) .........99 6. Preliminaries of unlawful and abominable (Muqaddamat Haram and Makruh Tahrimi).............................................................................99 7. Sources of Proof of unlawfulness (Hurmat) and abomination (Karahat Tahrimiyyah) .......................................................99 VI. Makruh Tanzihi ........................................................................