CharacteristicsNon-figural decoration three types of decoration
are most often used in religious Islamic designs. They are
geometric patterns, vegetation & calligraphy. Represents the
infiniteness of God.The minaret (calls worshippers to
prayer)Features borrowed from the Greeks, and Romans
TerminologyArabesque means arab style, it is a complex, ornate
design of intertwined floral, and repeated geometric forms. Usually
found as decoration on the walls of mosques. Stucco (plaster) used
to create decorative features on buildings.Mosque an Islamic temple
or place of worship for Muslims.Cupola a rounded convex roof on a
circular base (a dome of small size).
24. The Alhambra. (begun c.1238 AD) Grenada, Spain.
24.The Alhambra. (begun c. 1238) Granada, Spain.
History:Moors the Islamic rulers of Spain (710-1492) Spains most
significant example of Islamic architecture.
Purpose: -fortress-palace for Moorish rulers. -The fortress has
residences, courts, offices, a bath and a mosque.
-Alhambra means the red fortress.
Forms of Decoration:-the architects of the Alhambra was to cover
every single space with decoration, no matter the size of the
space-Stucco and or wood carvings -mosaic tiles-Arabesque style-The
text reads Only God is Victor"
25. Dome of the Rock. (late 7th Century AD) Jerusalem,
25. Dome of the Rock. (late 7th century) Jerusalem,
Israel.History:-the Dome of the Rock is sacred to three major
religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, it is considered to be
a place of oneness (see next slide)
Forms of decoration:-tiles-mosaics-mathematical patterns-no
figures or images (just patterns and designs)
History of the Temple Mount
957 BC David made a temple to house the ark of the covenant.
This was the Temple of Solomon.
587-86 BC destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon.
515 BC second temple build (Where Jesus teachings in the
70 AD - the temple was destroyed (all that remained was the
135 AD - Emperior Hadian build a temple to Jupiter
614 AD - Dome of the Rock was built
Significance of the Dome of the Rock
For Jewish People: They believe the rock is the foundation stone
where God created man.They believe it was first consecrated by the
Israelites of Exodus. They believe it was the site where Abraham
prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac .Site of the Temple of Solomon.
For Christians: Jesus teachings & for the same reason listed
above.For Muslims: It is the site where Mohammed began his ascent
26. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Taj Mahal.(1632-1653) Agra, Uttar
26. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Taj Mahal. (1630-1653)
India.History:-Mughal Architecture which combined Indian, Persian
and Islamic influences
Forms of decoration:-dado tiles-mosaics-mathematical patterns-no
figures or images (just patterns and designs)-decorations on the
spandrels (the space between the arch and the rectangular
Architectural Features:-4 minarets over 40meters high-onion
Legend:-According to one gruesome (and most likely sensational)
story, Shah Jahan had his minions cut off the hands of the Taj
Mahal's architect and his workers after the structure was
completed, ensuring they would never build another of its kind.
Iznik pottery designsCobalt blueChinese influences (fascination
with Chinese pottery)Geometric patterns (Islamic in design)
Extra infoDeveloped in the region of Western Anatolia (eastern
turkey)Other Iznik designs included blue, purple, red, green,
turquoise, grey and black. 27. Decorated Plate Fritware, polychrome
painted under a transparent glaze. (1580) Iznik, Turkey.
Islam forbids the portrayal of living creatures, so most znik
designs are floral or geometric: The tulip represents God and the
rose represents the Prophet Muhammad. The name comes from a small
Turkish town that was the center of a flourishing ceramics industry
during the Ottoman Empire (five hundred years ago). Hundreds of
znik artisans were employed to make quartz tiles and ceramic ware
for the powerful Sultan.
MosaicDesign forms geometric patterns based on five- and
ten-pointed stars. This style of wall decoration was used
especially in the interiors of mosques.28. Dado panel. (15th
century) Marble mosaic. Egypt.
Christian Art:COMMON FEATURES:Architectural features: dome,
cupola, arches, columnsDecorative features: mosaicsIslamic
Art:Architectural features: minarets
Decorative Features: tiles, floral designs
Images are floral designs, geometric patterns, writing
Architectural features: bell towers
Decorative Features: sculptures
Images include nature, figures and storytelling
Some other mosques
Great Mosque of Damascus (706-715 AD). Syria.
The Blue Mosque. Turkey.
Shah Mosque. Iran.